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研究生:楊文福
論文名稱:飼料中不同油脂含量與來源對海鱺成長與體組成的影響
論文名稱(外文):The effects of dietary lipid levels and sources on the growth and body composition of cobia, rachycentron canadum
指導教授:沈士新沈士新引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:海鱺飼料油脂飼料油脂脂肪酸
外文關鍵詞:cobialipiddietlipid levels of dietRachycentron canadum
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摘 要
本研究分成四組實驗:(一)以脫脂酪蛋白為蛋白源,不同的油脂含量(二)以脫脂魚粉為蛋白源,不同的油脂含量(三)以脫脂魚粉為蛋白源,不同的油脂來源(四)以魚粉為蛋白源,不同的油脂來源,探討飼料中添加不同油脂含量與不同油脂來源對海鱺的成長、體成分以及肌肉與肝臟脂肪酸組成的影響。實驗一以脫脂酪蛋白為蛋白源,鱈魚肝油/玉米油(2/1)為油脂來源,配製成6種不同油脂含量(0、3、6、9、12與15%),等蛋白質(35%)與等能量的飼料﹔以餵食含15%油脂的飼料成長最好,餵食不含油脂的飼料成長最差,6、9、12與15%處理組比0與3%處理組的成長明顯高,以broken-line求出最適油脂在9.63%;水分、灰分、粗蛋白與粗纖維各組並無差異,粗脂質則隨著飼料油脂增加而有增高的趨勢,各組存活率皆為100%。
實驗二以脫脂魚粉為蛋白源,鱈魚肝油/玉米油(2/1)為油脂來源,配製成6種不同油脂含量(0、3、6、9、12與15%),等蛋白質(33%)與等能量的飼料﹔餵食含6、9、12與15%油脂的飼料的海鱺成長明顯較0與3%高﹔以broken-line分析法求出最適油脂為7.96%﹔水分、灰分、粗蛋白與粗纖維各組並無差異,粗脂質則隨著飼料油脂增加而有增高的趨勢,各組存活率在80∼100%﹔海鱺肌肉的中性油脂脂肪酸主要以16:0、16:1與18:1為主,而20:5n-3在實驗一的含量為6.7∼7.0%,實驗二的含量為7.0∼9.7%;實驗一22:6n-3的含量為2.4∼6.3%,實驗二的含量為4.3∼7.6%;海鱺的肌肉極性油脂脂肪酸主要以16:0、18:0、18:1n-9與22:6n-3為主,實驗一的20:5n-3量為3.0∼6.7%,實驗二為5.8∼9.5%;肝臟的中性油脂脂肪酸主要也是16:0、16:1與18:1為主,而20:5n-3與22:6n-3的含量比肌肉低,肝臟的極性油脂脂肪酸主要以16:0、18:0、18:1n-9與22:6n-3為主,而20:5n-3在兩組實驗的含量分別為2.4∼5.1%及7.4∼8.6%;20:4n-6在兩個實驗中的肌肉與肝臟之中、極性油脂的含量相當的低。
實驗三使用脫脂魚粉為蛋白源,以不同的油脂,鱈魚肝油、牛油、玉米油、大豆油、橄欖油、胡麻油與亞麻油,配製成7種等蛋白(43%),等油脂含量(6%)的飼料;以餵食含鱈魚肝油飼料的海鱺增重明顯高於其他處理組,玉米油及亞麻油處理組的增重與胡麻油處理組無差異,但明顯低於其他處理組,各組存活率為87∼100%;實驗四飼料配方與實驗三相同,以未脫脂魚粉為蛋白源;餵食含橄欖油飼料的海鱺之增重率與鱈魚肝油的飼料無顯著差異,但明顯高於其他處理組,大豆油、玉米油、胡麻油與亞麻油處理組的增重率無顯著差異,但明顯低於其他處理組,各組存活率87∼100%;實驗三與實驗四的魚體組織脂肪酸隨著飼料油脂不同而有不同的組成比例,餵食含鱈魚肝油的海鱺,組織含較高量的20:4n-6、20:5n-3與22:6n-3;牛油處理組含高量的16:0與18:0,餵食含玉米油、大豆油與胡麻油飼料的海鱺含較高量的18:2n-6,橄欖油則含高量的18:1n-9,而亞麻油則含高量的18:3n-3。
Abstract
Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of lipid levels and sources on the weight gain and the chemical compositions and fatty acid compositions of muscle and liver of cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Six isonitrogenous purified diets(35%C.P.)including defatted casein for protein source contained graded lipid levels, 0、3、6、9、12 and 15%, in the form of mixture of 2:1 cod liver oil/corn oil in experiment 1. Cobia fed diets containing 6、9、12 and 15% lipid had significantly higher weight gain than those fed the other diets. Survival of all treatments were 100%. Based on percentage weight gain data using broken-line analysis, the optimal dietary lipid for cobia was found to be approximately 9.63%. Using defatted fish meal as protein source, six isonitrogenous purified diets (33%C.P.)with graded lipid levels, 0、3、6、9、12 and 15% were conducted in experiment 2. Cobia fed diets containing 6、9、12 and 15% lipid had significantly higher weight gain than those fed the other diets. Survival of cobia fed treatment diets were 80~100%. Based on percentage weight gain data using broken-line analysis, the optimal dietary lipid for cobia was found to be approximately 7.96%. The lipid content of muscle and liver of cobia increase with increasing dietary lipid in experiment 1 and 2. The neutral lipid of muscle and liver of cobia contained high levels of 16:0、16:1 and 18:1n-9 in experiment 1 and 2. The neutral lipid of muscle of experiment 1 and 2 were 6.7∼7.0% and 7.0∼9.7% 20:5n-3, respectively. The major fatty acids of polar lipid muscle and liver of cobia were main 16:0、18:0、18:1n-9 and 22:6n-3. The 20:5n-3 level of muscle in experiment 1 and 2 were 3.0∼6.7% and 5.8∼9.5%, respectively. The level of 20:4n-6 of neutral and polar lipid of muscle and liver were low in experiment 1and 2.
Seven isonitrogenous purified diets(43% C.P.)using defatted fish meal as protein source supplemented with 6%, cod liver oil, beef tallow, corn oil, soybean oil, olive oil, sesame oil and linseed oil were conducted in experiment 3. The cobia fed diet containing cod liver oil had significantly higher weight gain than other the treatments. The cobia fed diet containing corn oil and sesame oil had significantly the lowest weight gain. Survival of all treatments were 87~100%.
The dietary formula of experiment 4 was the same with that of the experiment 3 except for the defatted fish meal. In this experiment, the cobia fed diet containing olive oil or cod liver oil had no significant in weight gain but had significantly higher than others. The cobia fed diet containing soybean oil, corm oil, sesame oil and linseed oil had the significantly the lowest weight gain. Survival of cobia fed treatment diets were 93~100%. The fatty acid compositions of muscle of cobia fed treatment diets were changed with the fatty acid profile of the lipid sources in experiment 3 and 4. The cobia fed diet containing cod liver oil contained high levels of 20:4n-6、20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. The cobia fed diet containing beef tallow contained high levels of 16:0 and 18:0. The cobia fed diet containing corn oil、soybean oil and sesame oil contained high levels of 18:2n-6. The cobia fed diet containing olive oil contained high levels of 18:1n-9. The cobia fed diet containing linseed oil contained high levels of 18:3n-3.
List of tables
Table 1. Ingredient composition % diets of for experiment 1.
Table 2. Ingredient composition % diets of for experiment 2.
Table 3. Basal ingredient of diets for experiment 3.
Table 4. Basal ingredient of diets for experiment 4.
Table 5. Proximate analysis, gross energy and P/E ration of experiment 1 diet.
Table 6. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the experiment 1 diets.
Table 7. Initial weight, final weight, weight gain, FCR, PER and survival of cobia, rachecentron canadum, for experiment 1.
Table 8. Proximate analysis of muscle and liver of cobia, Rachycentron canadum, for experiment 1.
Table 9. Polar and neutral lipid of muscle and liver of cobia, Rachycentron canadum, fed experimental diets of experiment 1.
Table 10. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the neutral lipid from muscle tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 1.
Table 11. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the polar lipid from muscle tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 1.
Table 12. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the neutral lipid from liver tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 1.
Table 13. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the polar lipid from liver tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 1.
Table 14. Proximate analysis, gross energy and P/E ration of experiment 2 diet.
Table 15. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the experiment 2 diets.
Table 16. Initial weight, final weight, weight gain, FCR, PER and survival of cobia, Rachecentron canadum, for experiment 2.
Table 17. Proximate analysis of muscle and liver of cobia, Rachycentron canadum, for experiment 2.
Table 18. Polar and neutral lipid of muscle and liver of cobia, Rachycentron canadum, fed experimental diets of experiment 2.
Table 19. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the neutral lipid from muscle tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 2.
Table 20. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the polar lipid from muscle tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 2.
Table 21. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the neutral lipid from liver tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 2.
Table 22. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the polar lipid from liver tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 2.
Table 23. Proximate analysis, gross energy and P/E ration of experiment 3 diet.
Table 24. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the experiment 3 diets.
Table 25. Initial weight, final weight, weight gain, FCR, PER and survival of cobia, Rachyecentron canadum, for experiment 3.
Table 26. Proximate analysis of muscle and liver of cobia, Rachycentron canadum, for experiment 3.
Table 27. Polar lipid and neutral of muscle and liver of cobia, Rachycentron canadum, fed experimental diets of experiment 3.
Table 28. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the neutral lipid from muscle tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 3.
Table 29. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the polar lipid from muscle tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 3.
Table 30. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the neutral lipid from liver tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 3.
Table 31. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the polar lipid from liver tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 3.
Table 32 Proximate analysis(% dry weight),gross energy and P/E ration of experiment 4 diet.
Table 33. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the experiment 4 diets.
Table 34. Initial weight, final weight, weight gain, FCR, PER and survival of cobia, Rachycentron canadum, for experiment 4.
Table 35 Proximate analysis of muscle and liver of cobia, Rachycentron canadum, for experiment 4.
Table 36 Polar lipid and neutral of muscle and liver of cobia, Rachycentron canadum, fed experimental diets of experiment 4.
Table 37. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the neutral lipid from muscle tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 4.
Table 38. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the polar lipid from muscle tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 4.
Table 39. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the neutral lipid from liver tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 4.
Table 40. Fatty acid composition (% of total of fatty acid) of the polar lipid from liver tissue of Rachycentron canadum for experiment 4.
List of Figure
Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the experimental water reuse system.
Fig. 2. The dietary lipid requirment for cobia occurs at 9.63% when analyzed by broken-line model.
Fig. 3 The dietary lipid requirement for cobia occurs at 7.96% when analyzed by a broken-line model.
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