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研究生:許志仲
研究生(外文):Zhi Zhong Hsu
論文名稱:商用飼料中添加不同牛油、魚油含量對海鱺成長及低溫下抗寒能力之研究
論文名稱(外文):Comparison of Dietary Lipid Source and Levels (Fish oil and Beef tallow) on the Growth and Cold Resistance for Cobia (Rachycentron canadum)
指導教授:劉擎華劉擎華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chyng Hwa Liou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:海鱺
外文關鍵詞:Cobia
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中文摘要
本試驗為探討飼料中添加不同油脂及添加量對海鱺低溫耐受性及增重率、飼料轉換率的效應。以產業界常添加的牛油、魚油為對象,測試此二者及不同添加量對海鱺耐寒性的效應。
海鱺平均體重約70(g),先以添加10﹪魚油之飼料蓄養28天後,再進行45天之成長試驗,以膨發後未添加油脂的商用飼料為控制組的基礎飼料,分別添加添加魚油5﹪、10﹪、15﹪;牛油5﹪、10﹪ 、15﹪、魚油/牛油各5﹪,試驗用魚每缸7尾,每組兩重複,共16缸。結果顯示海鱺投餵不同油脂及添加量,經45天後結果顯示,累積增重率以添加10﹪魚油組的增重效果最佳,添加5﹪牛油組最差,其他各組與未添加組相近,飼料轉換率亦有相似效果。
試驗飼料投餵60天後開始降溫試驗,將溫度由25℃每天降1℃至21℃,維持一星期,隨後進行每天降溫1℃(09:00; 22:00各降0.5℃)降至13℃後維持其溫度並監測死亡時間。結果顯示魚油添加5﹪及10﹪組之半致死時間較其他組高出6至14小時,而以混合組為最差。魚油效果優於牛油效果且以魚油10﹪餵養的海鱺在低溫時較具有抗寒效果。分析溫度與飼料二個因子對於海鱺五種組織中脂肪酸組成的影響,發現血球及血漿組織中的脂肪酸組成主要受到溫度因子的影響,而肝、腹肌及背肌組織脂肪酸組成則受到飼料因子的影響。在低溫下,血球中的C18:1n-9及C22:6n-3有增加趨勢,此可能為增加不飽和度以適應低溫環境。
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to investigate different lipids and levels on the cold tolerance, growth and fatty acid composition of cobia.
In the experiment, juvenile cobia (Rachycentridae canadum) (70±10 g) held in aquaria were fed eight diets of 5、10、 15% fish oil and tallow respectively and a mixture of 5﹪of the two lipids. Weight gain of fish fed the diet containing 10% fish oil was the best and that containing 5% tallow was significantly lower than others.
Culture temperature was initially 25℃ and then was successively reduced to 21℃ by 1℃ per day. The temperature was kept for a week, then was successively reduced to 13 ℃ by 1℃ per day and the temperature was kept to test cold tolerance of cobia. Fatty acid composition of red cell, plasma, liver, dorsal and ventral muscle were analyzed. Cold tolerance results indicate that the half lethal time of fish fed the diet cont
aining 5﹪and 10﹪fish oil was higher than other group 6 to 14 hours , the mixture group was the lowest and the other group was similar. The average of accumulated half lethal time and all lethal time of fish fed diet containing 10% fish oil was the highest among the test diet groups, however, that of 15% fish oil was almost the lowest. In addition, temperature and diets on different tissue fatty acid composition of the cobia were analyzed. Red cell and plasma fatty acid composition were affected by temperature and liver, dorsal and ventral fatty acid composition were affected by diets. In low temperature, cobia can convent C18:0 to C18:1n-9 and n-3 to fatty acid C22:6n-3.It is assumed that cobia increase the unsaturation to adapt low temperature environment
目 錄
頁次
中文摘要:…………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要:…………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
表目錄:……………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
圖目錄:……………………………………………………………………Ⅴ
附錄 :………………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
前言: ………………………………………………………………………1
文獻整理:…………………………………………………………………2
材料與方法:………………………………………………………………11
一、試驗用魚………………………………………………………………11
二、試驗飼料………………………………………………………………11
三、試驗設計及採樣………………………………………………………11
四、餵食及環境控制………………………………………………………12
五、分析……………………………………………………………………13
(一)粗成分分析
(二)採樣組織脂肪酸分析
果:…………………………………………………………………………20
一、飼料分析………………………………………………………………20
(一)粗成分
(二)脂肪酸
二、成長試…………………………………………………………21
三、降溫試驗………………………………………………………………21
(一)存活率
(二)肝臟油脂之含量
(三)脂肪酸組成:重新合併及二變因之複因子分析
(1)血球含量變化
(2)血漿含量變化
(3)肝臟中含量變化
(4)背部中含量變化
(5)腹部中脂肪酸組成
討論:………………………………………………………………………29
一、增重率及FCR… ………………………………………………………29
二、體成分變化………………………………………………………32
三、死亡時間與脂肪酸在體內互動關係…………………………………32
結論:………………………………………………………………………36
參考文獻:…………………………………………………………………37
表:…………………………………………………………………………44
圖:…………………………………………………………………………63
附錄:………………………………………………………………………68
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