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研究生:黃志忠
研究生(外文):Chih-Chung Huang
論文名稱:飼糧蝦紅素與維生素A對草蝦體內蝦紅素與維生素A組成的共同影響
論文名稱(外文):Combined Effects of Dietary Astaxanthin and Vitamin A on Body Astaxanthin and Vitamin A Composition of Penaeus monodon
指導教授:陳 瑤 湖
指導教授(外文):Yew-Hu Chien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:草蝦蝦紅素維生素A
外文關鍵詞:Penaeus monodonAstaxanthinVitamin A
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蝦紅素(AS)可增加草蝦對緊迫的忍受性而增加其活存的機會,維生素A (VA)則為草蝦之必需營養素。AS與VA的營養角色可能有互涉的關係,本研究之目的即在於瞭解餵食不同比例AS與VA之飼糧後對草蝦的活存、成長、體內AS與VA組成及抗氧化酵素之影響。
試驗飼糧中共七種。B飼糧為空白組,不含AS與VA。六處理組其飼糧AS及VA濃度總和總和皆為100mg /kg飼糧。D0含0 mg AS及100 mg (相當275000IU) VA/kg。D100含100mg AS/kg但不含VA,D20、D40、D60及D80分別含AS 20mg、40mg、60mg及80mg的AS及80mg、60mg、40mg及20mg的VA。每飼糧皆有4重複,共有28試驗單位。
經過十二週的餵飼,D20組之草蝦幼蝦的存活及成長最佳。實驗蝦體之AS主要以脂化型式存在,且雙脂化AS (DA)>單脂化AS (MA) ;自由態AS (FA)含量極少。蝦體之FA隨飼育時間之增長及AS比例(AF)之降低而下降,MA隨AF的降低而降低,DA、總AS(TA)隨AF呈線性增加,隨時間增長,增加趨勢越大。VA隨AF或時間的變化趨勢並不平行,趨勢呈現右傾斜之馬鞍形。飼糧的VA進入蝦體後可轉化成部份的FA,不會轉化成MA及DA。FA也可以完全轉化成VA。 當AF增高時,總抗氧化狀態( TAS )及穀胱甘月太 還原酉每 (GR)穩定增加,過氧化物歧化酵素( SOD)、麩胺酸草醋轉胺酵素(AST)及麩氨酸丙酮酸轉氨酵素(ALT)則穩定下降。TA、MA及DA對五種酵素有相關性,FA對AST、ALT有相關性。VA與五種酵素活性無相關性。飼糧AS的增加可以提高抗氧化能力和改善草蝦肝胰臟功能而VA卻無此現象。
Astaxanthin (AS) has been found for tiger prawn Penaeus monodon to increase its resistance to stress and concomitantly the survival. It has been also demonstrated vitamin A (VA) a requirement for P. monodon. AS and VA may involve each other in the roles to play in nutrition. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the effects of combinations of AS and VA in diet on growth and survival of P. monodon and AS, VA, and activities of antioxidase in its body.
Seven experimental diets were used. Serving as a blank, Diet B contained no AS and VA. Diets for six treatments their concentration for AS and VA together was 100 mg/kg diet. D0 contained 0 mg AS but 100 mg (or 275000IU equivalent) VA/kg. D100 had 100 mg AS/kg but no VA. D20, D40, D60, and D80 had AS 20 mg, 40 mg, 60 mg, and 80 mg and also VA 80 mg, 60 mg, 40 mg, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. Each diet trial had 4 replicates.
After 12-week rearing, D20 prawn had best survival and growth. Body astaxanthin was dominated by esterified astaxanthin, of which diester astaxanthin (DA) was more abundant than monoester astaxanthin (MA). Free astaxanthin (FA) was in insignificant amount. Body FA decreased with rearing duration and increasing astaxanthin fraction (AF) in diet. MA decreased with decreasing AF. Total astaxanthin (TA) increased linearly with AF and rearing duration accelerated the increasing trend. Complicate interactions made the change in body VA unparallel along AF and rearing duration, appearing as a right-skewed saddle. Diet VA was transformed to part of body FA, but not to MA or DA. Diet FA could be transformed completely to body VA. When diet AF increased, in a steady fashion, the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS) and glutathione reductase increased and superoxide dismutase (SOD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) decreased. TA, MA, and DA had significant correlations with all 5 enzymatic activities. Body FA was correlated with AST and ALT. Body VA was not correlated with any of the 5 enzymatic activities. Diet AS but not VA enhanced antioxidant capability and improved hepatopancreas function in P. monodon.
目錄
目錄 Ⅰ
表目錄 Ⅳ
圖目錄 Ⅴ
附錄 Ⅵ
謝辭 Ⅶ
摘要(中文) Ⅷ
摘要(英文) Ⅸ
一、前言 1
類胡蘿蔔素的種類 1
甲殼類類胡蘿蔔素的轉換及分佈 1
(a)、類胡蘿蔔素至蝦紅素(AS)的轉換 1
(b)、各類AS的變動與分佈 2
AS的抗氧化生物功能 3
維生素A (VA)的來源、轉化及在生物體的分布 5
蝦類對VA之需求 5
AS與VA之關係 6
研究目的 7
二、材料與方法 8
1.試驗設計 8
2.飼糧配製 8
2.1一般成份分析 9
2.1.1水分 9
2.1.2灰份 9
2.1.3粗蛋白 10
2.1.4粗脂質 10
2.1.5粗纖維 11
3.養殖系統 11
4.脫殼週期的判別 12
5.AS的萃取分析 12
5.1標準品 12
5.2 AS標準品之製備及分析 12
5.3蝦體AS分析步驟 13
5.4 HPLC分析條件與操作步驟 13
5.4.1分析系統 13
5.4.2 HPLC操作條件 14
5.4.3 HPLC的操作步驟 14
6.蝦體VA的萃取及分析 14
6.1飼糧中VA之萃取 15
6.2 HPLC分析條件與操作步驟 15
6.2.1分析系統 15
6.2.2 HPLC操作條件 16
6.2.3 HPLC的操作步驟 16
7.酵素的活性的測定 16
7.1樣本處理 16
7.2 TAS測定 16
7.3 SOD測定 17
7.4 AST、ALT測定 18
7.5 GR測定 19
8.生物參數 19
8.1成長率 19
8.2活存 20
9.統計分析 20
三、結果 22
1.瞬間死亡係數 22
2.成長率 22
3.AS與VA的變動 22
3.1 FA 22
3.2 MA 23
3.3 DA 23
3.4 TA 23
3.5 VA 24
3.6 FAR 24
3.7 MAR 24
3.8 DAR 25
3.9 TAR 25
3.10各參數敏感度分析 25
4.酵素活性 26
四、討論 27
1.VA與TA對活存與成長的影響 28
2.FA、MA、與DA的分布 29
3.飼糧中VA與FA對蝦體中VA、TA、FA、MA及DA的
影響 30
4. VA與FA對抗氧化酵素的影響 31
五、結論 34
六、參考文獻 35
表目錄
Table 1. A summary of astaxanthin distribution by ranking in various tissuse during various each molting stages------------------------45
Table 2. Formulation (%) of the experimental diets------------------------46
Table 3. Composition of experimental diets (﹪as is basis)----------------47
Table 4. Regression coefficients and coefficient of determination in the empirical equations of various forms of body astaxanthin and vitamin A versus astaxanthin fraction in diet and treatment duration-----------------------------------------------------------------48
Table 5. Partial R2 of each independent variable in its regression equation ---49
Table 6. Various forms of astaxanthin, vitamin A, and various enzyme activities in body of Penaeus monodon fed experimental diets for 12 weeks. Means in same row not sharing common letter at upper right corner are statistically different. The numbers in parenthesis are standard deviations---------------------------------50
Table.7 The correlations of various forms of astaxanthin and vitamin A versus 5 enzyme activites in body of penaeus monodon fed various fraction of astaxanthin for 12 week-----------------------51
Table. 8 The concentration of vitamin A and various forms of astaxanthin in shrimp beform and after various treatment---------------------52
圖目錄
Fig.1 Metabolic pathways of carotenoid synthesis in crustaceans. ( Modify Latscha,1990) 53
Fig.2 Growth rate and instantaneous weekly mortality of Penaeus monodon fed different diets for 12 weeks. 54
Fig.3 Emperical relationship between shrimp body free astaxanthin (FA) and astaxanthin fraction (AF) in diet and treatment duration (WK) 55
Fig.4 Emperical relationship between shrimp body monoester astaxanthin (MA) and astaxanthin fraction (AF) in diet and treatment duration (WK) 56
Fig.5 Emperical relationship between shrimp body diester astaxanthin (DA) and astaxanthin fraction (AF) in diet and treatment duration (WK) 57
Fig.6 Emperical relationship between shrimp body total astaxanthin (TA) and astaxanthin fraction (AF) in diet and treatment duration (WK) 58
Fig.7 Emperical relationship between shrimp body Vitamin A (VA) and astaxanthin fraction (AF) in diet and treatment duration (WK) 59
Fig.8 Shrimp body ratio of FA to TA 60
Fig.9 Shrimp body ratio of MA to TA 61
Fig.10 Shrimp body ratio of DA to TA 62
Fig.11 Shrimp body ratio of TA to ( TA + VA ) 63
附錄
Appendix1. Vitamin A to reduce Aataxanthin 64
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