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研究生:王姿文
研究生(外文):Wang, T. W.
論文名稱:不同製程之卵黃油對於大白鼠血脂之影響
論文名稱(外文):Study on the Effects of Egg Yolk Oils Prepared from Various Procedures Against Hyperlipoidemic Rats
指導教授:張正明張正明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang, C. M.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:卵 黃 油大 白 鼠膽固醇血症
外文關鍵詞:egg yolk oilsratsHyperlipoidemia
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本研究在探討不同卵黃油製備方法︰以傳統高溫焙燒與溶劑萃取之方法,所製得之卵黃油生產條件、產率與油脂特性。並選用Wistar大白鼠以高脂飲食誘發高脂血症的動物模式探討其對於脂質代謝之影響及其可能原因。
結果發現250℃焙燒(PF組)的產率最低為33.12﹪。而以溶劑萃取所製得的卵黃油,不同溶劑比例的產率介於37~50﹪之間,皆高於焙燒的方法。將溶劑萃取混合物簡單離心後,對於濃縮磷脂質與分離膽固醇的效果,比調配不同溶劑極性更佳。
大白鼠經餵食添加卵黃油飲食(處理組)四週後,大白鼠體重、肝重及肝體比均無顯著差異,在處理組中,血漿GOT與GPT有超過或接近危險指數顯示大白鼠肝臟組織有可能受損。血漿TC顯著降低,主要表現在VLDL-TC的大幅顯著下降;而處理組中除了溶劑萃取物的油層卵黃油(SEO組)外,血漿TG均呈現顯著降低,並且與VLDL-TG的降低現象一致,LDL-TG則僅PF組較控制組顯著的降低。而由VLDL-TC/HDL-TC之比值判斷,推測可能受到飼料中磷脂質之影響,使得肝臟周邊組織LPL之活性上升,增加VLDL轉變成LDL之速度。血脂TG的劇烈變化,推測可能為腸道吸收量下降,使得糞便TG量顯著增加;LPL活性上升,加速身體周邊組織對chylomicrons與VLDL中TG自血漿中移除;VLDL轉換為LDL之轉換速率減緩,造成VLDL remnants以較小顆粒的IDL狀態存在,而呈現VLDL上之TC/TG比值上升的情況。
同時由實驗中大白鼠糞便TC排出量的增加,推測卵黃油之磷脂質降低油脂的吸收率,且促進肝臟中膽汁之合成與分泌並抑制膽汁酸於小腸中的再吸收,因而加速了大白鼠體內膽固醇之排除。
Egg yolk oil extracts were prepared by either 260℃ pan-fried (PF) traditional method or extracted with different ratio of ethanol, acetone, and hexane solvent mixtures. Among these methods, PF showed the lowest yield, 33.12%, while solvent extractions had yields between 37 to 50%.
One of the crude solvent extract (SEM) were separated by centrifugation into cream (SEC) and oil (SEO) fraction which the later has composition similar to PF in terms of its phospholipids, cholesterol and triglyceride contents. Further, Wistar rats were selected to study for the effects of different yolk oil preparations on their lipid metabolism.
After 4 weeks in a hypercholesterolemic, with 5% yolk oil added diet, test animals were sacrificed and various lipid metabolic indicators were measured. Results showed that there were no significant differences in body and liver weight, but all treatment groups showed significantly increased plasma GOT and GPT. Significant decreased plasma total cholesterol (TC) was observed among all treatment groups that reflected principally on the decreased VLDL-TC. Plasma TG also showed the same trend of decreases except for SMO treatment. All treatments showed increased fecal TC while only PF had significantly increased fecal TG.
Results suggested that the decrease of plasma TC might be attributed to the decreased absorption of dietary cholesterol, increased rate of cholesterol secretion to intestine in the form of bile salts, increased peripheral lipoprotein lipase activities, and increased rate of reverse transport of tissue cholesterol to liver by way of HDL. On the other hand, the effects of PF yolk oil on plasma TG reduction may be result from decreased rate of dietary TG absorption, decreased rate of VLDL to LDL conversion, and possibly changed particle size of VLDL to IDL.
目 錄
頁次
目錄……………………………………………………………………………I
圖表目錄……………………………………………………………………III
摘要……………………………………………………………………………1
前言……………………………………………………………………………3
文獻整理………………………………………………………………………5
壹、卵黃油之製備……………………………………………………………5
ㄧ、卵黃油之製備方法………………………………………………………5
(一)焙炒法……………………………………………………………………5
(二)有機溶劑萃取法…………………………………………………………5
(三)蛋白水解酵素水解法……………………………………………………6
(四)超臨界萃取法……………………………………………………………6
二、不同萃取方式對卵黃油成份的影響……………………………………6
(一)脂質組成…………………………………………………………………7
(二)脂肪酸組成………………………………………………………………8
貳、磷脂質生理功能評估歸納………………………………………………8
ㄧ、對記憶力增強的影響……………………………………………………8
二、膳食磷脂質對實驗動物之脂質代謝的影響……………………………9
(一)膳食膽固醇對實驗動物之脂質代謝的影響……………………………9
(二)膳食磷脂質對實驗動物之脂質代謝的影響……………………………9
(1) 磷脂質之來源不同………………………………………………10
(2) 磷脂質之攝食劑量不同…………………………………………11
(3) 磷脂質之成份不同………………………………………………12
三、卵磷脂對於膽固醇代謝的機制…………………………………………13
(一)卵磷脂對於小腸油脂吸收的影響………………………………………14
(二)卵磷脂對於LCAT活性的影響……………………………………………15
(三)卵磷脂對於HDL含量的影響……………………………………………15
(四)卵磷脂對於膽汁分泌的影響……………………………………………16
(五)卵磷脂對於糞便固醇排出的影響………………………………………16
(六)卵磷脂對於脂肪氧化的影響……………………………………………17
(七)卵磷脂和膽汁的比例對於Pancreatic Lipase活性的影響…………17
材料與方法……………………………………………………………………19
一、卵黃油的萃取……………………………………………………………19
(一)溶劑萃取法………………………………………………………………19
1. 蛋黃顆粒的製備…………………………………………………19
2. 溶劑的選用………………………………………………………19
3. 萃取的方法………………………………………………………20
(一)焙燒法……………………………………………………………………20
(二)卵黃油油脂組成分析……………………………………………………20
二、動物實驗…………………………………………………………………22
(一)動物來源…………………………………………………………………22
(二)飼料製備…………………………………………………………………22
(三)動物分組…………………………………………………………………23
(四)飼養及樣品收集…………………………………………………………24
(五)生化油脂代謝指標測試分析……………………………………………24
1. 飼料油脂脂肪酸分析……………………………………………24
2. 血漿分析…………………………………………………………25
3. 肝臟之分析………………………………………………………30
4. 肝臟酵素分析……………………………………………………32
5. 糞便中脂質之分析………………………………………………34
6. 尿液中蛋白質含量的測定………………………………………35
7. 統計分析…………………………………………………………35
結果……………………………………………………………………………36
討論……………………………………………………………………………45
結論……………………………………………………………………………59
參考文獻………………………………………………………………………87
圖表目錄
表一、實驗飼料的組成………………………………………………………62
表二、以溶劑萃取及焙炒方法製造的卵黃油之產率及脂質組成…………63
表三、實驗油脂的脂肪酸組成………………………………………………64
表四、實驗油脂中飽和脂肪酸、單元不飽和脂肪酸及多元不飽和脂肪酸之含量與其間比值………………………………………………………………65
表五、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠肝臟重及肝體比的變化……………66
表六、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠血漿總膽固醇、三酸甘油酯、磷脂質之含量…………………………………………………………………………67
表七、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠血漿葡萄糖、肌酸酐及乳酸之含量68
表八、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠血漿中脂蛋白膽固醇之含量………69
表九、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠血漿中脂蛋白三酸甘油酯之含量…70
表十、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠血漿麩酸草酸轉胺酵素、麩酸丙酮酸轉胺酵素活性…………………………………………………………………71
表十一、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠血漿中鹼性磷酸酵素及膽鹼酯化酵素之活性………………………………………………………………………72
表十二、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠血漿及肝臟TBARS之含量………73
表十三、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠血漿中脂肪酸之含量……………74
表十四、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠血漿中飽和脂肪酸、單元不飽和脂肪酸及多元不飽和脂肪酸之含量與其間比值變化…………………………75
表十五、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠肝臟總膽固醇及游離膽固醇之含量……………………………………………………………………………76
表十六、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠肝臟三酸甘油酯及磷脂質之含量………………………………………………………………………………77
表十七、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠肝臟中葡萄糖-6-磷酸去氫酵素之活性……………………………………………………………………………78
表十八、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠肝臟中蘋果酸酵素之活性………79
表十九、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠肝臟中脂肪酸之含量……………80
表二十、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠肝臟中飽和脂肪酸、單元不飽和脂肪酸及多元不飽和脂肪酸之含量與其間比值變化…………………………81
表二十一、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠糞便總膽固醇與三酸甘油酯之含量………………………………………………………………………………82
表二十二、餵食不同飼料四週後,大白鼠尿液蛋白質之含量……………83
表二十三、餵食不同實驗飼料四週後,大白鼠血漿中……………………84
圖一、餵食不同實驗飼料四週後,大白鼠體重變化………………………85
圖二、膳食卵磷脂對於脂質代謝與脂蛋白相互關係之助益………………86
參考文獻………………………………………………………………………87
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