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研究生:陳宛晸
研究生(外文):Wan-Chang Chen
論文名稱:以膠體幾丁質為原始碳源生產發酵豆奶之研究
論文名稱(外文):Production of fermented soymilk using colloidal chitin as an original carbon source
指導教授:陳幸臣陳幸臣引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsing-Chen Chen, Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:發酵豆奶膠體幾丁質Cellulomonas flavigena NTOU 1
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本研究在探討以Cellulomonas flavigena NTOU 1水解膠體幾丁質後的醣類為部分碳源供乳酸菌在豆奶中發酵之情形及相關的結果。在所試的五株乳酸菌中,以Lactobacillus plantarum CCRC 12250於未添加任何碳源的豆奶中生長最好,而L. bulgaricus CCRC 14009則最差。L. plantarum CCRC 12250對豆奶中添加的N-乙醯葡萄糖胺(N-acetylglucosamine, GlcNAc) 及葡萄糖的利用情形不好; 相反的,Lactococcus lactis CCRC 14016則較能利用它們。在豆奶中添加C. flavigena NTOU 1水解的膠體幾丁質之水解液 (10%, V/V),培養48小時後可使L. lactis CCRC 14016的菌數達到最高 (9.15 log CFU/ml)。因此,以此菌株及此條件生產發酵豆奶。在添加有C. flavigena NTOU 1水解膠體幾丁質之水解液的未發酵豆奶中偵測出N-乙醯幾丁二糖 (27.8 mg/100mL)。而隨著發酵時間的增加,豆奶的pH值降低,粗蛋白、酸度及黏度增加,灰分及粗脂肪則沒有明顯的變化。經L. lactis CCRC 14016發酵後,並未能有效的降低豆奶中水蘇糖和棉子糖之含量。當發酵豆奶分別於4℃及25℃貯存,L. lactis CCRC 14016在4℃貯存下,活菌降低之程度比在25℃者小,兩者相差約3個對數值; 在4℃經過14天的貯存,菌數還能維持在8.57 log CFU/ml。不論是貯存在4℃或25℃,豆奶中的滴定酸及N-乙醯幾丁二糖的含量並沒有明顯的變化,本試驗所製造的發酵豆奶經官能品評 (hedonic rating),其整體接受度評分為5.01 (不喜歡也不討厭),仍比未發酵豆奶的7.63為低,顯示一般人對豆奶發酵後的風味仍不習慣。
This research was conducted to investigate the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in soymilk using carbohydrates as the partial carbon sources, which were hydrolyzed from colloidal chitin by Cellulomonas flavigena NTOU 1. Among five LAB, Lactobacillus plantarum CCRC 12250 was the best one could grow well in soymilk without adding sugar; while L. bulgaricus CCRC 14009 was inefficient. L. plantarum CCRC 12250 could use N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) or glucose for growth in soymilk slightly; while Lactococcus lactis CCRC 14016 could grow well in soymilk containing GlcNAc or glucose. L. lactis CCRC 14016 revealed maximum cell counts (9.15 log CFU/ml) after 2-day fermentaion in soymilk containing C. flavigena NTOU 1-degarded colloidal chitin hydrolysate (10%, V/V). Thus, L. lactis CCRC 14016 with the hydrolysate was employed to prepare fermented soymilk. In the soymilk containing C. flavigena NTOU 1-degarded colloidal chitin hydrolysate, N-acetylchitobiose (27.8 mg/100 ml) was detected. The pH value in fermented soymilk decreased with incubation time, but crude protein, acidity and viscosity increased, and ash and crude fat did not change significantly. In fermented soymilk, L. lactis CCRC 14016 could not utilize stachyose and raffinose effectively. During storage, the reduction of viable cell counts of L. lactis CCRC 14016 was lower at 4℃ than those at 25℃, the difference between two counts was around 3-log values; after 14-day storage at 4℃, the viable cell counts could maintain at 8.57 log CFU/ml. Holding at 4℃ or 25℃, the acidity and N-acetylchitobiose contents did not change significantly. From sensory evalution (hedonic rating), fermented soymilk was accepted fairly (5.01scores) than soymilk (7.63). It shows that pepole favor soymilk without fermentation.
目 錄
中文摘要 Ⅰ
英文摘要 Ⅲ
第一章、前言 1
第二章、文獻整理 4
2-1 大豆之組成與營養價值 5
2-1-1 蛋白質 5
2-1-2 油脂 5
2-1-3 碳水化合物 5
2-2 大豆的保健機能 6
2-2-1異黃酮之抗癌性 6
2-2-2降低血膽固醇的效果 7
2-3 豆奶與發酵豆奶的製造 7
2-4 乳酸菌的特性 8
2-5 乳酸菌的保健功能 9
2-5-1 維持腸道菌相 9
2-5-2 降低膽固醇 10
2-5-3 抗癌 10
2-5-4 增強免疫力 11
2-6 幾丁質及其衍生物的特性與應用 11
2-7 N-乙醯幾丁寡醣的製備與分離 13
2-7-1 N-乙醯幾丁寡醣的製備 13
2-7-2 N-乙醯幾丁寡醣之分離與純化 18
2-8 幾丁聚醣及幾丁寡醣的抑菌作用 21
2-9 N-乙醯幾丁寡醣及幾丁寡醣之免疫活性 23
2-10 Cellulomonas flavigena NTOU 1 23
2-10-1 生化特性 24
2-10-2 C. flavigena NTOU 1之幾丁質酶 24
第三章、實驗材料與方法 25
3-1 材料
3-1-1菌株來源 26
3-1-2大豆 26
3-1-3培養基 26
3-1-4化學試藥 26
3-2 步驟
3-2-1實驗流程 28
3-2-2試驗菌株之挑選 28
3-2-3豆奶中添加N-乙醯葡萄糖胺及葡萄糖對乳酸菌生長之影響 28
3-2-4發酵試驗 28
3-2-5豆奶中品質參數的測定 29
3-2-6成分分析 29
3-2-7官能品評 29
3-2-8貯存試驗 30
3-3實驗方法
3-3-1菌種之保存 30
3-3-2發酵菌酛之製備 30
3-3-3豆奶的製備 30
3-3-4膠體幾丁質(Colloidal chitin)的製備 31
3-3-5膠體幾丁質水解液的製備 31
3-3-6乳酸菌菌數之測定 31
3-3-7 C. flavigena NTOU 1菌數測定 31
3-3-8 pH值之測定 32
3-3-9相對黏度 32
3-3-10滴定酸度 32
3-3-11灰分測定 32
3-3-12粗蛋白質含量 33
3-3-13粗脂肪含量 33
3-3-14醣類之測定 33
3-3-15 N-乙醯幾丁寡醣的測定 34
3-3-16統計分析 34
第四章、結果與討論 35
4-1試驗菌株之篩選 36
4-2豆奶中添加N-乙醯葡萄糖胺及葡萄糖對乳酸菌生長之影響 38
4-3發酵試驗 38
4-4發酵豆奶品質參數測定 44
4-5成分分析 48
4-6官能品評 53
4-7 貯存試驗 57
第五章、結論 64
第六章、參考文獻 66
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