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研究生:楊孟琳
論文名稱:以微生物水解蝦殼蛋白質分離幾丁質後的廢液作為植物液肥之可行性
論文名稱(外文):Feasibility of liquid wastes collected from microbial deproteinization of shrimp shells for chitin isolation as liquid fertilizer for plants
指導教授:陳幸臣陳幸臣引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:蝦殼Pseudomonas maltophiliaCandida parapsilosis幾丁質植物液肥
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本研究在探討以微生物發酵去鈣蝦殼分離幾丁質後的廢液作為植物液肥之可行性。所用菌株為本研究室曾用以分離蝦蟹殼幾丁質的 Pseudomonas maltophilia CCRC 12495 及 Candida parapsilosis CCRC 20515。將此二菌分別種入含 1 份去鈣蝦殼及 9 份培養液 [分別為 0.2% (w/v) K2HPO4,pH 8.5;或 0.5% yeast extract 及 2% glucose,pH 2.8] 的混合液中,以發酵槽發酵 (30℃、120 rpm)。經過五天發酵後收集發酵廢液。將此等廢液經殺菌與不殺菌處理後做適當稀釋;然後對照市售液肥,一半添加欠缺之營養素,進行 6 週的小白菜 (Brassica campestris) 水耕栽培試驗。種植期間,發酵廢液中 NO3-N 濃度隨時間增加而下降,但 NH4-N 濃度則上升;而小白菜植株中總氮含量隨時間增加而上升。各處理發酵廢液中磷濃度與植株中磷含量皆隨時間增加而下降。鉀、鎂與鈉含量在各處理發酵廢液與植株中皆隨時間增加而上升。鈣濃度在各組發酵廢液中隨時間增加而下降,而植株中鈣含量隨時間增加而上升。就栽培後植株乾重與葉長判斷,發現以 P. maltophilia 發酵後之廢液經殺菌處理再添加欠缺營養素組與市售液肥組的植株生長最好;而以 C. parapsilosis 發酵後之廢液 (殺菌及不殺菌組) 植株生長亦佳。因此,以微生物水解蝦殼蛋白質分離幾丁質後的廢液作為小白菜之水耕液肥,確實可行。
目錄
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻整理 3
1. 蝦廢棄物的組成及利用 3
1-1. 蝦廢棄物之化學成分 3
1-2. 蝦廢棄物之利用 4
2. Pseudomonas maltophilia與Candida parapsilosis之介紹 6
2-1. Pseudomonas maltophilia的介紹 6
2-2. Candida parapsilosis的介紹 7
3. 以微生物分離幾丁質的方法 8
3-1. 礦物質的去除 9
3-2. 蛋白質的去除 9
4. 肥料營養素與植物生長關係 10
5. 水耕栽培 13
5-1. 水耕之定義 13
5-2. 水耕栽培之優劣 13
5-3. 水耕栽培之分類 16
5-4. 溫室結構及養液調配管理 16
6. 小白菜生長特性與營養需求 19
7. 施肥方法效應 19
8. 有機肥料 21
參、材料與方法 22
1. 材料 22
1-1. 原料 22
1-2. 菌株來源 22
1-3. 培養基 22
1-4. 化學藥品 23
1-5. 試驗植物 24
1-6. 水耕裝置 24
2. 實驗步驟與方法 25
2-1. 菌株的培養及水解蝦殼蛋白質 25
2-2. 發酵期間上清液的分析 26
2-3. 殘留蝦殼成分分析 27 2-4. 發酵液的分析 28
2-5. 水耕栽培 30
2-6. 種植期間水解廢液之變化 32
2-7. 植物之生長評估 34
肆、結果與討論 35
1. 原料蝦殼、去鈣蝦殼與去蛋白質蝦殼成分分析 35
2. 發酵期間菌株之水解能力 35
3. 發酵廢液成分 38
4. 種植期間水解廢液與小白菜植株中營養素之變化 40
5. 種植期間水解廢液中菌數變化 56
6. 種植期間水解廢液中電導度 (EC) 變化 56
7. 不同水解廢液處理對小白菜生長之影響 56
伍、結論 64
陸、參考文獻 65
附錄 80
表目錄
表 1 大頭紅蝦原始、去鈣及去蛋白質後之大略成分 36
表 2 以100L發酵槽發酵五日之原始未稀釋發酵液若干元素成分 39
表 3 經適當稀釋與添加欠缺元素後之實際水解廢液成分 43
圖目錄
圖 1 Pseudomonas maltophilia 或 Candida parapsilosis 在培養液中 [0.2% (w/v) K2HPO4, pH 8.0 ; 2% (w/v) glucose 及 0.5% (w/v) yeast extract, pH 2.8] 培養 (30℃) 期間,菌數與胺基態氮的變化情形 37
圖 2 (І)不同處理之發酵廢液中硝酸態氮的變化。(ІІ)不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜植株中總氮含量的影響 45
圖 3 (І)不同處理之發酵廢液中銨態氮的變化。(ІІ)不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜植株中總氮含量的影響 46
圖 4 (І)不同處理之發酵廢液中磷的變化。(ІІ)不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜植株中磷含量的影響 48
圖 5 (І)不同處理之發酵廢液中鉀的變化。(ІІ) 不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜植株中鉀含量的影響 50
圖 6 (І)不同處理之發酵廢液中鈣的變化。(ІІ)不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜植株中鈣含量的影響 52
圖 7 (І)不同處理之發酵廢液中鎂的變化。(ІІ)不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜植株中鎂含量的影響 54
圖 8 (І)不同處理之發酵廢液中鈉的變化。(ІІ) 不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜植株中鈉含量的影響 55
圖 9 種植期間不同處理發酵廢液之總生菌數 57
圖 10 種植期間不同處理發酵廢液之EC值 58
圖 11 不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜乾重的影響 61
圖 12 不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜葉長的影響 62
圖 13 不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜生長的影響 63
附錄目錄
附錄1 一般培養液配方的成分 80
附錄2 水耕栽培系統 81
附錄3 營養液成分濃度範圍 82
附錄4 PmA、PmSA、CpA 與 CpSA 所添加之成分 83
附錄5 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液中硝酸態氮的變化 84
附錄6 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液中銨態氮的變化 85
附錄7 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液中磷的變化 86
附錄8 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液中鉀的變化 87
附錄9 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液中鈣的變化 88
附錄10 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液中鎂的變化 89
附錄11 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液中鈉的變化 90
附錄12 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜植株中總氮含量的影響 91
附錄13 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜植株中磷含量的影響 92
附錄14 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜植株中鉀含量的影響 93
附錄15 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜植株中鈣含量的影響 94
附錄16 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜植株中鎂含量的影響 95
附錄17 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜植株中鈉含量的影響 96
附錄18 種植期間不同處理之發酵廢液對小白菜乾重的影響 97
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