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研究生:呂明珠
研究生(外文):Ming-Chu Lu
論文名稱:研發利用麴菌發酵改善魚肉加工特性之新技術
論文名稱(外文):New Technology for Improving the Functionality of Fish Muscles Using Koji Fermentation
指導教授:江善宗
指導教授(外文):Shann-Tzong Jiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:紅麴魚肉發酵
外文關鍵詞:KojiMonascusFish musclesfermentation
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摘要
為提高魚肉之利用性,本研究利用Monascus purpureus CCRC 31499和Monascus sp. CCRC 31746紅麴菌株進行發酵改善魚肉的質感、色澤、風味、安全性、保存性及機能性。紅麴菌在3%在來米粉液、2%酵母萃取物和pH 5之條件下可得到最適生長。利用鯖魚肉與3%在來米粉液以3:7之比例混合並調整pH為5,經65oC下加熱30分鐘後,於25oC、120 rpm進行發酵7天,結果對於Enterbacteriaceae、Staphylococcus和Pseudomonas可得到最佳之抑制。而紅麴菌的生菌數則由104升至106 cfu/ml。Monascus purpureus CCRC 31499和Monascus sp. CCRC 31746發酵期間,pH由4.9分別升至5.2和6.4;在色素方面,兩者之Hunter a值均隨著發酵時間而有明顯上升之趨勢。但總糖快速減少,還原糖呈現先升後降。在第一天和第二天分別可測得澱粉酶和酸性蛋白酶活性,酵素活性隨著發酵時間增加而上升,但中性蛋白酶活性無顯著差異。而Monascus sp. CCRC 31746菌株之澱粉酶和酸性蛋白酶活性明顯高於Monascus purpureus CCRC 31499。經紅麴菌發酵7天鯖魚肉漿的揮發性鹽基態氮仍未到達腐敗標準(< 25 mg/100ml),而以順位試驗對發酵風味評估結果發現並無明顯差異。鯖魚肉漿有無添加紅麴菌於發酵期間對於水分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪和灰分並無明顯差異。紅麴菌發酵後對於游離胺基酸量明顯增加,尤其是麩胺酸和離胺酸。由游離胺基酸、胺基態氮與電泳圖結果顯示蛋白質被降解且明顯,而魚肉蛋白質在發酵後幾乎完全被降解為胜太及胺基酸,對提高蛋白質的消化率、改善風味及提高營養價值具有正面意義。
Abstract
To improve the quality and functionality of mackerel minces and consequently increase the utilization of this species, the minced mackerel was fermented with Monascus purpureus CCRC 31499 and Monascus sp. CCRC 31746. The medium with 3% rice powder and 2% yeast extract at pH 5.0 was the most suitable for the growth of these strains. When the minced mackerel was used to replace the nitrogen source, a medium with fish meat to 3% rice powder solution ratio of 3:7 was employed. The growth of Enterbacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas were significantly inhibited, when fermented at 25oC on the medium preheated at 65oC for 30 min and with pH 5.0, shaking at 120 rpm during 7 days fermentation. During fermentation, the anka plate counts increased from 104 to 106 cfu/ml, while the pH of Monascus purpureus CCRC 31499 and Monascus sp. CCRC 31746 increased from 4.9 and 5.0 to 5.2 and 6.4, respectively. Hunter a value of anka significantly increased (p<0.05). The total sugar rapidly declined, but the reduce sugar increased at early stage and then decreased. The activities of both amylase and acidic proteases were detected after 1 and 2 days fermentation, respectively and further increased during fermentation. No significant difference in neutral proteases was observed (p>0.05). The activities of amylase and acid proteases in those fermented with Monascus sp. CCRC 31746 were significantly higher than those fermented with Monascus purpureus CCRC 31499. The VBN of those fermented with anka were still lower than the safety limit of food regulation (< 25mg/100g) after 7 days fermentation. Comparing with the control samples, no significant differences in organoleptic flavor, moisture content, crude fat, crude protein and ash was obtained during fermentation (p>0.05), but the free amino acid increased significantly (p<0.05), especial glutamic acid and lysine. The data of amino-nitrogen, free amino acid and SDS-PAGE indicated severe hydrolysis of muscle proteins occurred during fermentation. The increases in peptides and free amino acid during anka fermentation would substantially improve the digestion efficiency, flavor, taste and nutritional value of the fermented fish.
目錄
中文摘要……………………………………………………………… 1
英文摘要……………………………………………………………… 2
壹、 研究背景與目的……………………………………………4
貳、 文獻回顧……………………………………………………6
I、紅麴菌之分類與培育…………………………………………6
II、影響紅麴菌生長及色素的因素…………………….………8
III、紅麴菌的代謝產物………………………………………10
IV、紅麴菌機能性食品之開發………………………………17.
V、魚肉蛋白質組成…………………………………………18
參、 實驗材料與方法………...………………………………21.
I、實驗材料…………………………………………………………21
II、實驗方法…………………………………………………………22
(一)菌種的保存與活化………………………………………………22
(二)紅麴菌最適生長和色素生成條件之探討…………………………23
1.不同碳源和濃度對紅麴菌生長和色素產量………………………23
2.不同氮源和濃度對紅麴菌生長和色素產量之試驗………………. 23
3.不同pH值下對紅麴菌生長和色素產量之試驗………………….. 23
(三)紅麴菌發酵魚肉對質地、風味、色澤之影響………………………. 24
1.魚肉漿發酵…………………………………………………………. 24
2.發酵期間生菌數及pH值的變化………………………………….. 24
3.一般成分分析………………………………………………………. 25
4.揮發性鹽基態氮 (VBN) 含量之測定…………………………….. 25
5.Hunter L、a、b值之測定………………………………………….. 26
6.官能品評……………………………………………………………. 26
(四)紅麴菌發酵對魚肉蛋白質之影響…………………………………… 27
1.中性和酸性蛋白酶活性測定…………………………………………. 26
2.澱粉酶(amylase)活性測定…………………………………………….. 26
3.總含氮量測定…………………………………………………………. 27
4.胺基態氮(甲醛法)……...…………………………………………….. 27
5.游離胺基酸(free amino acids; FAA)分析……………………………. 27
6.總糖和還原糖之測定………………………………………………… 27
7.電泳分析……………………………………………………………… 27
8.水解率………………………………………………………………… 28
9.Citrinin含量…………………………………………………………. 28
肆、 結果與討論………………………………………………… 29
一. 紅麴菌最適生長和色素生成條件………………………… 29
1.碳源影響……………………………………………………………… 29
2.氮源影響……………………………………………………………… 29
3.pH值影響…………………………………………………………….. 30
二. 紅麴菌發酵魚肉最適加工條件…………………………………… 30
三. 紅麴菌發酵魚肉對質地、風味、色澤和魚肉蛋白質之影響…… 31
1.發酵期間紅麴菌與好氣性生菌數之生長…………………………… 31
2.發酵期間pH值的變化……………………………………………… 31
3.一般成分變化……………………………………………………31
4.揮發性鹽基態氮 (VBN) 含量之變化………………………………. 32
5.Hunter L、a、b值之測定……………………………………………. 32
6.官能品評……………………………………………………………… 32
四.紅麴菌發酵對魚肉蛋白質之影響………………………………………33
1.總含氮量變化………………………………………………………… 33
2.酸性和中性蛋白酶變化……………………………………………… 33
3.澱粉酶變化…………………………………………………………… 33
4.總糖與還原糖變化…………………………………………………… 34
5.胺基態氮之變化 ……………………………………………………. 34
6.水解率………………………………………………………………… 34
7.游離胺基酸…………………………………………………………… 35
8. SDS-PAGE……………………………………………………………..36
9..citrinin含量…………………………………………………………… 36
伍、結論…………………………………………………………………… 38
陸、參考文獻………………………………………………………………39
圖表…………………………………………………………………………52
伍、參考文獻
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