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研究生:劉紫雲
研究生(外文):Tzu Yun -Liu
論文名稱:不同市售殺菌劑對於餐飲業廚餐具抑菌有效性評估之探討
論文名稱(外文):Study on the Bactericidal Effects of Various Commercial Antiseptic Chemicals on Kitchen wares and Table wares in Food Service Establishments
指導教授:張正明張正明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng Mimg-Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:91
中文關鍵詞:殺菌劑餐飲業廚餐具
外文關鍵詞:antisepticfood servicekitchen wares and table wares
相關次數:
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細菌性食物中毒事件年年頻傳,為了瞭解衛生上的疏忽,需要從源頭至食物製備作業的環境及人員層層探討,以瞭解二次污染的重要發生環節,並且提供有效的防治措施。
作業環境中,抹布、壽司竹簾以及水龍頭是主要的交叉污染來源之一;材質對於衛生的影響以木製的砧板最差;即食處理人員是否佩戴手套,與其手部菌量並無相關 (p>0.05),因此手套對於衛生上的防治並沒有差異,要提高衛生標準需要依賴消毒作業的輔助。
由於市售殺菌劑用於餐飲業的成效並無明確的評估數據,因此需要做進一步的探討。本研究針對市售的殺菌劑進行檢測,以瞭解不同殺菌劑對於餐飲業廚、餐具表面的抑菌效果;將沾附105以上菌量的廚、餐具以殺菌劑作用60秒後,首先比較材質的影響,發現殺菌劑對於表面光滑的材質殺菌效果較好,以木頭砧板切面的殺菌效果最差。接著比較殺菌劑的消毒效果,依序是75%乙醇>50%乙醇>60%乙醇>960 ppm滴露>200 ppm次氯酸>200 ppm安期>pH 4的酸性電解水;另外以殺菌劑作用於S.aureus G(+)及E.coli G(-),發現,50%、60%、75%的乙醇以及200 ppm次氯酸鈉具有一致的殺菌效果,而960 ppm的滴露和200 ppm安期對於S.aureus有較高的專一性;pH 4的酸性電解水無法達到有效的滅菌效果 (5 log reduction)。其中,50%、60%及75%的乙醇甚至在30秒內即可達到有效的滅菌效果。最後評估殺菌劑的持續效果,依序是50%乙醇>75%乙醇,60%乙醇>200ppm次氯酸>960ppm滴露>200ppm安期。醇類對於餐飲作業的應用上具有開發的潛力,低濃度 (50 %) 即有良好的殺菌效果。
在生、即食的餐飲作業中以化學殺菌劑取代熱殺菌,可預防作業人員因為手部衛生的疏忽或是廚、餐具間交叉污染所導致的細菌性食物中毒;本實驗的評估結果,除了增進業者對於作業環境的瞭解,以及選用適當的殺菌劑來提高衛生標準,還可以提供衛生機關作為相關制度的參考依據。
The aims of this study are to investigate the hygienic status of sashimi vendors and to compare the bactericidal effect of various sanitizers against kitchen wares and table wares of above food service establishments that can develop a cleaning procedures to better guard the sanitary quality of sashimi and its related products.
After surveying the hygienic status of sashimi vendors by taking food contact surface swabbing samples, results indicated that dishcloths, sushi maki, and faucets were the major sources of cross-contamination in sashimi preparing counter of the establishment. In terms of fabric material, wood wares had the highest bacteria load. However, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the raw fish handlers whether wearing gloves or not. Proper use of sanitizer was essential to secure the sanitary environment.
Five commercial sanitizers, namely ethanol, Na-hypochlorite, Dettol, Antiseptol, and electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW), at their competent concentrations which were previously tested are compared for their bactericidal effects against kitchen wares and table wares. Results showed that the smoothness of the contact surface played an important role where the rougher the surface, e.g. wood cutting board, the harder the sanitizer to achieve desirable antiseptic effect (5D reduction). The bactericidal effects of the tested sanitizers were of the following order: 75% ethanol, 50% ethanol, 60% ethanol, 960 ppm Dettol, 200 ppm Na-hypochlorite, 200 ppm Antiseptol, and electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW, pH 4).
In addition, Dettol and Antiseptol had better effect against S.aureus than E.coli while the rest chemicals showed no difference against both tested bacteria. Further, ethanol at concentration from 50-75% can achieve 5D reduction during the first 30 seconds of contact. Comparing the persistent antiseptic effects during holding, 50% ethanol was the best, followed by 75% and 60% ethanol, then by 200 ppm Na-hypochlorite, 960 ppm Dettol, and 200 ppm Antiseptol.
The above antiseptics can be replaced of bactericidal by heating, to prevent the negligence of hand hygiene, kitchen wares and table wares cross-contamination that result in bacterial food poisoning. The study will let the persons who handing in food service know how to choose the best antiseptics, in order to rise to the hygiene of environment. Besides, it could be important to estimation of making rules or standard of raw fish sanitation.
頁次
中文摘要…………………………………………………………….. ¡
英文摘要…………………………………………………………….. ¡ ¡
目錄………………………………………………………………….. I
壹、前言……………………………………………………………….. 1
貳、文獻整理………………………………………………………….. 3
一、餐飲作業的衛生……………………………………………. 3
二、微生物的殺滅程度…………………………………………. 4
三、消毒的發展史………………………………………………. 5
四、理想的化學殺菌劑…………………………………………. 6
五、化學殺菌劑的作用機制……………………………………. 7
六、影響殺菌劑作用的因素……………………………………. 8
七、餐飲業適用的化學殺菌劑………………………………….. 10
1. 次氯酸鈉………………………………………………... 10
2. 二氧化氯………………………………………………... 12
3. 有機酸類………………………………………………... 13
4. 醇類……………………………………………………... 13
5. 對氯間二甲苯酚………………………………………... 15
6. 四級銨鹽類……………………………………………... 16
7. 碘………………………………………………………... 17
8. 酸(氧)化電位水………………………………………… 18
參、研究目的………………………………………………………….. 20
肆、實驗儀器、材料與方法………………………………………….. 21
一、實驗儀器…………………………………………………….. 21
二、實驗材料…………………………………………………... 21
三、實驗方法…………………………………………………….. 22
伍、結果討論………………………………………………………….. 25
一、環境採樣及人員手部衛生………………………………….. 25
1. 魚市場生魚片販售的作業環境及人員手部衛生……... 25
1.1作業環境衛生………………………………………. 25
1.2人員手部衛生………………………………………. 26
2. 不同生魚片販賣店的作業環境以及人員手部衛生…... 27
2.1作業環境衛生………………………………………. 27
2.2不同材質的廚、餐具衛生………………………… 30
2.3抹布的菌量變化……………………………………. 31
2.4人員手部衛生…………………………………….... 32
二、殺菌劑的消毒效果………………………………………... 34
1. 不同殺菌劑對於E.coli與S.aureus的抗菌試驗………. 34
2. 不同殺菌劑對於E.coli與S.aureus的抑菌效果………. 36
3. 不同殺菌劑在60秒內對於E.coli與S.aureus的抑菌效果… 38
4. 殺菌劑對於不同廚、餐具的抑菌效果………………... 39
5. 不同殺菌劑對於廚、餐具的抑菌效果……………….. 42
6. 殺菌劑抑菌效果的持續性……………………………... 45
6.1不同殺菌劑對於廚、餐具與手套的抑菌效果……. 45
6.2不同殺菌劑對於抹布的抑菌效果…………………. 45
陸、結論……………………………………………………………… 47
一、作業環境的二次污染………………………………………. 47
二、市售殺菌劑的抑菌效果……………………………………. 48
柒、參考文獻………………………………………………………… 49
表一、魚市場作業期間與生魚片直接接觸的廚、餐具衛生狀況…… 55
表二、魚市場作業期間生魚片販售人員的手部衛生狀況………… 56
表三、不同形式生魚片販售部在作業期間各種廚、餐具菌量的比較… 57
表四、生魚片販售店使用不同材質的廚、餐具衛生狀況…………… 58
表五、不同作業期間人員手部的衛生狀況………………………… 59
表六、合法的市售殺菌劑種類及使用濃度………………………… 60
表七、殺菌劑種類與濃度用量表…………………………………… 61
表八、以環片擴散技術偵測不同殺菌劑對於E.coli與S.aureus的抑菌效果………………………………………………………..
62
表九、比較不同殺菌劑作用60秒後對於廚、餐具上所沾附的E.coli的抑菌效果……………………………………………………..
63
表十、比較不同殺菌劑作用60秒後對於廚、餐具上所沾附的S.aureus的抑菌效果…………………………………………..
64
表十一、比較不同殺菌劑作用60秒後對於E.coli及S.aureus的抑菌效果…………………………………...................................
65
圖目錄
圖一、生魚片販售人員在不同作業期間手部的菌量……………… 66
圖二、日式料理店在作業期間各種廚、餐具菌量的比較…………… 67
圖三、壽司專賣店在作業期間各種廚、餐具菌量的比較…………… 68
圖四、餐廳在作業期間各種廚、餐具菌量的比較…………………… 69
圖五、迴轉壽司店在作業期間各種廚、餐具菌量的比較…………… 70
圖六、不同作業期間抹布菌量的變化……………………………… 71
圖七、餐盒配膳期間作業人員手部平均菌量的變化……………… 72
圖八、不同洗手方式與人員手部的菌量變化……………………… 73
圖九、不同殺菌劑在60秒內對於殺滅E.coli的抑菌變化………… 74
圖十、不同殺菌劑在60秒內對於殺滅S.aureus的抑菌變化……... 75
圖十一、次氯酸對於不同廚、餐具在60秒後的抑菌效果…………... 76
圖十二、滴露對於不同廚、餐具在60秒後的抑菌效果……………... 77
圖十三、安期對於不同廚、餐具在60秒後的抑菌效果……………... 78
圖十四、酸水對於不同廚、餐具在60秒後的抑菌效果……………... 79
圖十五、乙醇a對於不同廚、餐具在60秒後的抑菌效果…………… 80
圖十六、乙醇b對於不同廚、餐具在60秒後的抑菌效果…………... 81
圖十七、乙醇c對於不同廚、餐具在60秒後的抑菌效果…………… 82
圖十八、不同殺菌劑對於竹筷在60秒後的抑菌效果……………... 83
圖十九、不同殺菌劑對於塑膠筷在60秒後的抑菌效果…………… 84
圖二十、不同殺菌劑對於金屬筷在60秒後的抑菌效果…………... 85
圖二十一、不同殺菌劑對於木頭砧板平面在60秒後的抑菌效果… 86
圖二十二、不同殺菌劑對於木頭砧板切面在60秒後的抑菌效果… 87
圖二十三、不同殺菌劑對於塑膠砧板平面在60秒後的抑菌效果… 88
圖二十四、不同殺菌劑對於塑膠砧板切面在60秒後的抑菌效果… 89
圖二十五、不同殺菌劑對於廚、餐具與手套的抑菌效果…………… 90
圖二十六、不同殺菌劑對於抹布的抑菌效果……………………... 91
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