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研究生:陳宏成
論文名稱:養殖海鱺生魚片及煙燻製品品質衛生之探討
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Quality and Sanitation of Cultured Cobia Sashimi and Smoked Products
指導教授:蕭 泉 源
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:海鱺煙燻製品品質衛生
外文關鍵詞:cobiasmoked productquality
相關次數:
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海鱺(cobia, Rachycentron canadum)是目前台灣最主要的箱網養殖魚種,目前主要作為生魚片用。海鱺不同部位之脂肪含量差異大,腹部肉含量最高,脂肪和水分呈高度負相關性。FAA組成中以牛磺酸、甘胺酸、麩胺酸、丙胺酸及離胺酸,另含有鳥胺酸,雙胜以甲肌為主。分析海鱺生魚片樣品之品質衛生,發現32件中7樣品大腸桿菌群每公克中最確數超過10,7樣品中有1件之大腸桿菌為陽性,不符標準樣品中有6件為腹肉。
真空包裝海鱺腹部肉魚片於4℃貯存,pH值由6.4下降至5.8,貯存14天後pH逐漸回升;其VBN逐漸增加,至第28天仍未超過標準值之15 mg/100g。總生菌數至第21天已超過105 CFU/g之生食標準。FAA總量於第28天時增加42%;IMP至第21天時明顯降低,HxR及Hx量相對增加,此時K值為25.5%,且魚肉已有輕微異味產生。真空包裝海鱺腹部肉生魚片於4℃貯藏之期限可訂為14天。
海鱺熱燻產品之水分含量較冷燻產品高,脂肪含量相對較低,FAA與雙胜組成型態與生魚片類似,冷燻樣品之含量較熱燻者高。檢測22件之煙燻產品中2件樣品之大腸桿菌群每公克中最確數為10。冷燻產品之pH值顯著高於熱燻產品,但VBN值無顯著差異,總生菌數則以熱燻產品較高。冷燻和熱燻魚片在外觀喜好上並無顯著差異,但在風味、質地與整體接受性上皆以冷燻產品較佳。
海鱺尾部肉經醃漬、煙燻後水分減少,蛋白質及粗脂肪上升,FAA總量亦較原料肉高。pH值在加工過程中逐漸降低,VBN值及總生菌數在醃漬後明顯增加。
真空包裝冷、熱燻海鱺魚片於4℃貯存期間之pH值與VBN值均緩慢增加,貯存至第35天時VBN值超過即食標準之15 mg/100g。冷燻海鱺魚片貯存至第21天時其總生菌數量達4.92 log CFU/g,至第28天時已不符合法規標準。冷燻海鱺魚片FAA總量至第21天時增加1倍,熱燻魚片於第28天時增加42%,冷、熱燻魚片ATP相關化合物在貯存初期以IMP為主,但HxR及Hx已存在多量,至第21天時K值明顯增加為55.5%及50.5%,且此時已有輕微的異味產生。真空包裝熱燻鱺魚片4℃的貯存期限為14天,冷燻魚片亦為14天。
The cobia (Rachycentron canadum), an important cage-cultured fish in Taiwan, is often used as sashimi at present. The fat content in different tissues of cobia was significantly different, and that in ventral meat was the highest. There was a negative correlation between fat and moisture content. The major free amino acids (FAA) in cobia meat were taurine, glycine, glutamic acid, alanine and lysine. In addition, ornithine was also present. A dipeptide, anserine, was detected in the meat of cobia. Among 32 sashimi samples, the coliforms in 7 samples were higher than 10 MPN/g of the limited value. In addition, a sample was also found positive in the detection of E. coli. The 6 of 7 sample not qualified were ventral meat.
The pH value of vacuum package ventral meat of cobia was decreased from 6.4 to 5.8 during storage at 4℃. The value increased after storage of 14 days. The VBN was increased gradually during storage, and the value was not higher than 15 mg/100g of the limited value after storage of 28 days. However, the total plate count exceeded 105 CFU/g and did not meet the requirement of sashimi product after storage of 21 days. The FAA content was increased by 42% at the 28th day. IMP decreased significantly at the 21th day; however, HxR and Hx increased. The K value was 25.5% and a perceptible decomposed odor was observed at that time. The shelf-life of vacuum package ventral meat was 14 days during storage at 4℃.
The moisture of hot-smoked cobia was higher than cold-smoked product, but the lipid in the former was higher. The composition of FAA and dipeptide in smoked cobia was similar to that of sashimi product, and the quantity in cold-smoked cobia was more than hot-smoked cobia. Among 22 smoked samples, the coliforms in 2 samples were 10 MPN/g. The pH value in cold-smoked cobia was higher than hot-smoked cobia, but the VBN value was not significantly different. The total plate count in the former was higher than the latter. The appearance in both cold- smoked and hot-smoked cobia was not significantly different, but the flavor, texture and acceptability in the former was better than the latter.
The moisture level in tail meat was decreased after curing and smoking processing, but the protein and lipid was increased. The FAA level was higher than that of raw meat. The pH value was decreased gradually during processing, but the VBN value and total plate count was increased significantly after curing processing.
The pH and VBN values in vacuum package cold-smoked and hot-smoked cobia were increased gradually during storage at 4℃. After 35 days of storage, the VBN value was higher than the limited value. The total plate count was increased to 4.92 log CFU/g at the 21th day. The samples was not qualified after storage for 28 days. The total FAA content was increased one-fold in cold-smoked cobia at the 21th day, and the hot-smoked cobia was increased by 42%. IMP was the dominant compound of ATP-related compounds during the initial storage, and the quantity of HxR and Hx were also rather high. The K value of the cold- smoked and hot-smoked product was increased by 55.5% and 50.5%, respectively after storage of 21 days. At that time a perceptible decomposed odor was found. In conclusion, the shelf-life in both vacuum package hot-smoked and cold-smoked cobia was 14 days during storage at 4℃.
中文摘要……………………………………………………………... Ⅰ
英文摘要…………………………………………………………….. Ⅲ
目錄…………………………………………………………………... Ⅴ
壹、 前言…………………………………………………………….. 1
貳、 文獻整理……………………………………………………….. 3
一、 海鱺之型態、生態及養殖………………………………….. 3
二、 魚貝類之一般成分………………………………………….. 5
三、 魚貝類之萃取物成分……………………………………….. 5
(一) 游離胺基酸……………………………………………….. 6
(二) 低分子量胜…………………………………………….. 7
(三) 核酸及其相關化合物………………………………….. 8
四、 魚貝類之鮮度判定指標..…………………………………… 8
(一) 揮發性鹽基態氮………………………………………….. 9
(二) 三甲胺及二甲胺………………………………………….. 10
(三) 氨………………………………………………………….. 10
(四) K值……………………………………………………….. 10
(五) 次黃嘌呤………………………………………………….. 11
(六) pH值……………………………………………………… 11
五、 水產品之安全與相關病原菌……………………………….. 12
(一) 大腸桿菌群……………………………………………….. 12
(二) 大腸桿菌……..…………………………………………… 13
(三) 腸炎弧菌..………………………………………………… 13
六、 煙燻加工技術與品質……………………………………….. 13
(一) 燻煙法的種類……………………………………………... 14
(二) 燻煙設備…………………………………………………... 15
(三) 影響煙燻製品品質的因子………………………………... 15
1. 鹽漬條件………………………………………………… 15
2. 燻材……………………………………………………… 16
3. 溫度、濕度與時間……………………………………… 16
七、 煙燻魚類製品之貯藏……………………………………….. 18
參、 材料與方法…………………………………………………….. 20
一、 實驗項目與材料…………………………………………….. 20
(一) 海鱺魚片之化學組成與衛生品質……………………….. 20
(二) 海鱺魚片貯存期間之品質變化………………………….. 20
(三) 海鱺燻製品之化學組成與衛生品質…………………….. 20
(四) 海鱺燻製品加工過程中之變化………………………….. 20
(五) 海鱺燻製品貯存期間之品質變化……………………….. 21
二、 分析方法…………………………………………………….. 21
(一) pH值…………………………………………………….. 21
(二) 一般成分分析…………………………………………… 21
(三) 游離胺基酸、尿素、氨與雙胜……………………… 22
(四) 揮發性鹽基態氮………………………………………… 22
(五) ATP相關化合物測定與K值之計算…………………... 23
(六) 總生菌數………………………………………………… 24
(七) 大腸桿菌群和大腸桿菌………………………………… 24
(八) 腸炎弧菌………………………………………………… 24
(九) 官能品評………………………………………………… 25
(十) 統計分析………………………………………………… 25
肆、 結果與討論…………………………………………………….. 26
一、 海鱺魚片之化學組成與衛生品質………………………….. 26
(一) 一般成分………………………………………………….. 26
(二) 游離胺基酸與雙胜…………………………………….. 27
(三) pH值、VBN值與微生物..……………………………….. 28
二、 海鱺魚片貯存期間之品質變化…………………………….. 30
(一) pH值、VBN值與總生菌數……..……………………….. 30
(二) 游離胺基酸與雙胜…………………………………….. 30
(三)ATP相關化合物…………..……………………………….. 31
(四)K值…………..…………………………………………….. 32
三、 海鱺燻製品之化學組成與衛生品質……………………….. 34
(一) 一般成分………………………………………………….. 34
(二) 游離胺基酸與雙胜…………………………………….. 34
(三) pH值、VBN值與微生物..……………………………….. 35
(四)官能品評……..…………………………………………….. 36
四、 海鱺燻製品加工過程中之變化…………………………….. 37
(一) 一般成分………………………………………………….. 37
(二) 游離胺基酸與雙胜…………………………………….. 38
(三) pH值、VBN值與總生菌數..…………………………….. 38
五、 海鱺燻製品貯存期間之品質變化…...………….………….. 40
(一) pH值、VBN值與微生物……..………………………….. 40
(二) 游離胺基酸與雙胜…………………………………….. 41
(三)ATP相關化合物…………..……………………………….. 41
(四)K值…………..…………………………………………….. 42
伍、 結論…………………………………………………………….. 43
陸、 參考文獻……………………………………………………….. 45
柒、 表……………………………………………………………….. 60
捌、 圖……………………………………………………………….. 90
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