跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.197.230.180) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/20 13:59
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳冠福
研究生(外文):Chen Kuan Fu
論文名稱:利用山藥與LactobacillusplantarumCCRC10069及12250發酵之優酪乳對高油脂飲食的大白鼠脂質代謝與腸道生理的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum CCRC 10069 , 12250 and yam on lipid metabolism and intestinal physiology in rats fed a high fat diet
指導教授:江孟燦江孟燦引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:山藥優酪乳葡萄糖醛酸酵素黏液素酵素乳酸菌植物乳酸桿菌比菲得氏菌山藥優酪乳
外文關鍵詞:yamyogurtbeta-glucuronidasemucinaseLactobacillusLactobacillus plantarumBifidobacteriumyam yogurt
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:12
  • 點閱點閱:505
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
摘要
本研究係探討山藥優酪乳在高油高膽固醇(20%的豬油及0.5%的膽固醇)飲食條件下對雄性Sprague-Dawley大白鼠脂質代謝與腸道生理的影響。實驗共分為四組,分別是(1)酪蛋白組(控制組) (Casein; Control)、(2)優酪乳組 (Yogurt)、(3)山藥優酪乳組 (Yam Yogurt) 與(4)山藥組 (Yam)。以90%的脫脂奶 (w/w) 及10% (w/w) 的山藥及葡萄糖為發酵原料,發酵菌珠為Lactobacillus plantarum CCRC 12250 與L. plantarum CCRC 10069,於37℃發酵至pH 4.6時停止發酵並將樣品進行凍結乾燥,將凍乾粉末取代動物飼料中蛋白質,進行為期四週的實驗,實驗期間採自由飲水、攝食的方式。
實驗結果發現,大白鼠攝食山藥優酪乳有明顯較低的體重,而在組織臟器的重量方面,控制組有較高的脂肪組織與肝臟重量。山藥優酪乳組肝臟中有較低的總膽固醇與三酸甘油酯的含量,但是在血漿方面,山藥優酪乳雖然會顯著提昇血漿中總膽固醇與VLDL-C與LDL-C的含量,但血漿中GOT、GPT與Thiobarbituric acid relative substances (TBARS) 的濃度明顯較低。在糞便脂質方面,攝食山藥優酪乳會顯著提高糞便中三酸甘油脂的含量。在腸道生理方面,攝食山藥優酪的大白鼠會有較長的小腸與大腸的長度及較重的盲腸與盲腸內容物的含量,並提高盲腸中總短鏈脂肪酸 (Short Chain Fatty Acid;SCFA) 的含量。此外,山藥優酪乳能明顯的增加糞便量及糞便中乳酸菌與總厭氧菌的數量,且明顯的降低糞便pH值與糞便細菌酵素β-glucuronidase與Mucinase的活性。綜合以上結果推測:(1)在高脂飲食條件下,山藥優酪乳雖然會增加血漿中總膽固醇的含量,但會減少肝臟中脂質的堆積。(2)山藥優酪乳會增加盲腸中短鏈脂肪酸的含量並降低糞便中β-glucuronidase與Mucinase的活性。
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on Yam Yogurt on lipid metabolism and intestinal physiology in rats fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet (20% lard and 0.5 cholesterol). SD (Sprague Dawley) rats were used as experimental animals and rats were divided into four groups. There are (1) casein group (control group) (2) yogurt group (3) yam yogurt group (4) yam group. Lactobacillus plantarum CCRC 12250 and L. plantarum CCRC 10069 were used as the starter of yogurt. This experiment was lasted for four weeks. Results from this experiment showed that lower body weight, adipose tissue weight and liver weight were observed in rats fed the yam yogurt diet when compared with those fed the control diet. However, yam yogurt significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and LDL+VLDL cholesterol. Significantly decreased hepatic total cholesterol and triglyceride contents were observed in rats fed the yam yogurt diet. Yam yogurt induced a decrease in plasma thiobarbituric acid relative substances (TBARS) and liver GOT and GPT levels. In addition, rats fed the yam yogurt diet had lower fecal pH value and had high fecal short chain fatty acid concentrations. Lower fecal b-glucuronidase and mucinase activities were observed in rats fed the yam yogurt diet when compared with the control group. Results from this study suggest that yam yogurt may play an important role in regulation of intestinal physiology in rats.
目 錄
頁次
中文摘要………………………………………………………………………. Ⅰ
英文摘要………………………………………………………………………. Ⅱ
目錄……………………………………………………………………………. Ⅲ
表目錄…………………………………………………………………………. Ⅶ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………………. Ⅷ
壹、研究背景…………………………………………………………………. 1
貳、文獻整理…………………………………………………………………. 3
一、山藥………………………………………………………………………. 3
(一)山藥種類型態與佈……………………………………………………. 3
1.塊狀山藥…………………………………………………………..… 3
2.長形山藥…………………………………………………………….. 4
(二)山藥之成分分析………………………………………………………. 4
1.一般成分…………………………………………………………….. 4
2.抗性澱粉…………………………………………………………….. 4
(三)山藥之生理功能………………………………………………………. 5
1.對血糖的影響……………………………………………………….. 5
2.與膳食纖維的關係………………………………………………….. 5
(1)膳食纖維的定義及分類…………………………………….….. 5
(2)膳食纖維對脂質代謝的影響……………………………….….. 6
(3)膳食纖維對腸道生理的影響……………………………….….. 7
(4)膳食纖維之發酵產物短鏈脂肪酸………………………….….. 7
a.對脂質代謝的影響………………………………………….. 7
b.對腸道生理的影響………………………………………….. 8
c.對刺激黏液層發展………………………………………….. 9
3.山藥對脂質的影響………………………………………………….. 9
4.山藥對腸道生理的影響…………………………………………….. 10
二、益生菌的定義、種類及特性……………………………………………. 10
(一)益生菌的定義…………………………………………………………. 10
(二)益生菌的種類及應用…………………………………………………. 10
(三)益生菌應具備之特性…………………………………………………. 11
三、乳酸菌……………………………………………………………………. 11
(一)乳酸菌的定義…………………………………………………………. 11
(二)乳酸菌做為益生菌的特性……………………………………………. 12
(三)pH值、膽鹽對乳酸生長的情形……………………………………... 12
(四)乳酸菌抑菌的表現……………………………………………………. 12
(五)附著腸道能力…………………………………………………………. 13
(六)胞外黏性物質…………………………………………………………. 13
(七)乳酸菌黃麴毒素之能力………………………………………………. 13
1.黃麴毒素的構造、分佈及毒性…………………………………….. 13
2.不同處理條件下乳酸菌結合黃麴毒素的能力…………………….. 14
(八)乳酸菌生理功能之探討………………………………………………. 14
1.乳酸菌對脂質的影響……………………………………………….. 14
(1)肝脂質……………………………………………………….….. 14
(2)血脂質……………………………………………………….….. 15
a.高密度脂蛋白膽固醇……………………………………….. 15
b.低密度脂蛋白膽固醇……………………………………….. 16
(3)糞便脂質…………………………………………………….….. 16
2.乳酸菌對免疫功能的影響………………………………………….. 16
3.乳酸菌對腸道生理的影響………………………………………….. 17
(1)腸道菌相…………………………………………………….….. 17
(2)細菌酵素………………………………………………………... 17
a.b-葡萄糖醛酸酶 (b-glucuronidase)…………………….…... 18
b.黏液素 (mucin)及黏液素酶 (mucinase)…………………… 18
(3)代謝產物短鏈脂肪酸 (SCFA; Short Chain Fatty Acid)……….. 19
(4)刺激黏液層發展………………………………………………... 20
(5)盲腸與糞便pH值……………………………………………… 21
四、高油飲食對動物體脂質代謝與腸道生理的影響………………………. 21
(一)高油飲食對脂質代謝的影響…………………………………………. 21
1.肝臟脂質…………………………………………………………….. 22
2.血漿脂質…………………………………………………………….. 22
3.糞便脂質…………………………………………………………….. 22
(二)高油飲食對腸道生理的影響…………………………………………. 22
五、飲食中膽固醇的添加對脂質代謝的影響………………………………. 23
(一)膽固醇的重要性及其代謝……………………………………………. 23
(二)膽固醇對脂質代謝的影響……………………………………………. 23
1.血脂質代謝………………………………………………………….. 24
(1)HDL-C (high density lipoprotein cholesterol)……….………….. 24
(2)LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol)……………………. 24
(3)VLDL-C (very low density lipoprotein cholesterol)…………….. 24
2.肝脂質代謝………………………………………………………….. 25
3.糞便固醇…………………………………………………………….. 26
山藥優酪乳在高油飲食條件對大白鼠脂質代謝與腸道生理的影響 .
實驗流程………………………………………………………………………. 27
參、材料與方法………………………………………………………………. 28
一、餌料配製……………………………………………………………... 28
二、儀器設備……………………………………………………………... 28
三、實驗動物……………………………………………………………... 29
四、菌相分析用培養基………………………………………………………. 29
五、實驗方法……………………………………………………………... 29
1.動物分組………………………………………………………… 29
2.動物飼養及樣品收集…………………………………………... 30
3.血漿分析………………….…..…………………………………….. 30
(1)總膽固醇(Total Cholesterol)之測定………………..……... 30
(2)游離膽固醇(Free Cholesterol)之定…………………..….… 30
(3)三酸甘油酯(Triglyceride)之測定……………………...…... 31
(4)磷脂質(Phospholipids)之測定…………………………...... 31
(5)游離脂肪酸之(Free fatty acid)測定………………………. 31
(6)β-羫基丁酸(β-Hydroxybutyrate)之測定…………………….. 32
(7)乳酸(Lactate)………………………………………………….... 32
(8)TBARS(Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances)值之測定 32
(9)Lipoprotein之測定…………………………………………. 33
(10)GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase)之測定………. 33
(11)GPT (glutamic pyruvic transaminase)之測定……………. 33
(12)免疫球蛋白IgA、IgG之測定…………………………… 33
(13)血漿總脂質分析…………………………………………... 34
4.肝臟之分析……………………………………………………… 34
(1)肝臟脂質測定……………………………………………..... 34
(2)TBARS值之測定…………………………………………… 34
(3)肝臟脂質脂肪酸的分析……………………...……..……… 35
(4)蘋果酸酶活性測定…………………………………………. 35
(5)葡萄糖六磷酸去氫酶活性測定…………………………... 36
(6)脂肪酸合成酶活性測定……………………………………. 36
5.脂肪之分析……………………………………………………… 37
(1)蘋果酸酶活性測定………………………………………... 37
(2)葡萄糖六磷酸去氫酶活性測定…………………………... 37
(3)脂肪酸合成酶活性測定……………………………………. 37
6.盲腸分析………………………………………………………… 37
(1)盲腸pH值及腸道長度的測定…………………………………. 37
(2)盲腸內容物短鏈脂肪酸的測定………………………………… 37
7.糞便之分析……………………………………………………… 38
(1)糞便脂質…………………………………………...……….. 38
(2)黏液素酶(Mucinase)活性之測定……………………………….. 38
(3)β-葡萄糖醛酸酶(β-glucuronidase)活性之測定……………... 39
(4)糞便菌叢………………………………………………………… 39
(5)糞便短鏈脂肪酸的測定………………………………………… 39
(6)糞便pH的測定……………………………………………….... 39
(7)糞便濕重、乾重……………………………………………. 40
8.飲水量與排尿量測定……………………………………………….. 40
(1)飲水量…………………………………………………………… 40
(2)排尿量…………………………………………………………… 40
9.一般成分分析……………………………………………………….. 40
(1)水分……………………………………………………………… 40
(2)灰份……………………………………………………………… 40
(3)粗蛋白…………………………………………………………… 41
(4)粗脂肪…………………………………………………………… 41
10.統計分析…………...………………………………………….. 41
肆、結果…………………………………………………………………… 42
伍、討論…………………………………………………………………… 52
陸、結論…………………………………………………………………… 60
柒、參考文獻……………………………………………………………… 87
表目錄
表一、優酪乳、山藥優酪乳與山藥之一般成分比較………………… 61
表二、實驗飼料組成(%)…………………………………………… 62
表三、SD大白鼠餵食不同實驗飼料四週後其體重增加量與食物轉換率……………………………………………………………... 63
表四、餵食SD大白鼠不同飼料四週後脂肪與肝臟重量的變化……. 64
表五、SD大白鼠餵食不同實驗飼料四週後,脂肪組織中葡萄糖-6-磷酸去氫酶與蘋果酸酶活性的變化…………………………... 65
表六、SD大白鼠餵食不同飼料四週後其肝臟中膽固醇、三酸甘油酯與磷脂質濃度的變化………………………………………... 66
表七、SD大白鼠餵食不同飼料四週後其肝臟中游離膽固醇、酯化型膽固醇濃度與游離膽固醇比酯化型膽固醇比值之的變化... 67
表八、SD大白鼠餵食不同實驗飼料四週後,肝臟中葡萄糖-6-磷酸去氫酶、蘋果酸酶與脂肪酸合成酶活性的變化……………… 68
表九、餵食SD大白鼠不同飼料四週後血漿中總膽固醇與三酸甘油酯濃度的變化…………………………………………………... 69
表十、餵食SD大白鼠不同飼料四週後血漿中脂蛋白膽固醇濃度的變化……………………………………………………………... 70
表十一、餵食SD大白鼠不同飼料四週後血漿中轉胺酶(GOT與GPT)濃度的變化…………………………………………… 71
表十二、SD大白鼠餵食不同實驗飼料四週後,其血漿中IgA、IgG與albumin濃度的變化…………………………………….... 72
表十三、SD大白鼠餵食不同飼料四週後其糞便中總膽固醇、三酸甘油酯與磷脂質濃度的變化………………………………... 73
表十四、SD大白鼠餵食不同實驗飼料4週後小腸、大腸長度的變化……………………………………………………………... 74
表十五、SD大白鼠餵食不同實驗飼料4週後盲腸總重、內容物含量與盲腸壁重………………………………………………... 75
表十六、SD大白鼠餵食不同飼料四週後其盲腸中短鏈脂肪酸、盲腸pH和乙酸與丙酸之比值的變化………………………….. 76
表十七、SD大白鼠餵食不同實驗飼料4週後糞便乾濕重與水份含量的變化……………………………………………………... 77
表十八、SD大白鼠餵食不同飼料四週後其糞便中短鏈脂肪酸、L-乳酸與糞便pH的變化………………………………………. 78
圖目錄
圖一、餵食不同飼料四週後SD大白鼠總攝食量變化情形…………. 79
圖二、餵食不同飼料四週期間SD大白鼠體重的變化情形…………. 80
圖三、SD大白鼠餵食不同實驗飼料四週後,其肝臟中過氧化物含量的變化………………………………………………………... 81
圖四、SD大白鼠餵食不同實驗飼料第四週,其血漿中葡萄糖含量的變化…………………………………………………………... 82
圖五、SD大白鼠餵食不同實驗飼料第四週,其血漿中游離脂肪酸含量的變化……………………………………………………... 83
圖六、SD大白鼠餵食不同實驗飼料四週後,其血漿中過氧化物含量的變化………………………………………………………... 84
圖七、SD大白鼠飼養不同飼料4週後其糞便中細菌數與糞便細菌酵素活性的變化………………………………………………... 85
圖八、SD大白鼠飼養不同飼料4週後其糞便中總乳酸菌、總比菲得氏菌與總厭氧菌菌數之變化………………………………... 86
柒、參考文獻
王有忠。1996。食品安全。華香園出版社。168-185。
林坤山。1999。根莖類澱粉顆粒對α-amylase感受性之探討。靜宜大學食品營養學系碩士論文。
林昭榮。1992。山藥的栽培與加工。台灣農村。20:23-25。
那琦、甘偉松、楊榮季,台灣產藥材之生藥學研究。4:1978。台灣產零餘子之生藥學研究。中國醫藥學院研究年報。9:330-375。
吳戊琳。1988。知柏八味丸治療第Ⅱ型糖尿病之臨床評估。中國醫藥學院中國醫學研究所碩士論文。
周建家。1997。益生菌之篩選及選擇性培養基之建立。中興大學食品科學系碩士論文。
邱雪惠、楊媛珣、廖啟成。2001。乳酸菌及雙岐桿菌製品介紹與國內研究現況。機能性發酵製品研討會論文集。113-144。
邱雪惠。2000。植物來源乳酸菌之特性評估及抑制沙門氏菌於腸道侵入性與激活巨噬細胞之能力分析。中興大學食品科學系碩士論文。
姜金龍、黃鵬、龔財立、劉新裕。1995。山藥台灣農家要覽。豐年社。第一卷。
郁宗雄、陳嘆。1975。山藥新品種。豐年25:16。
施康潔。2000。生產胞外黏性物質 (EAS) 乳酸菌應用於吳郭魚肉漿發酵食品可行性之探討。台灣海洋大學食品科學系碩士學位論文。
姚賢宗。1998。短期或長期攝食幾丁聚糖對大白鼠脂質代謝的影響。台灣海洋大學食品科學系碩士學位論文。
陳忻長。2000。加熱與乾燥對基隆山藥之機能性影響-對大白鼠糖代謝及脂質代謝的影響。台灣海洋大學食品科學系碩士學位論文。
黃瑞齡。1985。中藥及民間藥對糖尿病降血糖作用之研究(八)。中國醫藥學院研究所研究報告。17。
黃瑞齡、林哲輝、劉國柱。1982。中藥及民間藥對糖尿病降血糖作用之研究(五)。中國醫藥學院研究所研究報告。23。
黃瑞齡、林哲輝、劉國柱。1983。中藥及民間藥對糖尿病降血糖作用之研究(六)。中國醫藥學院研究所研究報告。17。
潘子明。2001。機能性發酵製品總論。機能性發酵製品研討會論文集。1-66。
龔財立、李穎宏、姜金龍。1995。栽培管內填充不同介質對長形山藥產量及品質之影響。台灣藥用植物資源之開發與利用研討會之專刊。125-134。
久保利夫 1944。 熱帶農林學概要。西元刊行社出版。681。
Abbas, A. K., Lichtman, A. H. and Pober, J. S. 1997 Third edition. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. W. B. Saunder, Esition.
Alander, M., Smet I. D., Nollet L., Verstraete W., Wright A. V. and Mattia-Sandholm T. 1999 The effect of probiotic strains on the microbiota of the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME). Int. J. Food. Microbiol. 46: 71-79.
Anderson, J. W., Jones, A. E and Mason, S. R. 1994 Ten different dietary fiber have significantly different effect on serum and liver lipids of cholesterol-fed rats. J. Nutr. 124: 78-83.
Anderson, J. W. 1985 Physiological and metabolic effects of dietary fiber. Fed Proc. 44: 2902-2906.
Anderson, J. W., Story L, Sieling, B. 1984 Hypercholesterolemic effects of oat-bran or bean intake for hypercholesterolemic men. Am. J. Clin Nutr. 40: 1146-1155.
Andrieux, C. Gadelle, D. Leprince, C. and Sacquet, E. 1989 Effects of some poorly digestible carbohydrates on bile acid bacterial transformations in the rat. Brit. J. Nutr. 62: 103-119.
Annika, M. M., Manninen M. and Gylienbery H. 1983 The adherence of lactic acid bacteria to the columnar epithelial cells of pigs and calves. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 55: 241-245.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). 1990 Official Methods of A/0lysis, 15th ed. New York, 242-273.
Araghiniknam, M. S., Chung, N. W., Tresa, Eskelson, C. and Watson, R. 1996 R.Antioxidant activity of dioscorea and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in older humans. Life Sciences Including Pharmacology Letters 59: 147-PL157.
Asami, Y., Yamagishi, I., Akiyoshi, K., Tomoike, H., Tsuchida, K. and Higuchi, S. 1999 Inhibitory effect of TS-962 on the formation of early atherosclerotic lesions in high fat-fed hyperlipidemic hamsters. Atherosclerosis 146: 237—242
Asp, N-G., Bjork, I. and Nynan, M. 1993 Physiological effects of cereal ditery fiber. Carbohydrate Polymers 21: 183-187.
Aweto, A.O. 2001 Trees in shifting and continuous cultivation farms in Ibadan area, southwestern Nigeria Landscape and Urban Planning 53: 163-171.
Bartram, H. P., Scheppach W., Gerlach S., Ruckdeschel G., Kelber E. and Kasper H. 1994 Does yogurt enriched with Bifidobacterium longum affect colonic microbiology and fecal metabolites in healthy subjects? Am. J. Clin Nutr. 59: 428-432.
Bertolami, M. C., Faludi, A. A. and Batloumi, M. 1999 Evaluation of the effects of a new fermented milk product (Gaio) on primary hypercholesterolemia. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 53: 97-101.
Beynen, A. C., Buechler, K. F., Van der Molen, A. J. and Geelen, M. J. H. 1982 The effect of lactate and acetate on fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Int J Biochem 14: 165-169.
Bjorck, I., Eliasson, A. C., Drews, A., Gudmundsson, M., and Karlesson, R. 1990 Some nutritional properties of starch and dietary fiber in barley genotypes containing different levels of amylose. Cereal Chem. 67: 327.
Bravo, E., Flora, L., Cantafora, A., Luca., V. D., Tripodi, M., Avella, M. and Botham, K. M. 1998 The influence of dietary saturated and unsaturated fat on hepatic cholesterol metabolism and the biliary excretion of chylomicron cholesterol in the rat. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1390: 134-148.
Brinton, E. A., Eisenberg, S. and Breslow, J. L. 1990 A low-fat diet decreases high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels by decreasing HDL apolipoprotein transport rates. J. Clin Invest. 85: 144-151.
Brown, M. S. and Goldstein, J. L. 1975 Regulation of activity of the low density lipoprotein receptor in human fibroblast. Cell 6: 307-316.
Brown, M. S. and Goldstein, J. L. 1986 A receptor-mediated pathway for cholesterol homeostasis. Science 232: 34-47.
Caderni, G., Luceri, C., Lancioni, L., Tessitore, L. and Dolara, P. 1998 Slow release pellets of sodium butyrate increase apoptosis in the colon of rats treated with azoxymethane, without affecting aberrant crypt foci and colonic proliferation. Nutrition and Cancer 30: 175-181.
Catharina, P. N., Albert K. G., Roelof, O., Jos, F. H. M., Brouwers, Berge- Henegouwen,G. P. and Karel, J. V. E. 2001 Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion is independent of hepatocyte canalicular membrane lipid composition:a study in the diosgenin-fed rat mode. Journal of Hepatology 35: 164-169.
Cha, Y. S., Sohn, H. S., Daily, J. W. and Oh, S. H. 1999 Effects of exercise training and/or high fat diet on lipid metabolism and carnitine concentrations in rats. Nutr. Res. 19: 937-945.
Chandra, R.K. 2002 Effect of Lactobacillus on the incidence and severity of acute rotavirus diarrhea in infants. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study. Nutr. Res. 22: 65—69
Chapkin, R. S., Fan, Y. Y. and Lupton, J. R. 2000 Effect od diet on colonic- programmed cell death: molecular mechanism of action. Toxicology Letters 112-113: 411-414.
Chen, C. Y. and Pan, L. K. 2001 Trace elements of Taiwanese dioscorea spp. using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Food Chemistry 72: 255-260.
Chen, W. L., Anderson, J. W. and Jennings, D. 1984 Propionate may mediate the hypocholesterolemic effects of certain soluble plant fibers in cholesterol fed rats. Pro. Soci. Exp. Bio. Med. 175: 215-218
Choi, Y. S., Goto, S., Ikeda, I. and Sugano, M. 1989 Interaction of dietary protein, cholesterol and age in lipid metabolism of the rats. Brit. J. Nutr. 61: 31-43.
Christina, G., Luedeke, L. O. and Shultz, T. D. 1999 Yogurt consumption and estrogen metabolism in healthy premenopausal women. Nutr. Res. 19: 531-543.
Coconnier, M. H., Lievin, V., Camard, M. F. B., Hudalt, S. and Servin, A. L. 1997 Antibacterial effect of the adhering human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB. Antimicrobial. Agents and Chemotherapy 5: 1046-1052.
Costa, M. A., Mehta, T., Males, J. R. 1989 Effects of dietary cellulose, psyllium husk and cholesterol level on fecal and colonic microbial metabolism in monkeys. J. Nutr. 119: 986-992.
Cummings, J. H. and Englyst, H. N. 1987 Fermentation in the human large intestin and the available substrates. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 45: 1243-1255.
David, L. E. and Evan, P. G. 1994 Mechanism of aflatoxin carcinogenesis. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 34: 135-172.
Davis, R. A., McNeal, M. M. and Moses, R. L. 1982 Intrahepatic assembly of very low density lipoprotein. J. Biol. Chem. 257: 2634-2640.
De Deckere, E. A. M., Kloots, W. J. and Van Amelsvoort, J. M. M. 1993 Resistant starch decreases serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentration in rats. Am. Inst. Nutr. 7: 2142-2151.
De Smet, I., Van Hoorde, L., De Saeyer, N., Vande Woestyne, M. and Verstrate, W. 1994 In vitro study of bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity estimation of BSH isogenic Lactobacillus plantarum 80 strains and estimation of cholesterol lowering through enhanced BSH activity. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 7: 315-329.
Ding, Y. A., Chang, W. K. and Chen, M. L. 1992 Changes in nutritional supply and atherosclerotic disease from 1945 to 1989 in Taiwan. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 13: 137-146.
Djouzi, Z., Andrieux, C., Degivry, M. C., Bouley, C. and Szylit, O. 1997 The association of yogurt starters with Lactobacillus casei DN 114.001 in fermented milk alters the composition and metabolism of intestinal microflora in germ-free rats and in human flora-associated rat. American Society for Nutrition Sciences 15: 2260-2266.
Drasar, B. S. and Barrow, P. A. Benefit and mischief from the intestinal microflora. 1985 In Intestinal Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology. Washington. D. C.
Englyst, H. N. and Macfarlane, G. T. 1986 Breakdown of resistant starch and readily digestible starch by human gut bacteia. J. Sci. Food Agric. 37: 699.
Everson, G. J., Daggy, B. P., Mckinley, C, and Story, J. A. 1992 Effect of psyllium hydropilic mucilloid on LDL-cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in hypercholesterolemic men. J. Lipid Res. 33: 1183-1192.
Farombi, E. O., Britton, G. and Emerole, G. O. 2000 Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and partial characterization of extracts from browned yam flour diet Food Res. Int. 33: 493-499.
Farombi, E. O.; Nwankwo, J. O.and Emerole, G. O. 1997 Possible Modulatory effect of browned yam flour diet on chemically-induced toxicity in the Rat. Food and Chemical Toxicology 35: 975-979.
Fernandez, M. L., Sun, D. M., Josca, M. A. and Mcnamara, D. J. 1994 Citrus pectin and cholesterol interact to regulate hepatic cholesterol homeostasis and lipoprotein metabolism: a dose-response study in guinea pigs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 59: 869-878.
Folch, J., Less, M. and Sloane stanley, G. H. 1957 A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 223: 497-509.
Fukuda, K. 1999 Induction of tissue transglutaminase expression by propionate and n-butyrate in colon cancer cell lines. J. Nutr. Biochem. 10: 397-404.
Fukushima, M. and Nakano, M. 1995 The effect of a probiotic on faecal and liver in rats. Br. J. Nutr. 73: 701-710.
Fuller, R. 1989. Probiotics in man and animals. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 66: 365-378.
Fuller, R. 1992 Probiotics, The scientific basis. Chapman & Hall. London.
Fuller, R. and Brooker B. E. 1974. Lactobacilli which attach to the crop epithelium of the fowl. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 27: 1305-1312.
Fungwe, T. V., Cagen, L. M., Cook, G. A., Wilcox, H. G. and Hermberg, M. 1993 Dietary cholesterol stimulates hepatic biosynthesis of triglyceride and reduces oxidation of fatty acid in the rat. J. Lipid Res. 34: 933-941.
Fungwe, T. V., Cagen, L. M., Wilcox, H. G. and Heimberg, M. 1992 Regulation of hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein by dietary cholesterol. J. Lipid Res. 33: 179-191.
Gallaher, D. D., Hassel, C. A., Lee, K. and Gallaher, C. M. 1993 Viscosity and fermentability as attributes of dietary fiber responsible for the hypo-cholesterolemic effect in hamsters. J. Nutr. 123: 244-252.
Garg, M. L., Suoswell, A. M. and Sabine, J. R. 1995 Dietary cholesterol modifies both cholesterol content and fatty acid profiles of hepatic microsomal membranes. Nutr. Rep. Int. 32:17-26.
Garg, M. L., Thomson, A. B. R. and Clandinin, M. T. 1988b Effect of dietary cholesterol and /or w-3 fatty acids in lipid composition and Δ5-desaturase activity of liver microsome. J. Nutr. 118:661-668.
Gleen, R. G. and George, T. M. 1995 Human Colonic Bacteria: role in nutrition, physiology and pathology. Cummings, J. H. ed. CRC Press. Inc..61-72.
Godin, B. R. and Gorbach, S. 1984 The effect of milk and lactobacillus feeding on human intestinal bacterial enzyme activity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 39: 756-761.
Goldin, B.R., Swenson, L., Dwyer, J., Sexton, M. and Gorbach, S. L. 1980 Effect of diet and Lactobacillus acidophillus supplements on human fecal bacteria enzymes. JNCI 64: 255-261.
Goodlad, R. A., Ratcliffe, B., Fordham, J. P. and Wright, N. A. 1989 Dose dietary fiber stimulate intestinal epithelial cell proliferation in germ free rats? Gut. 30: 820-825.
Goodridge, A.G. 1972 Regulation of the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase by palmitoyl-coenzyme A and citrate. J. Biol. Chem. 247: 6946-6952.
Grundy, S. M. 1986 Cholesterol and coronary heart disease. A new era. JAMA 256: 2849-2858.
Hague, A., Manning, A. M., Hanlon, K. A., Hustschtscha, L. I., Hart, D. and Daraskeva, C. 1993 Sodium butyrate induces apotosis in human colonic tumor cell lines in p53-independent pathway: implications for possible role of dietary fiber in the prevention of large bowel cancer. Int. J. Cancer. 55: 498-505.
Hain, E. N., Salminen, S. J. and Ahokas, J. 1996 Biolohic control of food carcinogens with use of Lactobacillus GG. Nutrition Today 31: 41s-42s.
Hambly, R. J., Rumney, C. J., Fletcher, J. M. and Rowland, I. R. 1997 Effects of high-risk diets on gut microflora-associated biomarkers of colon cancer in human flora-associated rats. Nutr. Cancer., 27: 250-255.
Hara, H., Haga, S., Kasai, T. and Kiriyama, S. 1998 Fermentation products of sugar-beet fiber by cecal bacteria lower plasma cholesterol concentration in rats. J. Nutr. 128: 688-693.
Hashimoto, S., Nomoto, K., Matsuzaki, T., Yokokura, T. and Mutai, M. 1984 Oxygen radical production by peritoneal macrophages and Kupffer cells elicited with Lactobacillus casei. Infect. Immun. 44: 61-7.
Havennar, R., Brink B. T. and Huis J. H. J. 1992 “Selection of strains for probiotics use in probiotics use in “Probiotics, The sciencific basic.” Ed. R. Fuller. Chapman & Hall, London, New York. pp. 209-222.
Hoijer, H. P., Sterchi, E. E., Bienz, D., Fransen, J. A. M. and Marxer, A. 1995 Expression and intracellular transport to microvillus membrane hydrolases in human intestinal epithelial cells. J. Cellular Biology 101: 838-851.
Ink, S. L. and Hurt, H. D. 1987 Nutritional implications of gums. Food. Tech. 41: 77-82.
Isamah, G. K., Asagba, S. O. and Thomas, A. E. 2000 Lipid peroxidation, o-diphenolase, superoxide dismutase and catalase proile along the three physiological regions of Dioscorea rotundata Poir cv Omi. Food Chemistry 69: 1-4.
Jenkins, D. J. A., Jenkins, A. L., Wolever, T. M. S., Rao, A. V. and Thompson, L. U. 1986 Fiber and starchy foods: Gut function and implications in disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 81: 920-930.
Jenkins, D. J. A., Wolever, T. M. S., Jenkins, A., Brighenti, F., Vuksan, V. Rao, A. V. Cunnane, S. C., Ocana, A., Corey, O., Vezina, C., Connelly, P., Buckley, G. and Patten, R. 1991 Specific types of colonic fermentation may raise low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. American Society for Clinical Nutrition 81: 920-930.
Jin, L. Z., HO Y. W., Abdullah N., Ali, M. A. and Jalaludin, S. 1998 Effect of adherent Lactobacillus cultures on growth, weight of organs and intestinal microflora and volatile fatty acids in broilers. Animal Feed Science Technology 70: 197-209.
Link-Amster, H., Rochat, F. and Saudan, K. Y. 1994 Modulation of a specific humoral immune response and changes in intestinal flora mediated through fermented milk intake. FEMS Immunol Med. Microbiol. 10: 55-64.
Johnson, F. L., Clair, R. W. St. and Rudel, L. L. 1983 Studies on the production of low density lipoproteins by perfuse livers from nonhuman primatse. Effect of dietary cholesterol. J. Clin. Invest. 72: 221-236.
Johansson, M. L., Molin, G., Jeppson, B., Nobeak, S., Ahrne, S. and Bengmark, S. 1993 Administration of different Lactobacillus strains in fermented oatmeal soup: In vivo colonization of human intestinal mucosa and effect on the undigenous flora. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 15-20.
Johnson, T. R. and Case, C. L. 1995 Laboratory Experiments in Microbiology. 4nd edition. The Benjamin/Cummings Publoshing Co. Inc.
Kay, R. M. and Strasberg, S. M. 1978 Orgin, chemistry, physiological effects and clinical importance of dietary fiber. Clin. Invest. Med. 1: 9-24.
Kelly, J. J. and Tsai, A. C. 1978 Effect of pectin, gum arabic and agar on cholesterol absorption, synthesis, and turnover in rats. J. Nutr. 108: 630-639.
Kritchevsky, D. 1988 Dietary fiber. Am Rev Nutr. 8: 301-328.
Laura, J. F., Roy, F. and Glenn, R.G. 1999 Prebiotics, probiotics and human gut microbiology. International Dairy Journal 9: 53-61.
Leikin, A. I. and Brenner, R. R. 1987 cholesterol-induced microsomal changes modulate desaturase activities. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 922: 294-303.
Lewis, S. J. and Heaton. 1997 Increasing butyrate concentration in the distal colon by accelerating intestinal transit. Gut. 41: 245-251.
Lin, B. Y., Vonk, R. J., Slooff, M. J. H, Kuipers, F. and Smit, M. J. 1995 Differences in propionate induced inhibition of cholesterol and triacylglycerol synthesis between human and rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Br. J. Nutr. 74: 197-207
Lin, E. C. K., Fernendez, M. L. and Mcnamara, D. J. 1992 Dietary fat type and cholesterol quantity interact to effect cholesterol metabolism in guinea pigs. J. Nutr. 122: 2019-2029.
Linder, M. C. 1985 Nutritional biochemistry and metabolism with clinical applications. pp. 28-31. Elsevier, New York.
Ling, W. H., Korpela R, Mykkanen H., Salminan S. and Hanninen O. 1994 Lactobacillus strain GG supplementation decreases colonic hydrolytic and reductive enzyme activities in healthy female adults. Am. Inst. Nutr. 4: 18-23.
Liu, C. H., Huang, M. T. and Huang, P. C. 1995 Source of triacylglycerol accumulation in liver of rats fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet. Lipids 30: 527-531.
Lowry, O. H., Roseberough, N. J., Lewis Farr, A. and Randall, R. J. 1951 Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 198: 265-275.
Lupton, J. R., Coder, D. M. and Jacobs, L. R. 1988 Long-term effect of fermentable fibers on rat colonic pH and epithelial cell cycle. J. Nutr. 118: 840-845.
Lupton, J. R., Kurtz, P. P. 1993 Relationship of colonic luminal short chain fatty acids and pH to in vitro cell proliferation in rats. J. Nutr. 123: 1522-1530.
Mahley, R. W., Innerarity, T. L., Lipson, A., Margolis, S. and Bersot, T. P. 1978 Alteration in human high-density lipoproteins, with or without increased plasma-cholesterol, induced by diets high in cholesterol. Lancet 2: 807-809.
Maija, S. 1996 Colonization of the human gastrointestinal tract by probiotic bacteria. Nutrition Today Supplement 31: 5S-8S.
Manorama, R. and Rukmini, C. 1992 Serum lipids of rats fed crude and refined palm oil in high cholesterol and cholesterol-free diets. Nutr. Res. 12: S93-103.
Marteau, P. R., Vrese, M. D., Cellier, C. J. and Schrezenmeir, J. 2001 Protection from gastrointestinal diseases with the use of probiotics. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73: 430s-460s.
Maurice, M. I., Okuniji, C. O., Akah, P., Tempesta, M. S. and Corley, D. 1988 Dioscoretine: The hypoglycemic principle of dioscorea dumetorum. Planta Medica 56: 119-120.
McBurney, M. I., Van Soest, P. J. and Jeraci, J. L. 1987 Colonic carcinogenesis : the microbial feast or famine mechanism. Nutr. Cancer 10: 23-28.
Meer, R.V. and Bovee-Oudenhoven, I. M. J. 1998 Dietary modulation of intestinal bacterial infection. Int. Dairy. Journal 8: 481-486.
Mombelli, B. and Gismondo, M. R. 2000 The use of probiotics in medical practice. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 16: 531-536.
Murry, R. K., Granner, D. K., Mayes, P. A. and Rodwell, V. W. 1993 Happers Biochemistry. Lange Medical Publication, California 23rd. 226-278.
Newman, R. K., Newman, C. W. and Graham, H. 1989 The hypocholesterolemic fuction of barley —glucans. Cereal Foods World 34: 883.
Nezami, H. E., Kankaanpaa, P., Salminen, and Ahokas, J. 1998 Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind a common food carcinogen, aflatoxin B1. Food Chem. Toxicol. 36: 321-326.
Nezami, H. E., Kankaanpaa, P., Salminen, and Ahokas, J. 1998 Physicochemical alterations enhance the ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to remove aflatoxin from contaminated media. J. Food Prot. 61: 466-468.
Nibbering, C. P., Groen, A. K., Ottenhoff, R., Brouwers, J., VanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P. and Karel, J. 2001 Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion is independent of hepatocyte canalicular membrane lipid composition: a study in the diosgenin-fed rat mode l0. Journal of Hepatology 35: 164-169
Oboh, H. A., Muzquiz, M., Burbano, C., Cuadrado, C., Pedrosa, M. M., Ayet, G. and Osagie, A. U. 1998 Anti-nutritional constituents of six underutilized legumes grown in Nigeria. Journal of Chromatography A 823: 307-312.
O''Gaora, P., Roberts, M., Bowe, F., Hormaeche, C., Demarco, D., Hormaeche, R., Cafferkey, M., Tite, J. and Dougan, G. 1990 Yersinia enterocolitica aroA mutants as carriers of the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin to the murine immune system. Microb Pathog. 9: 105-16.
Ouwehand, A. C., Kirjavainen, P. V., Shortt, C. and Salminen, S. 1999. Probiotics : mechanism and established effects. Int. Dairy Journal 9: 43-52.
Ouwehand, A. C., Erika I., Salminen, J. S. and Kirjavainen, P. V. 1999 Adhesion of four Bifidobacterium strains to human intestinal mucus from subjects in different age groups. FEMS Microbiology Letters 172: 61-64
Ouwehand, A. C. and Salminen, S. J. 1998 The health effect of cultured milk products with viable and non-viable bacteria. Int. Dairy Journal 8: 749-758.
Pall, R. E. and Chen, N. J. 1988 Compositional change in yam bean during storage. Host Since 23: 194-196.
Panda, S. K. and Broitman, S. A. 1999 Fecal excretion pattern of bile acids in rats fed high fat diets and neomycin in induced colon tumorifenesis. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters 9: 2459-2462.
Pearce, J. 1996 Effects of milk and fermented diary products on the blood cholesterol content and profile of mammals in relation to coronary heart disease. Int. Dairy Journal 6: 661-672.
Pedrosa, M. C., Golner, B. B., Goldin, B. R., Barakat, S., Dallal, G. E. and Russell, R. M. 1995 Survival of yogurt-containing organisms and Lactobacillus gasseri (ADH) and their effect on bacterial enzyme activity in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy and hypochlorhydric elderly subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61: 353-359.
Perdigon, G., Alvarez, S., Rachid, M., Aguero, G. and Gobbato, N. 1995 Immune system stimulation by probiotics. J. Dairy Sci. 78: 1597-1606.
Peter, M. C. and Manny, N. 2000 Impaired HDL response to fat in men with coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis 150: 159-165.
Quintao, E. C. R. and Sperotto, G. 1987 The role of dietary cholesterol in the regulation of human body cholesterol metabolism. Adv. Lipid Res. 22: 173-188.
Ranhotra, G. S., Gelroth, J. A. and Glaser, B. K. 1996 Effect of resistant starch on blood and liver lipids in hamsters. Cereal Chem. 73: 176-178.
Ring, S. G., Gee, J. M., Whittam, M., Orford, P., and Johnson, I. T. 1988 Resistant starch: Its chemical form in foodstuffs and effect on digestability in vitro. Food Chem. 28: 97.
Roberfroid, M. 1993 Dietary fiber, insulin, and oligofructose: A review comparing their physiological effect critical review in food. Sci. and Nutr. 33: 103-148.
Robert, J. N. and Eugene, J. R. 1997 Regulation of plasma lipoprotein levels by dietary triglycerides enriched with different fatty acids. Medicine and Science in Sports & Exercise 1422-1428
Roth, G. and Leitzmann, C. 1985 Fiber and the large gut. In: Dietary Perspectives Reviews and Bibliography. Libbey, J. Publ., London pp. 3-22.
Sakata, T. 1986 Effect of indigestible dietary fiber bulk and short chain fatty acids on tissue weight and epithelial cell proliferation rate of the digestive tract in rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 32: 355-362.
Sakata, T. 1987 Stimulatory effect of short chain fatty acids on epithelial cell proliferation in the rat small intestine: a possible explaination for trophic effects of fermentation fiber, gut microbes and luminal trophic factors. Br. J. Nutr. 58: 95-103.
Salminen, S. J., Ouwehand, A. C., Benno, Y. and Lee, Y. K. 1999 Probiotics: How should they be defined ? Trends in Food Science and Technology 10: 107-110.
Sander, M. E. and Klaehammert, T. R. 2001 Invited review: The scientific basis of Lactobacillus acidopholus NCFM functionality as a probiotic. J. Dairy Sci. 84: 319-331.
Savage, D. C. 1983. Roles of Lactobacillus in the intestinal tract. J. Food. Prot. 42: 259-262.
Scheeppach, W., Cummings, J. H., Branch, W. J. and Schrezenmeir, J. 1988a Effect of gut-derived acetate on oral glucose tolerance in man. Clin. Sci. 75: 355-361.
Schiffrin, E. J., Brassart, D., Servin, A. L., Rochat, F. and Donnet-Hughes, A. 1997 Immune modulation of blood leukocytes in humans by lactic acid bacteria: Criteria for strain seclection. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 66: 515S-520S.
Schouten, J. A., Beynen, A. C., Popp-Snijders, C. and Mulder, C. 1985 Effect of a hypercholesterolemic diet in the fatty acid composition of rat erythrocyte phospholipids. Nutr. Rep. Int. 31: 229-236.
Schrijver, R. D., Fremaut, D. and Verheyen, A. 1992 Cholesterol-lowering effects and utilization of protein, lipid, fiber and energy in rats fed unprocessed and baked oat bran. J. Nutr. 122: 1318-1324.
Sessions, V. A., Martin, A., Gomez-Munoz, A., Brindley, D. N. and Salter, A. M. 1993 Cholesterol feeding induces hypertriglyceridemia in hamster and increase the activity of the Mg2+-dependent phosphatidate phosphohydrolase in the liver. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1166: 238-248.
Shiau, S. Y. and Chang, G. W. 1983 Effect of dietary fiber on fecal mucinase and b-glucuronidase activity in rats. J. Nutr. 116: 223-232.
Sievert, D. and Pomeranz, Y. 1989 Enzyme-resistant starch. I. Characterization and evaluation by enzymatic, thermoanalytical, and microscopic methods. Cereal Chem. 66: 342-347.
Smithson, K. W., Miller, D. B., Jacobs, L. R. and Gray, G. M. 1981 Intestinal diffusion barrier: Unstirred water layer or menbrane suferce mucus coat? Science 214: 1241-1244.
Spanhaak, S., Havenaar, R. and Schaafsma, G. 1998 The effect of consumption of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on the intestinal microflora and immune parameters in humans. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 52: 899-907
Sreekumar, O. and Hosono, A. 1998 The antimutagenic properties of a polysaccharide produced by Bifidobacterium longum and its cultured milk against some heterocyclic amines. Can. J. Microbiol. 44: 1029-1036.
Stavric, S. 1987 Microbial colonization control of chicken intestine using defined cultures. Food Biotech. 71: 83-88.
Stephen, P. J. B. and Brian, J. L. 1999 Effect of dietary fat on whole body fatty acid synthesis in wheanling rats. J. Nutr. Biochem. 10: 291-298.
Stryer, L. 1988 The Biochemistry, 3rd ed. pp. 390, Academic Press, U.S.
Tanabe, T., Otani, H. and Osono, A. 1991 Binding of mutagens with cell wall peptidoglycan of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. Milchwissenschaft 46: 622-625.
Tannock, G. W. 1997 Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria: Plenty of scope for fundamental R and D. Tibtech. 6: 270-274.
Toit, M., Franz, C. M. A. P., Disks, L. M. T., Schillinger, U., Haberer, P., Warlies, N., Ahrens, F. and Holzafel, W. H. 1998. Characterization and selection of probiotic lactobacilli for a preliminary minipig feeding trial and their effect on serum cholesterol levels, feces pH and feces moisture content. Int. J. Food. Microbiol. 40: 93-104.
Topping, D. L. 1991 Soluble fiber polysaccharides: Effects on plasma cholesterol and colonic fermentation. Nutrition Reviews 49: 195-203.
Turley, S. D. Daggy, B. P. Cietary, T. M. 1991 Cholesterol- lowering action of psyllium mucilliod in the hamster: Sit and possible mechanism of action. Metabolism 40: 1063-1073.
Uchiyama, M. and Mihara, M. 1978 Determination of malondialdehyde precusor in tissue by thiobarbituric acid test. Anal. Biochem. 86: 271-278.
Vega, G. L., Groszek, E., Wolf, R. and Grundy, S. M. 1982 Influence of polyunsaturated fats on composition of plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins. J. Lipid Res. 23: 811-822.
Wanasundera, J. P. D. and Ravindran, G. 1994 Nutritional assessment of yam (Dioscorea alata) tubers. Plant Foods Hum. Nut. 46: 33-39.
Willet, W. C., Stamper, M. J., Colditz, G. A., Rosner, B. A. and Speizer, E. F. 1990 Relation of meat, fat, and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women. N. Engl. J. Med. 323: 1664-1672.
Williams, S. E. and Turnberg, L. A. 1980 Retardation of acid diffusion by pig gastric mucins. Gastroenterology. 79: 299-304.
Wolever, T. M. S, Fernandes, J. and Rao, A. V. 1996 Serum acetate: propionate ratio is related to serum cholesterol in men but not women. J. Nutr. 126: 2790-2797
Wolever, T. M. S., Brighenti, F. Royall, D. Jenkins, A. L. and Jenkins, D. J. A. 1989 Effect of rectal infusion of short chain fatty acids in human subjects. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 37: 401-405.
Wright, R. S, Anderson, J. W. and Bridges, S. 1990 Propionate inhibits hepatocyte lipid synthesis. Soc. Exp. Bio. Med. 195: 26-29
Yoshimi, B. and Fang, H. 1996 Effect of Lactobacillus GG yogurt on human intestinal microecology in Japanese subjects. Nutrition Today Supplement 31: 9S-11S.
Ziemer, C. J. and Gibson, G. R. 1998 An overview of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in the functional food concept : prespectives and future stratefies. Int. Dairy Journal 8: 473-479.
Zobel, B. L. P., Neudecker, C., Domizlaff, I., Ji, S., Rumney, C., Moretti, M., Vilarrini, I., Sforzolini, R. S. and Rowland, I. 1996 Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium mediated antigenotoxicity in the colon of rats. Nutrition Cancer 26: 365-380.
Zommara, M., Tachibana, N., Sakano, M., Suzuki, Y., Oda, T., Hashiba, H. and Imaizumi, K. 1996 Whey from cultured skim milk decreases serum cholesterol and increases antioxidant enzymes in liver and red blood cells in rats. Nutr. Res. 16: 293-302.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊