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研究生:陳文彬
論文名稱:鹽度馴化對鋸緣青蟹化學成分之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Salinity Acclimation on Chemical Constituents of mud crab (Scylla serrata)
指導教授:邱思魁邱思魁引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:鋸緣青蟹鹽度馴化貯藏呈味成分
外文關鍵詞:mud crabsaliniy acclimationstoragetaste component
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摘要
本研究目的在探討雌性鋸緣青蟹經不同鹽度短時間馴化後,對體肉化學成分之影響,以及於15℃暴露空氣貯藏期間化學成分的變化。
鋸緣青蟹在25 ppt海水馴化24小時後(對照組),再移至10及40 ppt馴化4~48小時。和對照組相較,40 ppt組之水分含量減少,10 ppt組則增加,而肝醣含量大抵為相反的變化趨勢。牛磺酸、麩胺醯胺、脯胺酸、甘胺酸、丙胺酸及精胺酸等主要游離胺基酸(FAA)約佔總量之87%,ATP相關化合物(ARC)及四級胺鹽基化合物(QAB)中,分別以腺三磷酸及甘胺甜菜鹼為主。整體而言,FAA總量、ARC總量、甘胺甜菜鹼及龍蝦肌鹼等含量均以40 ppt組較高。另外,隨馴化時間之延長,10及40 ppt兩馴化組之水分、肝醣、FAA總量、ARC總量、甘胺甜菜鹼及龍蝦肌鹼等的差異均有增大之趨勢。
鋸緣青蟹經10、25及40 ppt海水馴化24小時後,置於15℃貯藏12~72小時。隨貯藏時間的延長,三組間水分及肝醣含量之差異減少,其FAA總量均逐漸上升,並以高鹽度組之增加幅度較大,其中,牛磺酸除外之各主要FAA含量亦增加。貯藏後ARC總量皆以40 ppt組較高,各組之ATP含量隨貯藏時間延長而減少,分解產物的含量則增加。甘胺甜菜鹼及龍蝦肌鹼大致在較高鹽度的含量較多,但貯藏時間延長三組之間的差異漸減。
經鹽度10、25及40 ppt馴化48小時後,40 ppt組熱水萃取物的滋味強度顯著高於10 ppt組。熱水萃取物中食鹽量、鈉含量、FAA總量、牛磺酸、麩胺醯胺、甘胺酸及精胺酸等,以40 ppt組>25 ppt組>10 ppt組,肝醣、甘胺甜菜鹼及龍蝦肌鹼含量則以25 ppt組高於10 ppt及40 ppt組,各組的ATP相關化合物含量相似。
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of chemical constituents in the abdominal muscle of female mud crab in relation to short-term salinity acclimation and subsequent air-exposured storage at 15℃.
The crab specimens were acclimated to 25 ppt of sea water for 24 hours (control) and then transferred to 10 and 40 ppt sea water for a period of 4~48 hours. In comparison with control, moisture in 40 ppt sample decreased, but that in 10 ppt sample increased. On contrary, the glycogen showed a inverse trend. Taurine (Tau), glutamine (Gln), proline (Pro), glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala) and arginine (Arg) were dominant free amino acids (FAA) and they together accounted for about 87﹪of the total FAA. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glycinebetaine (GB) were respectively the major component among the ATP-related compounds (ARC) and quternary ammonium bases (QAB) detected. As a whole, the 40 ppt sample was relatively high in levels of the total FAA, total ARC, GB, and homarine (Hom). In addition, the difference in levels of moisture, glycogen, total FAA, total ARC, GB, and Hom between 10 and 40 ppt samples increased with the elongation of acclimation time.
The crab specimens acclimated to 10 ppt, 25 ppt, and 40 ppt sea water and then stored at 15℃ for 12~72 hours. Differences in the moisture and glycogen levels declined after storage. The total FAA in all samples elevated gradually with the storage time and the sample acclimated to higher salinity was more pronounced. The major FAA except for Tau also increased. After storage, the total ARC content was higher in the 40 ppt sample than in other two samples. The ATP decreased with storage time, while its breakdown products accumulated. The GB and Hom contents were higher in the sample acclimated to higher salinity, but their difference between the samples lowered as the storage time increased.
Of the samples acclimated to 10、25, and 40 ppt sea water for 48 hours, their hot-water extracts were prepared and compared by sensory test for taste. Taste intensity of the extracts was higher in the 25 and 40 ppt samples than in the 10 ppt sample. The salt, Na+, and total FAA contents in the hot-water extracts followed the order of 40 ppt > 25 ppt > 10 ppt sample. Levels of glycogen, GB, and Hom were higher in the 25 ppt sample than in the 40 ppt and 10 ppt samples. However, there was no significant difference in the total amounts of ARC between them.
目錄
頁次
中文摘要…………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要…………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
專有名詞列表……………………………………………………………Ⅴ
目錄………………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
壹、前言…………………………………………………………………1
貳、文獻整理……………………………………………………………3
一、鋸緣青蟹之分布、形態、及生理…………………………………3
二、魚介類萃取物成分組成……………………………………………5
(一)游離胺基酸………………………………………………………5
(二)雙胜……………………………………………………………6
(三)核酸及其相關化合物…………………………………………6
(四)四級胺鹽基化合物………………………………………………7
(五)有機酸……………………………………………………………8
(六)醣類………………………………………………………………8
(七)無機鹽類…………………………………………………………8
三、水產物之主呈味成分………………………………………………9
(一)鮑魚………………………………………………………………9
(二)海膽生殖腺………………………………………………………9
(三)慈愛蟹……………………………………………………………9
(四)海扇貝貝柱………………………………………………………10
(五)蜊…………………………………………………………………10
(六)鰹柴魚……………………………………………………………10
(七)鹽漬鮭魚卵………………………………………………………11
(八)魷魚………………………………………………………………11
四、魚介類貯藏中化學成分的變化 …………………………………11
五、水生動物對環境鹽度改變時的反應…………………………… 14
六、鹽度及溫度對魚介類的影響…………………………………16
(一)鹽度對魚介類生理之影響…………………………………16
1.成長……………………………………………………………… 16
2.存活率…………………………………………………………… 16
(二)鹽度對魚介類化學成分之影響…………………………… 17
1.脂質及脂肪酸…………………………………………………… 18
2.四級胺鹽基化合物……………………………………………… 18
3.游離胺基酸……………………………………………………… 19
4.水分……………………………………………………………… 21
5. 肝醣………………………………………………………………22
6. 其他………………………………………………………………22
參、材料與方法………………………………………………………23
一、實驗材料…………………………………………………………23
二、實驗方法…………………………………………………………24
(一)萃取物調製……………………………………………………24
(二)游離胺基酸分析………………………………………………25
(三)ATP及其相關化合物分析……………………………………25
(四)四級胺鹽基化合物分析………………………………………26
(五)水分測定………………………………………………………26
(六)肝醣……………………………………………………………26
(七)統計分析………………………………………………………26
肆、結果………………………………………………………………28
一、鹽度馴化對鋸緣青蟹化學成分之影響…………………………28
(一)4小時馴化……………………………………………………28
(二)12小時馴化……………………………………………………29
(三)24小時馴化……………………………………………………31
(四)48小時馴化……………………………………………………32
(五)不同馴化時間之變化差異……………………………………33
二、鹽度馴化對鋸緣青蟹於15℃貯藏中化學成分之影響……… 34
(一)貯藏12小時………………………………………………… 34
(二)貯藏24小時………………………………………………… 35
(三)貯藏48小時………………………………………………… 37
(四)貯藏72小時………………………………………………… 38
(五)不同貯藏時間之變化差異………………………………… 39
三、鹽度馴化對鋸緣青蟹熱水抽出液化學成分及滋味之影響……40
伍、討論………………………………………………………………42
一、不同鹽度對水分及肝醣之影響…………………………………42
二、不同鹽度對游離胺基酸之影響……………………………… 46
三、不同鹽度對ATP相關化合物之影響……………………………49
四、不同鹽度對四級胺鹽基化合物之影響……………………… 51
五、不同鹽度對熱水抽出液之食鹽量、鈉含量及滋味之影響…53
陸、結論……………………………………………………………54
一、鹽度馴化對鋸緣青蟹化學成分之影響………………………54
二、鹽度馴化對雌性鋸緣青蟹於低溫貯藏中化學成分之影響… 54
三、鹽度馴化對鋸緣青蟹熱水抽出液化學成分及滋味之影響…54
柒、參考文獻…………………………………………………………57
捌、表…………………………………………………………………75
玖、圖…………………………………………………………………96
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