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研究生:邱曉盈
研究生(外文):Hsiao-Ying Chiou
論文名稱:溫度及鹽度馴化對九孔貯藏中化學變化及滋味之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Temperature and Salinity Acclimation on Chemical Constituent changes and Taste of Small Abalone during Storage
指導教授:邱思魁邱思魁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tez-Kuei Chiou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:九孔溫度馴化鹽度馴化貯藏肝醣含氮萃取物
外文關鍵詞:Small abaloneAcclimation temperatureAcclimation salinitystorageGlycogenNitrogenous compounds
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摘要
本研究針對九孔於不同溫度及鹽度下馴化後,探討對其貯藏中化學成分變化及滋味之影響。
九孔經14℃、19℃及24℃之28 ppt海水馴化12小時,置於15℃分別貯藏12、24及36小時,存活率隨貯藏時間的延長而明顯降低,均以14℃組明顯較高。貯藏24及36小時後,14℃組之肝醣含量較高,牛磺酸(Tau)、甘胺酸(Gly)、精胺酸(Arg)及麩胺酸(Glu)為主要游離胺基酸(FAA),占總量的85∼92%,FAA總量及ATP相關化合物(ARC)總量除貯藏36小時之外,皆以24℃組高於14℃及19℃組。乳酸及蘋果酸為主要有機酸,貯藏12小時後,14℃組之有機酸總量明顯低於其餘兩組,但貯藏24及36小時後,三組間的差異小。四級胺鹽基化合物(QAB)中甘胺甜菜鹼(GB)佔大部分,貯藏後QAB含量均以14℃組較低。
九孔經22 ppt、28 ppt及36 ppt之24℃海水馴化6小時,再於15 ℃分別貯藏12、24及36小時後,隨馴化鹽度的提升水分含量減少,反之,肝醣、FAA總量及Gly、Arg、Gln等主要胺基酸的含量則為上升之趨勢,包括ARC總量及GB含量大抵亦以高鹽度馴化組較多。貯藏12小時後蘋果酸及乳酸為主要有機酸成分,貯藏24及36小時後以蘋果酸量明顯降低,有機酸總量皆以36 ppt組明顯較高。貯藏時間延長使存活率逐漸降低,但22 ppt組明顯高於28 及36 ppt組。
品評結果顯示貯藏12小時後,28 ppt及36 ppt組熱水抽出液之滋味強度顯著高於22 ppt組,但滋味嗜好性則以28 ppt組顯著較高;而貯藏24小時後,三組之滋味嗜好性無顯著差異。抽出液的食鹽及鈉含量以高鹽度組較高,同時,肝醣、GB、AMP及ARC總量亦呈現較高的趨勢,貯藏12及24小時後,Tau、Pro、Gly、Ala及Arg為主要FAA,其含量皆以36 ppt組顯著高於22 ppt及28 ppt組。醋酸及乳酸為主要有機酸,有機酸總量隨馴化鹽度的提高而呈現上升,但貯藏24小時,三組之間的差異小。
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in chemical constituents and taste of small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor) during storage as influenced by the acclimation to different temperatures and salinities.
Small abalone were acclimated to 14℃, 19℃ and 24℃ of 28 ppt sea water for 12 hours and separately stored at 15℃ for 12, 24 and 36 hours. The survival rate decreased markedly with storage time and values in the 14℃ sample was higher. At the storage for 24 and 36 hours, the 14℃ samples were relatively high in glycogen. Taurine (Tau), glycine (Gly) and glutamic acid (Glu) were the major free amino acid (FAA). Except for 36-hour storage, the total amounts of FAA and ATP-related compounds (ARC) in the 24℃ sample were higher than those in the 14℃ and 19℃ samples. Lactic acid and malic acid were dominant among organic acids. The total organic acid content was much lower in the 14℃ sample than in other two samples when stored for 12 hours, but the differences between them became small at the storage for 24 and 36 hours. Glycinebetaine (GB) was predominant among the quternary ammonium bases (QAB) detected. After storage, the QAB content was always low in 14℃ sample.
Next, small abalone were acclimated to 22, 28 and 36 ppt salinities of sea water (24℃) for 6 hours and then stored at 15℃ for 12, 24 and 36 hours, respectively. Moisture decreased with the increased acclimation salinity, whereas levels of glycogen, the total FAA and major amino acids such as Tau, Gly, Glu, and Arg inversely increased. Also, the acclimation to high salinity resulted in an increase in levels of the total ARC and GB. Malic acid and lactic acid were dominant in the 12-hour stored samples, but malic acid declined largely after storage for 24 and 36 hours. Regardless of this, the total organic acid content was always high in the samples acclimated to higher salinity. The survival rate increased largely as storage time elongated and was much higher in the 22 ppt sample than in the 28 and 36 ppt samples.
Of the samples acclimated to different salinities and stored for 12 or 24 hours, their hot-water extracts were prepared and compared by sensory tast for taste. Among the 12-hour stored samples, taste intensity was stronger in the 28 ppt and 36 ppt samples than in the 22 ppt sample, whereas taste preference in the 28 ppt sample was higher. Unlikely, there was no significant difference in taste preference between the 24-hour stored samples. The salt and Na contents differed among the hot-water extracts and were associated the acclimation to high salinity. At the same time, higher levels of glycogen, GB, AMP, and the total ARC were found. Among FAA, Tau, Pro, Gly, Ala, and Arg were dominant and their contents were higher in the 36 ppt sample than in the 22 ppt and 28 ppt samples. Acetic acid and lactic acid were the major organic acids. The total content of organic acids increased with the increased acclimation salinity, except for the differences were small for the 24-hour stored samples.
目錄
頁次
中文摘要……………………………………………………………….. Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………….. Ⅲ
專有名詞略號表……………………………………………………….. Ⅴ
目錄…………………………………………………………………….. Ⅵ
壹、前言………..……………………………………………………… 1
貳、文獻整理…………………………………………………………… 3
一、九孔之生理、生態與現況……………………………………….. 3
二、魚貝類之萃取物成分…………………………………………… 4
(一)ATP及其相關化合物.………………………………….… 4
(二)游離胺基酸………………………………………………… 5
(三)雙胜類…………………………………………………… 5
(四)四級胺鹽基化合物………………………………………… 6
(五)有機酸……………………………………………………… 7
(六)醣類………………………………………………………… 7
(七)無機鹽類…………………………………………………… 8
三、水產物之主呈味成分…………………………………………… 8
(一)游離胺基酸………………………………………………… 8
(二)雙胜類…………………………………………………… 9
(三)ATP及其相關化合物.……………………………………… 10
(四)四級胺鹽基化合物………………………………………… 10
(五)有機酸……………………………………………………… 10
四、貝類嫌氣性代謝之生理變化…………………………………… 12
五、貯藏對貝類之呈味成分影響…………………………………… 13
六、溫度及鹽度對魚貝類之影響…………………………………… 15
(一)溫度對魚貝類之影響……………………………………… 15
1.存活率………………………………………………………… 15
2.成長…………………………………………………..……….. 15
3.生理…………………………………………………………… 15
4.脂質…………………………………………………………… 16
(二)鹽度對魚貝類之影響……………………………………… 16
1.滲透壓及離子濃度…………………………………………… 16
2.存活與成長…………………………………………………… 18
3.萃取物成分…………………………………………………… 20
4.脂質…………………………………………………………… 23
5.其他…………………………………………………………… 23
(三)鹽度及溫度交互作用對魚貝類之影響…………………… 24
1.存活率………………………………………………………… 24
2.成長…………………………………………………………… 25
3.ATP及其相關化合物.……………………………………….. 25
4.離子濃度……………………………………………………… 26
參、材料與方法………………………………………………………… 27
一、實驗材料………………………………………………………… 27
二、實驗項目………………………………………………………… 27
三、實驗方法………………………………………………………… 28
(一)萃取物調製………………………………………………… 28
(二)水分………………………………………………………… 29
(三)存活率……………………………………………………… 29
(四)官能品評試驗……………………………………………… 29
(五)游離胺基酸分析…………………………………………… 29
(六)ATP 及其相關化合物分析……………………………… 30
(七)四級胺鹽基化合物分析…………………………………… 30
(八)肝醣測定…………………………………………………… 31
(九)有機酸分析………………………………………………… 31
(十)熱水抽出液中鈉的測定…………………………………… 32
(十一)統計分析………………………………………………… 32
肆、結果與討論………………………………………………………… 33
一、溫度馴化對九孔貯藏中化學變化之影響…………………… 33
(一)存活率、水分及肝醣……………………………………… 33
(二)游離胺基酸………………………………………………… 34
(三)ATP及其相關化合物……………………………………… 36
(四)四級胺鹽基化合物………………………………………… 37
(五)有機酸……………………………………………………… 37
二、鹽度馴化對九孔貯藏中化學變化之影響…………………... 39
(一)存活率、水分及肝醣……………………………………… 39
(二)游離胺基酸………………………………………………… 41
(三)ATP及其相關化合物……………………………………… 42
(四)四級胺鹽基化合物………………………………………… 43
(五)有機酸……………………………………………………… 44
三、鹽度馴化九孔經貯藏12及24小時後熱水抽出液中化學成分變化及滋味之影響………………………………………...
45
(一)品評………………………………………………………… 45
(二)水分與抽出液之食鹽量及鈉含量………………………… 45
(三)游離胺基酸………………………………………………… 46
(四)ATP及其相關化合物……………………………………… 47
(五)四級胺鹽基化合物………………………………………… 48
(六)有機酸……………………………………………………… 49
(七)肝醣..……………………………………………………… 50
伍、結論………………………………………………………………… 51
一、溫度馴化對九孔貯藏中化學變化之影響………………..…. 51
二、鹽度馴化對九孔貯藏中化學變化之影響………………..…. 51
三、鹽度馴化九孔經貯藏12及24小時後熱水抽出液中化學成分變化及滋味之影響………………………………………...
52
陸、參考文獻…………………………………………………………… 53
柒、表…………………………………………………………………… 76
捌、圖…………………………………………………………………… 90
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