跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.233.217.106) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/17 12:47
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳澤珊
論文名稱:水溶性羧甲基幾丁質類產品及琥珀醯幾丁質類產品之製備
論文名稱(外文):prepareation of water-soluble carboxymethyl chitinous products and succinyl chitinous products
指導教授:洪良邦洪良邦引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:羧甲基幾丁質琥珀醯幾丁質
外文關鍵詞:carboxymethyl chitinsuccinyl chitin
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
  • 點閱點閱:303
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
近年來幾丁質及幾丁聚醣已廣泛應用於食品、農業、醫藥、生物技術、化妝品等多方面,但受限於只溶於某些溶劑、一些有機酸及少數無機酸中,使應用受到限制。因此,本實驗將利用化學修飾法製備水溶性羧甲基幾丁質類產品及琥珀醯幾丁質類產品,比較幾丁質類製品衍生物在水溶液及不同 pH 值磷酸緩衝溶液中之溶解度,進而以傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜儀及核磁共振光譜儀鑑定水溶性幾丁質類產品衍生物的結構,元素分析法測定取代基的取代程度,探討羧甲基幾丁質類製品、琥珀醯幾丁質類製品之乙醯化程度 (DA)、親水基取代程度 (DS) 與溶解度之相關性。
將幾丁聚醣原料先經去乙醯化反應至 N-乙醯化程度達到約 7.0% 後,再添加不同量的醋酐進行反應,製得不同 N-乙醯化程度約 25%、50% 及 75% 幾丁質類產品。以濾紙過濾法測定發現N-乙醯化程度為 50% 之幾丁聚醣具有良好溶解度 7.48 mg/mL,其溶液於 pH 3~10 間皆無沈澱現象發生,具有良好 pH 溶解範圍。
以單氯乙酸羧甲基化後之羧甲基幾丁質類製品在水溶液中之溶解度顯著優於羧甲基化前,其中低乙醯化程度 25% 的產物有最佳之溶解度,溶解度可達 9.9 mg/mL,並於 pH 3~10 磷酸緩衝溶液中具有良好的溶解度。相同乙醯化程度25% 之醋酐乙醯化羧甲基幾丁聚醣在酸性 pH 範圍之溶解度則顯著優於未乙醯化之羧甲基幾丁聚醣。
以琥珀酸酐琥珀醯基化後之琥珀醯幾丁質類產品,以乙醯化程度為 25% 之產品具有最佳的溶解度,96℃ 加熱後溶解度皆達 7.09 mg/mL 以上,且隨乙醯化程度之增加度隨之遞減。在 pH 3~10 磷酸緩衝溶液中,琥珀醯幾丁質類製品溶解度僅達 6.0~8.0 mg/mL 之間,可能因形成保水性極佳的膠狀物所致,故較不適用濾紙過濾法測定其溶解度。
較低乙醯化幾丁質類物質,經羧甲基化及琥珀醯基化有較高之取代基取代程度,因而其溶解度也提升較多。

Chitin and chitosan have been widely used in the fields of food, agriculture, medicine, biotechnology, and cosmetics in recent years. However, the fact that they are soluble in only a few organic acids and inorganic acids limits their applications. This study focused on the preparation of water-soluble carboxymethyl and succinyl chitinous products by chemical modification. Solubilities of these derivatives in aqueous solution and phosphate buffers were measured. FTIR and NMR specra were used to confirm their structures while elemental analysis was used to determine the degrees of substitution of the substituted functional groups. Relationships among the degree of acetylation (DA), degree of substitution (DS), and solubility were also discussed.
The original chitosan was subjected to deacetylation to decrease its degree of N-acetylation to about 7.0% and then acetylated by adding various amount of acetic anhydride to obtain chitinous products with DA being around 25%, 50%, and 75%. It was found that chitosan with degree of N-acetylation of 50% had good solubility. It could reach up to 7.48 mg/mL. In its aqueous solution, no precipitation was found when pH changed from 3 to 10. Its soluble pH range was considerably large.
Carboxymethyl chitinous products were prepared by the addition of monochloroacetic acid to chitinous products. Their solubilities were significantly higher than those without carboxymethylation. Among them, the one with low degree of N-acetylation (DA=25%) had the highest solubility. It could reach up to 9.9 mg/mL. In phosphate buffers, pH ranging from 3 to 10, carboxymethyl chitinous products showed considerable solubilities. In acidic pH range, carboxymethyl chitinous products with acetylation were more soluble than those without acetylation.
Succinyl chtinous products were made by reaction succinic anhydride with chitinous products. Succinyl chiosan with DA of 25% had the best solubility. All the succinyl chitinous products had solubilities of more than 7.09 mg/mL after heating with 98℃. Their solubilities decreased as their degrees of acetylation increased. Owing to the formation of gel with excellent water holding capacity, solubilities of succinyl chitinous products were only in the range of 6.0~8.0 mg/mL in phosphate buffers. Filtration was not suitable for testing their solubilities.
Chitinous products with lower acetylation showed higher degrees of substitution after carboxylation and succinylation, and thus possessed higher solubilities.

目 錄
頁數
中文摘要…………………………………………………….. Ⅰ
英文摘要…………………………………………………….. Ⅲ
目錄………………………………………………………….. Ⅴ
圖目錄……………………………………………………….. Ⅸ
表目錄……………………………………………………….. ⅩI
第一章 前言.………………………………………………… 1
第二章 文獻整理.………………………………………….. 2
一、幾丁質與幾丁聚醣之來源、結構及溶解性質…. 2
(一) 幾丁質與幾丁聚醣之來源..……………….. 2
(二) 幾丁質與幾丁聚醣之結構….……………… 2
(三) 幾丁質、幾丁聚醣之溶解性質…………… 2
1. 幾丁質之溶解性質……………………….. 2
2. 幾丁聚醣之溶解性質……………………. 3
2.1 氫鍵…………………………………… 3
2.2 乙醯基之含量與分布……………… 3
2.3 分子量………………………………… 4
二、 製備水溶性幾丁質類產品之方法..………….. 5
(一) 化學修飾法….……………………………….. 5
1. 無機酯化………………………………….. 5
2. 有機醯胺化……………………………….. 5
3. 烷基化……………………………………… 6
4. 希夫氏鹼衍生化………………………….. 6
5. 混合衍生化………………………………… 6
(二) 鹼水解法….………………………………….. 7
(三) 酸水解法….………………………………….. 7
(四) 酵素水解法.………………………………….. 8
(五) 機械力法.…………………………………….. 8
(六) 氧化降解法…………………………………… 8
三、 水溶性幾丁幾丁質類產品之應用………….… 9
(一) 食品方面….………………………………….. 9
(二) 醫藥方面.…………………………………….. 9
(三) 化妝品方面………………………………….. 10
(四) 工業方面………………….………………….. 10
(五) 生物技術方面………………………………… 11
四、影響幾丁質類產品衍生物溶解度之因子…….. 11
(一) 取代基的種類……………………………….. 11
(二) 取代基的分子量…………………………….. 12
(三) 取代基的取代程度…………………………. 13
五、幾丁質類產品衍生物取代基取代程度之測定方
法…………………………………………………. 13
(一) 元素分析法…………………………………… 13
(二) 核磁共振光譜法…………………………….. 14
(三) 電位滴定法…………………………………… 15
(四) 膠體滴定法…………………………………… 16
六. 結語………………………………………………….. 17
第三章 材料與方法…………….………………………… 18
一、 材料……………………………………………….. 18
(一) 樣品……………………………………………. 18
(二) 標準品…………………………………………. 18
(三) 藥品……………………………………………. 18
(四) 層析管柱……………………………………… 19
(五) 透析膜…………………………………………. 19
(六) 儀器……………………………………………. 19
二、 方法………………………………………………. 20
(一) 高度去乙醯幾丁聚醣之製備……………… 20
(二) 幾丁聚醣乙醯化程度之測定……………… 20
(三) 不同乙醯化程度幾丁質類物質之製備.… .........21
(四) 水溶性羧甲基幾丁質類產品之製備……... 22
(五) 水溶性琥珀醯幾丁質類產品之製備…….. 22
(六) 幾丁質類產品溶解度之測定……………… 23
(七) 傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜之測定…………… 23
(八) 核磁共振光譜之測定……………………….. 24
(九) 元素分析法之測定………………………….. 25
1. O,N-羧甲基幾丁質類產品………………. 25
2. N-琥珀醯幾丁質類產品………………….. 26
3. 灰份含量測定…………………………….. 27
第四章 結果與討論………………………………………. 28
一、 高度去乙醯幾丁聚醣…………………………… 28
二、 經醋酐乙醯化所得之不同乙醯化程度之幾丁質類產
品…………………………………………..... 28
(一) 乙醯化程度之影響………………………….. 28
(二) 不同乙醯化程度對溶解度之影響………… 29
(三) pH對溶解度之影響…………………………. 30
三、 水溶性 O,N-羧甲基幾丁質類產品………….. 30
(一) 羧甲基幾丁質類產品之產率…..…………. 30
(二) 羧甲基幾丁質類產品之傅立葉轉換紅外線光
譜………………………………………….... 30
(三) 羧甲基幾丁質類產品之核磁共振光譜….. 31
(四) 元素分析法測定取代基之取代程度.……. 31
(五) 不同乙醯化程度對羧甲基幾丁質類產品溶解度之影
響.........………………………………… 32
(六) pH對不同 N-乙醯化程度羧甲基幾丁質類產品溶解度之影
響………………………….............. 32
四、水溶性 N-琥珀醯幾丁質類產品之製備………. 33
(一) 琥珀醯幾丁質類產品之產率…….……….. 33
(二) 琥珀醯幾丁質類產品之傅立葉轉換紅外線光
譜………………………………………….. 33
(三) 元素分析法測定取代基之取代程度.……. 34
(四) 不同乙醯化程度對琥珀醯幾丁質類產品溶解度之影
響……………………………….......... 34
(五) pH對不同 N-乙醯化程度琥珀醯幾丁質類產品溶解度之影
響………………………................ 35
五、未來研究之方向………………………………….. 35
第五章 結論………………………………………………… 36
圖……………………………………………………………… 37
表……………………………………………………………… 60
參考文獻…………………………………………………….. 67
圖目錄
頁數
圖一、沿著b軸投影之無水幾丁聚醣單元體之立體配置圖………37
圖二、幾丁質、幾丁聚醣及其衍生物之轉換…………………….38
圖三、本研究之實驗流程………………………………………… 39
圖四、醋酐量對 N-乙醯化程度之影響……………………………40
圖五、以高效能液相層析法測定去乙醯幾丁聚醣 (DA = 7.0 %) 之乙醯化程度之層析圖…………………………………………. 41
圖六、樣品A之改良式高效能液相層析圖…………………….…….42
圖七、樣品B之改良式高效能液相層析圖…………………….…….43
圖八、樣品C之改良式高效能液相層析圖…………………….…….44
圖九、樣品D之改良式高效能液相層析圖…………………….……45
圖十、幾丁聚醣樣品之傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜圖…………………..46
圖十一、磷酸緩衝溶液之 pH 值對不同 N-乙醯化程度之幾丁聚醣溶解度之影響………………………………………………. 47
圖十二、O,N-羧甲基幾丁聚醣之傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜圖….……..48
圖十三、羧甲基幾丁質類製品之傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜圖…………49
圖十四、樣品E之13C-核磁共振光譜圖………………………………50
圖十五、樣品F之13C-核磁共振光譜圖………………………………51
圖十六、樣品G之13C-核磁共振光譜圖……………………………..52
圖十七、樣品H之13C-核磁共振光譜圖……………………………..53
圖十八、不同 N-乙醯化程度幾丁聚醣與 O,N-羧甲基幾丁聚醣在水溶液中之溶解度…………………………………………….. 54
圖十九、磷酸緩衝溶液之 pH 值對不同乙醯化程度之 O,N-羧甲基幾丁聚醣溶解度之影響……………………………………. 55
圖二十、琥珀醯基幾丁聚醣樣品之傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜圖………56
圖二十一、不同 N-乙醯化程度幾丁質類與琥珀醯幾丁質類水溶液室溫下之溶解度………………………………………… 57
圖二十二、不同 N-乙醯化程度幾丁質類與琥珀醯幾丁質類水溶液在 96℃之溶解度………………………………………… 58
圖二十三、磷酸緩衝溶液之 pH 值對不同乙醯化程度之 N-琥珀醯幾丁聚醣溶解度之影響…………………………………. 59
表目錄
頁數
表一、以改良是高效能液相層析法及傅立葉轉換紅外線光譜法測定幾丁質類物質之N-乙醯化程度………………………………. 60
表二、不同 N-乙醯化程度幾丁質類製品在水溶液中之溶解度…….61
表三、以元素分析法測定羧甲基幾丁質類製品之羧甲基取代程度…62
表四、不同 N-乙醯化程度羧甲基幾丁質類製品在水溶液中之溶解度.63
表五、不同 N-乙醯化程度羧甲基幾丁質類製品及琥珀醯幾丁質類製品灰份之含量………………………………………………... 64
表六、不同 N-乙醯化程度琥珀醯幾丁質類製品在水溶液中之溶解度.65
表七、不同 N-乙醯化程度琥珀醯幾丁質類製品在水溶液中加熱 96℃ 之溶解度…………………………………………………. 66

井爪正人,1989,キチソ˙キトサソのトイしタソ-製品への應用,Bio.industry. 6(7): 75-83.
井爪正人,1997,天然保濕劑としてのキトサソ誘導體,Fragrance J. 12: 112-117.
李明遠,2000,醋酐乙醯化法製備水溶性幾丁聚醣之探討,國立台灣海洋大學食品科學研究所碩士論文。
林宜賢,2000,以氧化還原降解法從不同來源幾丁聚醣製備幾丁寡醣之探討,國立台灣海洋大學水產食品科學研究所碩士論文。
林俊煌,1992,不同去乙醯程度之幾丁聚醣的流變性質與鏈柔軟度、膜之物理特性的關係,國立台灣海洋大學水產食品科學研究所碩士論文。
徐珠璽,1995,水溶性幾丁聚醣的製備與其物化特性,國立台灣海洋大學食品科學研究所碩士論文。
張展榮,1996,剪力、超音波或兩種合併作用對幾丁聚醣物化性質之影響及其在水溶性幾丁聚醣製備上的應用,國立台灣海洋大學水產食品科學研究所碩士論文。
游士弘,1997,幾丁質及幾丁聚醣之N-乙醯化程度及純度測定方法之探討,國立台灣海洋大學水產食品科學研究所碩士論文。
蔡敏郎,1993,不同分子量、不同去乙醯程度的幾丁聚醣溶液的流變性質與膠囊物性的關係,國立台灣海洋大學水產食品科學研究所碩士論文。
鄭福相,2001,以過氧化氫或臭氧降解幾丁聚醣或羧甲基纖維素之探討,國立台灣海洋大學食品科學研究所碩士論文。
戴明志,1999,以氧化還原降解法製備水溶性幾丁聚醣與幾丁寡醣之探討,國立台灣海洋大學水產食品科學研究所碩士論文。
薛裕元,1999,羧甲基水溶性幾丁聚醣的製備及其理化性質,國立台灣大學食品科技研究所碩士論文。
Aiba, S. 1989. Studies on chitosan : 2. Solution stability and reactivity of paetially N-acetyl chitosan deiveratives in aqueous media. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 11: 249-252.
Aiba, S. 1991. Studies on chitosan : 3. Evidence for the presence of radom and block copolymer structures in partially N-acetylated chitosans. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 11: 249-252.
Aiba, S. 1994. Preparation of N-acetylchitooligosaccharides from lysozymic hydrolysates of partially N-acetylated chitosan. Carbohydr. Res. 261: 297-306.
Aiba, S., Mo, X., Wang, P., Hayashi K. and Xu., Z. 1998. Structure and properties of chitosan-g-PEG. Advances in chitin science. Volume Ш: 424-429.
Allan, G. G. and Peyron, M. 1995. Molecular weight mainpulation of chitosan I : Kinetics of depolymerization by nitrous acid. Carbohydr. Res. 277: 257-272.
Austin, P. R., Brine, C. J., Castle, J. E. and Zikakis, J. P. 1981. Chitin: new facets of research. Science. 212: 749-753.
Baumann, H. and Faust, V. 2001. Concepts for improved regioselective placement of O-sulfo, N-sulfo, N-acetyl, and N-carboxymethyl groups in chitosan derivatives. Carbohydr. Res. 311: 43-57.
Burkhanova, N. D., Yugai, S. M., Pulatova, Kh. P., Nikononvich, G. V., Milusheva, R. Yu., Voropaeva, N. L. and Rashidova, S. Sh. 2001. Structural investigations of chitin and its deacetylation products. Chem. Nat. Compd. 36(4): 352-355.
Carolan, C. A., Blair, H. S., Allen, S. J. and Mckay, G. 1991. N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan, a water soluble derivative and potential green food preservative. Trans IchemE. 69: 195-196.
Chen, L., Du, Y., Wu, H. and Xiao, L. 2001. Relationship between molecular structure and moisture-relation ability of carboxymethyl chitin and chitosan. J. Applied Polym. Sci. 83: 1233-1241.
Chen, J., Xia, W. S., Yang, F. Q. and Gao, F. C. 1999. Study on relationship between the emulsification and the structure of 6-O-CM-chitosan. China surfactant detergent & cosmetics. 6: 1-4.
Chen, R. H., Chang, J. R. and Shyur, J. S. 1997. Effect of ultrasonic conditions and storage in acidic solutions on changes in molecular weight and polydispersity of treated chitosan. Carbohydr. Res. 299: 287-294.
Chidchom, H., Chulaluck C. and Kanjanarat T. 1994. Carboxymethyl-chitin production and its application in food industry. Nat. Sci. 28(2): 273-282.
Dung, P. L., Milas, M., Rinaudo, M. and Desbrieres, J. 1994. Water soluble derivatives obtained by controlled chemical modifications of chitosan. Carbohydr. Polym. 24: 209-214.
El-Sawy, S. M., Abu-Ayana, Y. M. and Abdel-Mohdy, F. A. 2001. Some chitin/chitosan derivatives for corrosion protection and wast water treatments. Anti-corrosion methods and materials. 48(4): 227-234.
Elson, C. M. 1999. Covalently linked N,O-carboxymethylchitosan and uses thereof. Patent No. US 5888988. 10pp.
Fry, S.C. 1998. Oxidative scission of plant cell wall polysaccharides by ascorbate-induced hydroxyl radicals. Biochem. J. 332: 507-515.
Gao, P., Hu, D., Tang, Z. and Fang, Y. 2001. Synthesis, properties and catalytic activity of cobalt(II) complex of Schiff base from chitosan. Xibei Daxue Xuebao, Ziran Kexueban. 31(2): 115-118.
Gomez, B. C. 1997. Evaluation of the biological properties of soluble chitosan and chitosan microspheres. International J. pharmaceutics. 148: 231-240.
Hayes, E. R. 1986. N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan and preparative method therefor. Patent No. US 4619995. 10pp.
Hirano, S. and Yano, H. 1986. Some nitrated derivatives of N-acylchitosan. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 8(3): 153-156.
Hiraku, O., Youhua, S., Hideki, I. Yoshiharu, M. and Tsuneji, N. 1994. Macromolecular prodrugs of cytarabine and mitomycin C with chitosan, N-succinyl-chitosan and 6-O-carboxymethyl-chitin as drug carriers. Chitin World. 6th 301-310.
Holme, K. R. and Perlin, A. S. 1997. Chitosan N-sulfate. A water-soluble polyelectrolyte. Carbohydr. Res. 302: 7-12.
Horiuchi, K. and Kudome, S. 1992. Soluble cosmetics containing chitosan, chitin, and collagen derivatives. Patent No. JP 04198113. 5pp.
Hon, D. N. S. and Tang, L. G. 2000. Chelation of chitosan derivatives with zinc ions. I. O,N-carboxymethyl chitosan. J. applied polymer science. 77(10): 2246-2253.
Ishii, S., Kobayashi, M., Akao, H., Kurita, K. and Nishimura, S. 1995. Synthesis of branched chitin derivatives. Kichin, Kitosan Kenkyu. 1(2): 162-163.
Izume, M. and Ohtakara, A. 1987. Perparation of D-glucosamine oligosaccharides by the enzymatic hydrolysis of chitosan. Agric. Biol. Chem. 51: 1189-1191.
Kawaguchi, T., Ikeda, M. and Inoe, K. 1995. Cyclodextrin acylated derivatives bearing 6-deoxyaminoglucosyl units and their modification. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho Patenrt No.: JP 07316205. 25pp.
Khor, E., Wan, A. C. A. and Hastings, G. W. 2000. Perparation of reversible water-swellable gel from polysaccharides, especially chitin. Patent No. US 6025479. 6pp.
Kim, C. H., Kim, S. Y. and Choi, K. S. 1997. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitin derivatives. Polym. Adv. Technol. 8: 319-325.
Knorr, D. 1984. Use of chitinous polymers in food — a challenge for food research and development. Food Technol. 38: 85-97.
Kotze, A. F., Leuben, H. L., Boer, A. G. de, Verhoef, J. C. and Junginger, H, E. 1998. Chitosan for enhanced intestinal permeability Prospects for derivatives soluble in neutral and basic envionment. European J. Pharmaceutical science. 7:145-151.
Kubota, N., Tatsumoto, N., Sano, T. and Toya, K. 2000. Asimple preparation of N-acetylated chitosan highly soluble in water and aqueous organic solvents. Carbohydr. Res. 324: 268-274.
Kubota, K., and Eguchi, Y. 1997. Facile preparation of water-soluble N-acetylated chitosan and molecular weight dependence of its water-solubility. Polym. J. 29(2): 123-127.
Kurita, K., Nishimura, Y., Koyama, S. I. and Kohogo, O. 1990. Amer. Chem. Soc. Meeting. Boston. USA.
Kurita, K., Yoshino, H., Nishimura, S. I. and Ishii, S. 1993. Preparation and biodegradability of chitin derivatives having mercapto groups. Carbohydr. Polym. 20: 239-245.
Lee, Y. M., Shin, E. M. 1991. Pervaporation separation of water-ethanol through modified chitosan membranes. IV. Phosphorylated chitosan membranes. J. Membr. Sci. 64(1-2): 145-152.
Lee, Y. M., Shin, E. M. 1991. Pervaporation separation of water-ethanol through modified chitosan membranes. IV. Phosphorylated chitosan membranes. J. Membr. Sci. 64(1-2): 145-152.
Lin, Y., Wang, J. and Zhang, J. 1999. Skin moisturizers and evaluation of their properties. Riyong huaxue gongye. 5: 52-54.
Lin, Y. W., Xu, C. and Lu, C. H. 2000. Study on the synthetic condition of carboxymethyl chitosan. Huaxue shijie. 8: 415-425.
Matsuyama, H., Tamura, T. and Kitamura, Y. 1999. Permeability of ionic solutes in a polyamphoteric membrane. Separation and purification technology. 16: 181-187.
Mislovicova, D., Masarova, J., Bendzalova, K. and Soltes, L. 2000. Sonication of chitin-glucan, preparation of water-soluble fractions and characterization by HPLC. Ultrasonics Sonochem. 7: 63-68.
Muslim, T., Morimoto, M., Saimoto, H. and Shigemasa, Y. 2001. Synthesis of some chitosan hybrids and their metal adsorption capacities. Kichin, Kitosan Kenkyu. 7(1): 9-18.
Muzzarelli, R. A. A. 1977. “Chitin”. Pergramon Press, Oxford.
Muzzarelli, R. A. A., Tanfani, F., Emanuelli, M. and Mariotti, S. 1982. N-(Carboxymethyllidene)chitosans and N-(Carboxymethyl)-chitosans: novel chelating polymapholytes obtained from chitosan gloyoxylate. Carbohydr. Res. 107: 199-214.
Muzzarelli, R. A. A. and Rocchetti, R. 1985. Determination of the degree of acetylation of chitosans by first derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Carbohydr. Polym. 5: 461-472.
Muzzarelli, R. A. A. 1992. Modified chitosans carrying sulfonic acid group. Carbohydr. Polym. 19: 231-236.
Muzzarelli, R. A. A. and IIari, P. 1994. Solubility and structure of N-carboxymethylchitosan. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 16(4): 177-180.
Muzzarelli, R. A. A. 1996. Chitosan-based dietary foods. Carbohydr. Polym. 29: 309-316.
Okuyama, K., Noguchi, K., Hanafusa, Y., Osawa, K. and Ogawa, K. 1999. Structural study of anhydrous tendon chitosan obtained via chitosan/acetic acid complex. Intern. J. Bio. Macrom. 26: 285-293.
OttØy, M. H., Vårum, K. M. and SmidsrØd, O. 1996. Compositional heterogeneity of heterogeneously deacetylated chitosans. Carbohydr. Polym. 29(1): 17-24.
Qiuhua, Z., Xiaoqi, T., Zanchun, L.and Benzhong, Z. 1995. Treatment of printing and dyeing wasterwater by carboxymethyl chitin. Huanjing Wuran Yu Fangzhi. 17(5): 7-9.
Ouchi, T., Nishizawa, H. and Ohya, Y. 1998. Aggregation phenomenon of PEG-grafted chitosan in aqueous solution. Polym. 39(21): 5171-5175.
Rathjens, A. and Wachter, R. 2000. Manufacture of N,O-substituted chitosan derivatives as additives for cosmetic formulations. Patent No. DE 19857547. 14pp.
Rinaudo, M., Dung, P. L. and Milas, M. 1992. A new and simple method of synthesis of carboxymethylchitosans. In “Advance in Chitin and Chitosan”. Ed. Brine, C. J., Sandford, P. A. and Zikakis, J. P. Elsevier Sci. Publishers Ltd., New York. pp. 516-525.
Roberts, R. A. F. 1995, Structure-property relationships in chitin and chitosan. In “Chitin and Chitosan” — The versatile environmentally friendly modern materials. Ed. Zakaria, M. B., Muda, W. M. W. and Abdullah, M. P. Penerbit University Kebangsaan. Malaysia Bangi. pp. 95-108.
Sannan, T., Kurita, K. and Iwakura, Y. 1976. Studies on chitin, 2. Effect of deacetylation on solubility. Makromol. Chem. 177(12): 589-600.
Sashiwa, H. and Shigemasa, Y. 1999. Chemical modification of chitin and chitosan 2: preparation and water soluble property of N-acylated or N-alkylated partially deacetylated chitins. Carbohydr. Polym. 39: 127-138.
Senso, A., Franco, P., Oliveros, L. and Minguillon, C. 2000. Characterization of doubly substituted polysaccharide derivatives. Carbohydr. Res. 329: 367-376.
Shahidi, F., Arachi, J. K. V. and Jeon, Y. J. 1999. Food applications of chitin and chitosan. Trends in Food Sci. & Tech. 10: 37-51.
Shigemasa, Y., Saito, K., Sashiwa, H. and Saimoto, H. 1994. Enzymatic degradation of chitins and partially deacetylated chitins. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 16: 43-49.
Shigemasa, Y., Usui, H., Morimoto, M., Saimoto, H., Okamoto, S., Minami, S. and Sashiwa, H. 1999. Chemical modification of chitin and chitosan 1: preparation of partically deacetylated chitin derivatives via a ring-opening reaction with cyclic acid anhydrides in lithium chloride/ N,N-dimethylacetamide. Carbohydr. Polym. 39: 237-243.
Sieval, A. B., Thanou, M., Kotze, A. F., Verhoef, J. C., Brussee, J. and Junginger, H. E. 1998.Perparation and NMR characterization of highly substituted N-trimethyl chitosan chloride. Carbohydr. Polym. 36: 157-165.
Somashekar, D. and Joseph, R. 1996. Chitosanase-properties and application: a review. Bioresource Technol. 55: 35-45.
Sugimoto, M., Morimoto, M., Sashiwa, H., Saimoto, H. and Shigemasa, Y. 1998. Preparation and characterization of water-soluble chitin and chitosan derivatives. Carbohydr. Polym. 36: 49-59.
Tajima, M., Izume, M., Fukuhara, T., Kimura, T. and Tuoyanagi, Y. 2000. Development of new wound dressing composed of N-succinyl chitosan and gelatin. Seitai zairyo. 18(5): 220-226.
Tang, L. G. and Hon, D. N. S. 2001. Chelation of chitosan derivatives with zinc ions. Π. Association complexes of Zn2+ onto O,N-carboxymethyl chitosan. J. applied polymer science. 79(8): 1476-1485.
Tanioka, S., Shinichiro, M., Yoshihisa, I., Takao T. T., Tanaka, Y., Shibata, H., Sawa, Y. and Kono, Y. 1996. Oxidative depolymerization of chitosan by hydroxyl radical. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 60(12): 2001-2004.
Tokura, S. and Tamura, H. 1998. Chitin and Derivatives as biomeducal meterials. Advences in chitin sciences. 55-59.
Wang, W., Bo, S., Li, S. and Qin, W. 1991. Determination of the Mark-Houwink equation for chitosans with different degrees of deacetylation. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 13: 281-285.
Wang, A., Yan Z., Jia, B., Cao, L. and Xue, Z. 1996. Preparation and quality analysis of N-(carboxymethyl)chitosan. Chinese J. Biochem. pharmacetics. 17(4): 147-149.
Vårum, K. M., Ottoy, M. H. 1994. Water-solubility of partially N-acetylated chitosans as a function of pH: effect of chemical composition and depolymerization. Carbohydr. Polym. 25: 65-70.
Watanabe, K., Saiki, I., Matsumoto, Y. and Azuma, I. 1992. Antimetastatic, activity of neocarzinostatin incorporated into controlled release gels of CM-chitin. Carbohydr. Polym. 17: 29-37.
Wang, X., Ma, J., Wang, Y. and He, B. 2001. Structural characterization of phosphorylated chitosan and their applications as effective additives of calcium phosphate cements. Biomaterials. 22(16): 2247-2255.
Wu, G., Luo, R. and Rong, Y. 2000a. Study of preparing vanillin aldehyde-modified chitosan. Hebei Keji Daxue Xuebao. 21(2): 73-77.
Wu, Y., Li, B., Wu, G., Cao, Z. and Chen, J. 2000b. Preparation of sulfonated chitosan. Guangzhou Huagong. 28(4): 99-100.
Yagi, H., Koba, J. and Mizuta, Y. 1992. Cosmetic packs containing N-succinylchitosan and film-forming polymers. Patent No. JP 04230613. 4pp.
Yalpani, M. and Hall, L. D. 1984. Some chemical and analytical aspects of polysaccharide modification, 3. Formation of branched-chain, soluble chitosan derivatives. Macromolecules. 17: 272-281.
Yamaguchi, R.,Arai, Y., Ito, T. and Hirano, S. 1981. Preparation of partially N-succinylated chitosans and their cross-linked gels. Carbohydr. Res. 88:172-175.
Yang, D., Leng, Y. and Huang, M. 2000. Alkali deacetylation of crab chitin. Huaxue Gongye Yu Gongcheng. 17(4): 204-207.
Yu, G., Li, B., Liang P. and Wan, Z. 1996. Preparation of soluble chitosan and its chelation towards lead. Zhongguo haiyang yaowu. 15(4): 13-17.
Zhang, M. and Hirano, S. 1995. Novel N- unsaturated fatty acyl and N-trimethylacetyl derivatives of chitosan. Carbohydr. Polym. 26: 205-209.
Zong, Z., Kimura, Y., Takahashi, M. and Yamane, H. 2000. Characterization of chemical and solid state structures of acylated chitosan. Polym. 41: 899-906.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊