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研究生:吳宗翰
研究生(外文):T. H., Wu
論文名稱:臺灣北部及東北部海域底拖魚類群聚結構之研究
論文名稱(外文):Community Structure of Bottom Trawl Fishes in the Coastal Waters of Northern and North-eastern Taiwan
指導教授:邵廣昭邵廣昭引用關係
指導教授(外文):K. T., Shao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:底拖群聚北部東北部近海臺灣
外文關鍵詞:Bottom TrawlCommunityNorthernNorth-easternCoastal WatersTaiwan
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底拖漁業由於誤捕率高,對海床棲地又造成嚴重干擾與破壞,故近年來已廣受國際間之重視與關切,特別是從維護生物多樣性與漁業資源之永續利用的觀點而言,未來必須朝棲地保護與整體生態系之經營管理的方向來努力。反觀國內過去多偏重於單一種群或系群,而忽略以群聚及生態系層次之研究,在底拖部分對於混獲之下雜魚(非經濟性魚類或個體太小之魚體)的組成及數量亦所知不多,因此本實驗將針對本省兩大傳統底拖漁區之一的北部及東北部所捕獲的所有魚種作定性(分類)及定量計數(測量體長及體重)資料之蒐集。本實驗時間由2000年2月至2001年4月間,分為第一年冬末春初、夏季、秋季及翌年冬末春初四次底拖,租用民間漁船分別在金山、澳底及大溪三個海域進行底拖,並依各海域的地形劃分50-800m不等的拖網深度,除可了解魚種在水平分布的變化,還能了解其垂直分布的情形,並以聚類分析及空間排序探討臺灣北部及東北部海域之魚類群聚結構之時空變遷。
本實驗結果共採獲98科289種43027尾魚類,其中包括19種新紀錄種及83種經濟性魚類。而在水平分布上,三個海域之魚種略有不同,澳底與大溪群聚較類似。在垂直分布上,魚類群聚約略可分為三群:50m一群、 100-200m一群及400-800m一群。在季節變化上,金山地區的魚類相季節變化較為明顯,是因為此區之季節性經濟魚類大量出現的影響,而大溪則因深度變化較多而呈現分散的現象,而此三個因子對於類群聚影響的程度為:深度>地點>季節變化。而以AB curve評估環境受人為干擾情形則顯示金山海域的環境優良,澳底及大溪兩處海域受到人為干擾,而大溪地區200公尺受干擾情形最為嚴重。此外,與過去當地有底拖紀錄之主要經濟魚種比較,實驗期間所捕獲的魚體其體長大小已有明顯變小的趨勢,此反應出當地底拖漁業在長期且頻繁的捕撈壓力下已呈現明顯過漁的現象。
Bottom trawl fishery is receiving more and more attentions these years because of its highly by-catch rate and serious damage to the seabed. Fishery management will need to protect the habitats and the environment to maintain biodiversity and resources sustainable. In Taiwan, studies in the past were usually focused on single specie or stock, very few papers studied fisheries from community and ecosystem approach. We don’t have many data on the species composition and the by-catch information. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to study the community structure of bottom trawl fishes from the two traditional trawl fishery grounds in Aoti and Tahsi, north-eastern Taiwan and one non-traditional fishing ground, Cinshan in northern Taiwan. The study period was from February 2000 to April 2001, which covers four major fishing period: early spring, summer, fall and the next early spring. Three trawl areas, Cinshan, Aoti and Tahsi and various water depth were chosen ranged from 50m to 800m according to the different topographic characters in these areas. By doing this, we are able to understand the temporal and spatial distribution including both horizontal and vertical distribution of demersal fishes, in terms of the clustering and ordination (MDS) techniques.
Total number of 98 families, 289species and 43,027 individuals were collected. Among which 19 species are newly found in Taiwan, 83 species are commercial fishes. In horizontal, the distribution of fish species is different among these three areas. In vertical distribution, it can be separated into three major groups: 50m, 100-200m and under 400m. The temporal effect on the fish community structure is much more apparent than in Cinshan area, because most fishes in this area are seasonal commercial fishes. Fish fauna at Tahsi is affected more by depth. It is suggested that the three factors affect fish communities from the most to the least are depth, location and time. Furthermore, we compare those major commercial fishes with that of thirty years ago, the size of fishes we caught are getting smaller than before. This is maybe due to the result of over-fishing over a long period of time.
中文摘要………………………………………………………………..IV
英文摘要………………………………………………………………..VI
圖 次……………………………………………………………….VII
表 次………………………………………………………………..IX
一、 前言…………………………………………………………………1
二、 材料與方法…………………………………………………………8
(一) 取樣設計………………………………………………………...8
(二) 實驗海域地區特色與各區捕撈深度…………………………...8
(三) 魚種鑑定與測量………………………………………………...9
(四) 資料分析………………………………………………………...9
1. 新記錄種之描述……………………………………………...9
2. 魚種組成及數量……………………………………………...9
a. 金山地區
b. 澳底地區
c. 大溪地區
3. 優勢魚種之體長分布及其生長曲線……………………….10
4. 群聚結構的時空變化……………………………………….10
a. 歧異度
b. 聚類分析
c. 相似性
d. 空間排序
5. k-dominance curve…………………………………………11
三、 結果……………………………………………………………….12
(一) 新記錄種之描述………………………………………………12
(二) 魚種組成的時空變異…………………………………………31
1. 金山海域
2. 澳底海域
3. 大溪海域
(三) 優勢魚種之體長分布及其生長曲線…………………………40
(四) 群聚結構的時空變化…………………………………………42
1. 魚相組成相似性
2. 聚類分析
3. 時間變化
4. 空間排序(MDS)
5. 主要魚種之群聚關係
(五) AB curve ….……………………………………………..…….48
四、 討論………………………………………………………………..49
1. 深海魚種…………………………………………………….49
2. 臺灣地區過去資料之比較………………………………….49
3. 多峰型體長分布…………………………………………….51
4. 下雜魚所佔的比例………………………………………….52
5. 經濟魚獲…………………………………………………….52
6. 魚種組成…………………………………………………….54
7. 深度影響魚種分布………………………………………….54
五、 參考文獻…………………………………………………………..56
圖………………………………………………………………………..67
表………………………………………………………………………..98
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