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研究生:楊倩惠
論文名稱:臺灣深海異腕蝦之類緣關係研究
論文名稱(外文):Phylogenetic study on the deep-sea Heterocarpus shrimps from Taiwan
指導教授:陳昭倫陳昭倫引用關係許祖法陳天任陳天任引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:深海異腕蝦形態特徵分析28S ribosomal RNA基因片段序列
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摘 要
異腕蝦 (Heterocarpus) 是分佈在深海中經濟價值較高的真蝦類。由於部份種類的外部形態十分相近,早期在分類鑑種上容易混淆,本研究根據其形態相似度,將臺灣海域較易發現的種類,配合國外採集到的標本,共8個種類分成東方異腕蝦 (H. sibogae)、劍額異腕蝦 (H. ensifer)、鉤棘異腕蝦 (H. woodmasoni) 及隆額異腕蝦 (H. gibbosus) 等四類群作為研究對象。先探討四類群的分群現象是否符合計數及測量形質的統計結果,再結合形態特徵分析與細胞核28S ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA) 基因片段序列,進一步探討群間及群內之類緣關係,以及地理分佈對其影響的程度。本研究結果如下:
(1) 由於部份種類不易大量獲得,計數及測量形質的統計方法只以"H. sibogae"及"H. ensifer"兩群為檢測對象,"H. sibogae"群及"H. ensifer"群的分群依據在於第一、二腹節背部葉狀突起的有無,但統計結果顯示此兩群在計數及測量形質上並沒有明顯群集現象。
(2) 所增幅的核甘酸片段序列長度範圍為761-777 bp。將形態特徵與28S rRNA基因片段序列所推論出的類緣關係做比較,兩者結果並沒有完全一致:(i)在形態特徵上,"H. sibogae"群及"H. ensifer"群則無群集的情形,且兩者連結形成一相似種群 (complex);在遺傳距離上,"H. ensifer"群的群內差異以及與"H. sibogae"群的群間差異皆為0.39%,其間的差異和其他生物比較,只達種內變異程度,故由28S rRNA基因中D2區域的片段序列推論出的類緣關係,高bootstrap值 (100%) 支持為同相似種群且種類間關係相等,無分群之現象;(ii) 在各群間之相互關係中,"H. woodmasoni"群和"H. gibbosus"群在形態特徵上為同一相似種群的關係,但在28S r RNA基因中D2區域的片段序列上,"H. woodmasoni"群則與"H. ensifer"類群 (即之前所謂的"H. sibogae"及"H. ensifer"兩群) 關係較近,連結為一相似種群 (>60%),顯示腹節背刺的有無是這四種群異腕蝦在演化上的重要特徵;(iii) "H. gibbosus"群內高低額冠的H. gibbosus在形態特徵上呈現單系種關係的種類區別 (64%),但在核甘酸序列分析上僅有0.13%的遺傳距離差異,可認為是屬於種內的變異。
(3) 在不同種類的異腕蝦中,其地理分佈重疊性雖高,但並沒有顯示出較相近的類緣關係。而採自臺灣高低額冠的H. gibbosus與採自斐濟的高額冠標本在遺傳距離上卻有0.26%的些微差異,初步推測可能是因地理隔離所產生族群分化,而沒有不同種類上的差異。
摘要
目錄
一、前言
二、材料與方法
1. 標本來源
2. 外部形態分析
2.1 測量形質及計數形質
2.2 類緣關係
3. 核甘酸序列分析
3.1 新鮮標本粗萃取DNA
3.2 雙股聚合脢連鎖反應
3.3 接合作用
3.4 T-載體轉入勝任細胞
3.5 轉殖後細菌的培養
3.6 質體DNA的小量備製
3.7 Insert的檢測
3.8 DNA定序
3.9 資料分析
三、結果
1. 外部形態分析
1.1 測量形質及計數形質
1.2 類緣關係
2. 核甘酸序列分析
2.1 核甘酸序列長度及鹼基組成
2.2 多型性位點
2.3 同類置換及異類置換
2.4 相異性距離
2.5 類緣關係
2.5.1最大儉約法
2.5.2最大相似法
2.5.3鄰聚法
四、討論
1. 測量形質及計數形質分析
2. 28S rDNA核甘酸片段序列分析
2.1 核甘酸鹼基組成分析
2.2 相異性距離分析
3. 類緣關係分析
五、參考文獻
六、謝辭


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