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研究生:陳靜怡
研究生(外文):Chen Ching-Yi
論文名稱:大鵬灣潟湖魚類群聚時空變化及其生態區位之研究
論文名稱(外文):Spatial and temporal variations and the ecological niche of the fish assemblage in the Dapon-Bay Lagoon in the Southwest Taiwan
指導教授:邵廣昭邵廣昭引用關係
指導教授(外文):kwang-Tsao Shao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:網具選擇食物寬度生態區位食物網環境因子河口棲地魚類群聚
外文關鍵詞:samples selectionniche breadthniche overlapfood webenvironmental factorestuaryhabitefish community
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本研究係欲了解台灣西南海域的沙洲潟湖---屏東縣大鵬灣的魚類群聚結構,是否具有時空變化,及影響魚類群聚變化的環境因子,並分析魚類食性與食性生態區位,以建構潟湖內魚類之簡單食物網構造,用以說明潟湖中營養類別間的關係。由2000年7月起至2001年12月止,定期每3個月一次在潟湖內利用流刺網、待袋網及電器採捕法採集。結果共記錄到51科173種魚類,其中包括4種台灣新記錄魚種。分別是大棘雙邊魚(Ambassis macracanthus)、弓線天竺鯛(Apogon ambonensis)、條紋鰏(Leiognathus faciata)與眉鬚鱗頭(Sebastapistes strongia)。
在網具選擇方面,以聚類分析及相似性係數分析(ANOSIM),比較電魚法、流刺網漁法及待袋網採集法所採獲的群聚是否具有差異,結果證實不同採樣法所獲的群聚結構明顯不同。
在群聚方面以聚類分析、空間排序(MDS)與ANOSIM來判斷魚類群聚是否具時空變化。流刺網與電魚法所捕獲的群聚,皆不受季節、乾濕季、大小潮水變化的影響,但待袋網之漁法則有明顯乾濕季之差異。在空間測站之變化上,流刺網及電魚法的漁獲均顯示各測站間具顯著差異,由MDS可見各測站間魚類群聚結構隨測站間之相對位置而有遞變的趨勢,且魚類種數亦隨著與河口距離越遠而有減少之趨勢。在環境因子影響方面,以正典對應分析(CCA)及生物與環境相關分析(BIOENV),找出影響群聚變化的最大環境因子,流刺網漁法結果顯示水質交換不佳可能是潟湖內魚類群聚變化的最重要原因。而電魚法的結果更發現,潟湖內的微棲地對魚類群聚組成影響甚大。因此不同漁法的採樣所得魚類群聚之結果,不但時空分布的類型可能不同,而且控制群聚之因子亦可能迴異。故對某潟湖之魚類群聚變化下結論時,要特別注意可能只適用於該種漁法而已。
在魚類食性方面,以潟湖中16種優勢魚種的食性作聚類分析,了解潟湖中魚類的食性生態區位。發現潟湖內的魚種多以肉食性為主,顯示潟湖內能提供多量的蛋白質食物來源,以大型藻為食的魚種則以海水型魚種占多數,且大多分布於蚵島至河口區域。在同種魚類之食性比較,則顯示淡水河與大鵬灣的魚類食性的確具有差異。與七股潟湖9種相同的魚類比較,七股潟湖的魚類食性寬度顯然都較大鵬灣為高,顯示大鵬灣魚類對食物的選擇性可能較七股潟湖魚類狹窄。
綜合上述結果,三漁法所捕獲的魚類群聚結構明顯不同,且潟湖內的魚類群聚空間變化大於時間的變化,且潟湖內能提供多量的蛋白質食物供給魚類營養,但魚類種間的食物資源競爭可能較為激烈。
There are two purposes to this research conducted in the seawaters of Dapon-Bay, a shoal lagoon in Pingtung County, southwest Taiwan. First is to investigate whether the fish assemblages in the area has spatial and temporal variations and correlate the environmental factors with the community structure. The other purpose is to realize feeding habits of different species to find out the ecological niche, in order to construct a simple food web among the fish species, so to establish the relationship between the trophic levels in the lagoon. The research period lasted from July 2000 till December 2001. From the periodically sampling done once every 3 months, 173 species of 51 families were collected in the Dapon-Bay area using gill net, fyt net, and electric fishing, including four new records in Taiwan. The 4 species were Ambassis macracanthus, Apogon amboinensis, Leiognathus fasciata, and Sebastapistes strongia.
Cluster analysis and Analysis of Similarilies (ANOSIM) were used to compare samples collected by different fishing gear (electric fishing, gill net, and fyt net), and ANOSIM showed a significant difference among fish assemblages collected by different fishing gear.
Cluster analysis, Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS), and ANOSIM were used to inspect the spatial and temporal variations of fish communities by gill net and electric fishing. The results didn’t show any variance among seasons and between tides. However, the samples collected by fyt net showed a significant variance between dry and rainy seasons. ANOSIM showed significant differences among samples which collected by gill and electric fishing, and the results of MDS showed that fish assemblages had spatial variation and species richness tended to decrease as stations were situated farther from the estuary. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and Biota and Environment matching (BIO-ENV) were used to correlate environmental factors with fish assemblages. The gradients of freshwater discharge which mixed with seawater in Dapon bay could be the main factor of spatial variation in fish assemblages by gill net. The samples collected by electric fishing revealed that there was the variation of fish assemblage among microhabitats in the lagoon. Since the spatial and temporal variations of fish assemblages may differ consequently to the sampling methods used, the factor to control the variation of fish assemblages may be different. Therefore, the conclusions we make about the variations of fish assemblage may only suit a samples from a specific sampling method.
For the feeding habits of fishes, Cluster analysis was applied to feeding habits of 16 dominant fishes in the lagoon to realize the ecological niche of the species. The result showed that most species were carnivorous, implying that large amounts of protein sources are being provided in the lagoon. Fish which feed on algae, are mostly marine species with distribution generally ranging from the oyster island to the mouth of river. Comparison between the feeding habits of the same species showed that same species from Tan-sui River and Dapon Bay varies on feeding habits. The comparison was made between 9 identical species from Dapon Bay and Chiku lagoon, revealing that fishes from Chiku lagoon have a wider range of food items than fishes from Dapon bay; indicating that food selectivity of fishes from the Dapon bay was more than that of fishes from Chiku lagoon.
In conclusion, fish assemblages in the lagoon differ consequently to the sampling methods used, and spatial variations are more important than temporal variations for fish assemblages. Large amount of protein sources could be provided for fishes in the lagoon, but the competition among fishes for food may be higher.
中文摘要 I
表次 VIII
圖次 IX
一、 前言
(一) 潟湖概述 1
(二) 過去相關之研究 2
(三) 研究主題與問題 4
二、 材料與方法
(一) 大鵬灣之自然史 4
(二) 採樣時間與方法
(三) 測站選擇
(四) 環境因子的測定 8
(五) 標本處理 8
(六) 資料分析 8
三、 結果
(一) 基本資料敘述
1.魚種數及豐度 12
2.大鵬灣潟湖內之新紀錄種與當地特有的魚種 13
3.優勢科與優勢種 14
(二) 環境因子
1. 氣候雨量資料 14
2. 水質資料 15
(三) 網具選擇性
1. 電魚法 16
2. 待袋網 16
3. 流刺網 16
4. 各漁法採獲的魚種比較 16
5. 各漁法之魚體大小比較 17
6. 生物量比較 17
7. 各漁法間魚類群聚之比較 17
(四) 群聚結構
1.電魚法 18
2.待袋網 20
3.流刺網 21
(五) 食性
1.胃內容物組成 23
2.食物寬度與生態重疊區 28
四、討論
(一) 網具選擇
1. 優點 30
2. 缺點 30
3. 最適合研究大鵬灣潟湖之方法 31
(二) 大鵬灣魚類群聚結構
1. 時間軸的變化 31
2. 空間軸的變化 32
(三) 台灣南北河口或潟湖魚類群聚的比較 33
(四) 影響大鵬灣魚類群聚結構變動的環境因子
1. 水質環境因子對魚類群聚的影響 36
2. 不同採樣法與環境因子之差異 38
(五) 魚類食性
1. 大鵬灣之魚類食物網 39
2. 台灣北部淡水河口與大鵬灣潟湖魚類食性的比 40
3. 大鵬灣潟湖與七股潟湖魚類食性寬度比較 42
4. 生態重疊區位的比較(以鰏科為例) 43
(六) 大鵬灣的未來
1. 移走蚵架會影響大鵬灣的魚類群聚嗎? 44
2. 棲地對河口魚類的影響 45
3. 整治後的大鵬灣魚類群聚會不會有所改變? 45
五、 結論 45
六、 參考文獻 47
七、 附錄 54
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