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研究生:馮欣蓉
研究生(外文):Hsin-Jung Feng
論文名稱:核二廠溫排水對附近水域魚類之群聚結構、食性及死亡率之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of thermal seawater discharges on the community structure, diet and mortality of fishes in the waters around the Second Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan
指導教授:邵廣昭邵廣昭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kwang-Tsao Shao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:胃內含物溫排水群聚食性死亡率棲地穩定性同位素體長頻度分析
外文關鍵詞:stomach contents observancethermal dischargescommunitydietmortalityhabitatsstable isotopelength frequency analysis
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本研究的目的係探討核二廠溫排水對當地魚類群聚結構、食性及死亡率之影響。研究內容包括調查距排水口距離不等之測站,共三種不同棲性之魚類:沙泥底棲性魚類、岩礁棲性魚類及河口魚類。魚類群聚結構使用相似度分析、聚類分析及空間排序等方法來推測其時空變化;食性方面則使用相對重要性指數及穩定性同位素,來分析其食性上之空間變化。結果顯示在時間方面,三種棲性之魚類皆有明顯之季節之變化。而在空間(測站)方面,沙泥底棲性魚類在其群聚結構及食性分析上無顯著差異,故此類魚種不受溫排水之影響;而在岩礁棲性魚類則發現夏季時之定棲性魚種組成在測站間有顯著之差異,可能因為不同的魚種對溫度不同的喜好所造成,在食性分析部分亦有測站間之差異,推測可能因為溫排水改變餌料生物而造成其食性上之差異,亦因此間接造成狹食性魚種分布上的差異。而河口魚類雖然魚類群聚及食性分析之站別差異很大,但由於測站間微棲地差異頗大,因此可能純是微棲地的差異所造成。在死亡率分析上,根據FISAT軟體之體長頻度分析來求死亡率,其所得的死亡率以放流口處為最高,可能由於溫排水的衝擊所造成。使用Jaccard係數分析此三類棲性魚類其群聚結構之相似性,發現彼此頗不相同,因此在本研究已儘量收集當地海域完整的魚類資料。本研究之結論為核二廠溫排水不會對沙泥底棲性魚類之群聚結構及食性產生影響,而對於岩礁棲性魚類則可能會在夏季對其群聚結構造成影響,或造成其食性上之差異,原因可能是水溫導致餌料生物的不同。此外高水溫亦可能對放流口處的魚類之死亡率增加,但仍須獲得更多的體長大小、不同的樣本來予以證實。
The purpose of the study is to understand the effect of thermal seawater discharges on the community structure, diet and mortality of fishes in the waters around the second nuclear power plant in Taiwan. The fishes were sampled from the three different habitats, sand-muddy bottom and rocky habitats and estuarine, which have different distances from the thermal seawater discharges. For the community structure, we use ANOSIM (Analysis of similarities), Cluster and Ordination methods to analyze the spatial and temporal variation of community structure. For the fish diet, we use stomach contents observance (IRI value) and stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) to understand the spatial variation of fish diet. The results show that the community structure showed temporal variations in the three different habitats. The community structure and diet of the fishes from the sand-muddy bottom showed on significant difference among different stations. It seems that there is no effect on the sand-muddy bottom fishes by the thermal seawater discharge. For the fishes in the rocky habitats the community structure during summer and diet showed significant difference among different stations and suppose the effect of the thermal seawater discharges. We suppose that different tolerance of water temperatures of fish caused different species compositions among different stations within the rocky habitats or the changes on the species compositions of prey by thermal seawater discharge may influence on the distribution of stenophagous fishes. For the fishes in the estuarine, the community structure and diet showed significant difference among stations. However, the microhabitats are different between stations. Hence, the differences in the community structure or diet should be the result of different microhabitats. We estimated the mortality of fishes from length frequency analysis (LFA) (use FISAT program), and the result show that there is the highest mortality of fishes in the station nearest the thermal seawater discharge, the higher water temperature may be the reason of high mortality in this station. We use Jaccard index to analysis the similarity of community structure among three different habitats fishes, and the result shows that the species compositions are different. Therefore, this study has collected fishes around second the nuclear power plant as completely as possible. The conclusion is that there is no effect on the fishes from the sand-muddy bottom by the thermal seawater discharge of the second nuclear power plant, but the community structure during summer and diet of fishes in rocky habitats are influence by the thermal effect. In addition, the increase mortality of fishes in the station nearest the thermal seawater discharge may be caused by higher water temperature.
目 錄
摘要 6
Abstract 7
壹、前言 9
貳、材料與方法 13
2-1研究時間 13
2-2採集地點與實驗方法 14
2-3資料分析 15
2-3.1群聚結構 15
2-3.2生物學參數 17
2-3.3食性 19
參、結果 22
3-1沙泥底棲性魚類 22
3-1.1群聚分析 22
3-1.2食性分析 26
3-2岩礁棲性魚類 29
3-2.1群聚分析 30
3-2.2食性分析 32
3-3河口魚類 34
3-3.1群聚分析 34
3-3.2生物學參數分析 34
3-3.3食性分析 35
肆、討論 38
4-1沙泥底棲性魚類 38
4-2岩礁棲性魚類 42
4-3河口魚類 46
4-4溫排水對魚類影響的距離 50
伍、結論 51
陸、參考文獻 52
表 目 錄
表1.沙泥底棲性魚類捕獲之魚類名錄及尾數表--------------57
表2.沙泥底棲性魚類月份間Pairwise tests R值表---------65
表3.各優勢魚種其胃內含物之F、N、W及IRI值-------66
表4.各魚種於不同測站之食性IRI值表----------------------68
表5.大頭白姑魚食性測站間之相似性矩陣-------------------70
表6.岩礁棲性魚類觀察之魚類名錄及尾數表----------------71
表7.岩礁棲性魚類於月份間之Pairwise tests R值--------76
表8.條紋豆娘魚之食性分析重量百分比-----------------------77
表9.條紋豆娘魚之穩定性同位素表-----------------------------78
表10.放流口及小溪口捕獲之魚類名錄及尾數表-------------79
表11.瑪鋉溪捕獲之魚類名錄及尾數表-------------------------84
表12.河口魚類三個測站魚類相之相似性矩陣----------------86
表13.大鱗之生物學參數表-------------------------------------86
表14.花身雞魚之食性分析----------------------------------------87
表15. 大鱗之食性分析----------------------------------------87
表16.河口魚類大鱗之穩定性同位素表-------------------87
表17.花身雞魚分測站之食性分析-------------------------------88
表18.三種不同棲性魚類相間之相似度-------------------------88
圖 目 錄
圖1.流刺網及潛水作業測站位置圖--------------------------89
圖2.手拋網作業測站位置圖-------------------------------90
圖3.台灣本島之新紀錄種尖吻魟-----------------------------91
圖 4.沙泥底棲性魚類站間之one-way ANOSIM測試R
值頻度分布圖 --------------------------------------------92
圖5.沙泥底棲性魚類種數、尾數及歧異度之時間變化圖
--------------------------------------------------------------93
圖6.沙泥底棲性魚類月間之one-way ANOSIM測試R
值頻度分布圖---------------------------------------------93
圖7.沙泥底棲性魚類其不同測站、時間之聚類分析樹狀
圖-----------------------------------------------------------94
圖8.沙泥底棲性魚類CCA空間排序圖--------------------95
圖9.沙泥底棲性魚類CCA空間排序魚種圖---------------96
圖10.利用大頭白姑魚之食性特徵所作之測站樹狀圖----------
--------------------------------------------------------------------97
圖11.岩礁棲性魚類採得之種數、尾數及歧異度之時間變化
圖-----------------------------------------------------------98
圖12.岩礁棲性魚類月間one-way ANOSIM測試R值頻
度分布圖------------------------------------------------------98
圖13.岩礁底棲性魚類不同測站、時間之聚類分析樹狀圖-- -----------------------------------------------------------------99
圖14.岩礁棲性魚類CA之空間排序圖-----------------------100
圖15.條紋豆娘魚穩定性同位素分測站之δ13C與δ15N圖
----------------------------------------------------------------101
圖16.FiSAT分析結果大鱗之體長頻度分布圖-----------102圖17.FiSAT分析大鱗Length-converted catch curves圖
-------------------------------------------------------------103
圖18.利用大鱗穩定性同位素分析之δ13C與δ15N結
果所做測站之排序圖------------------------------104
圖19.三種棲性中所有測站之魚種組成聚類分析圖------105
圖20.沙泥底棲性魚類87~90年間之CA空間排序圖---
----------------------------------------------------------------106
圖21.沙泥底棲性魚類浮游生物食者食性之測站差異圖---
----------------------------------------------------------------107
圖22.沙泥底棲性魚類各測站捕獲總尾數圖-----------------107
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