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研究生:游志偉
研究生(外文):Yu Chih -Wei
論文名稱:臺灣管鞭蝦科蝦類之分類研究
論文名稱(外文):Taxonomic Studies on the Solenocerid Shrimps(Crustacea: Decapoda: Solenoceridae) of Taiwan
指導教授:陳天任陳天任引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chan Tin-Yam
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:管鞭蝦科對蝦總科臺灣分類研究甲殼十足類對蝦管鞭蝦印度西太平洋
外文關鍵詞:CrustaceaDecapodaSolenoceridaeSolenocerid ShrimpschecklisttaxonomyTaiwanIndo -West Pacific
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管鞭蝦科為甲殼綱、十足目、對蝦總科之蝦類,本科全屬海產蝦類,棲息深度非常廣泛,由淺海沙泥地至4500公尺以深的水層都有發現,有些種類頗具經濟價值。目前全世界已知有9屬74種,而印度-西太平洋地區則記錄有8屬51種。臺灣以往有關管鞭蝦科的分類研究報告十分缺乏,在過去僅記錄有4屬12種,而且其中尚有不少鑑定錯誤或同種異名的問題。經本研究的積極採集與詳細鑑定後共記錄到7屬22種的管鞭蝦科蝦類,其中有3屬10種為臺灣的新紀錄種。本論文詳細描述各種之外部形態特徵、體色、同種異名、地理及垂直分佈等相關資料外,並附上各種的彩色照片和重要特徵之線繪圖,及製作臺灣產管鞭蝦類科、屬、種的檢索,藉此為臺灣管鞭蝦科蝦類建立一套較完整的基礎分類資料,以作為日後生態保育、資源開發管理或相關研究之參考。
本研究亦嘗試採用數值分類的方法探討臺灣產管鞭蝦科之類緣關係,由Jaccard coefficient及SAHN 表型聚類分析求得類緣關係聚類表型圖,僅將臺灣所記錄的7屬22種管鞭蝦類分成5群,此結果較少於傳統分類上所訂定的7屬,其中間對蝦屬、厚對蝦屬與粗對蝦屬差異度較小被歸在同一群中,亦即這3屬在數值分類的分析上似乎表示其彼此間的差異不大。
臺灣產管鞭蝦科蝦類中除管鞭蝦屬與間對蝦屬的種類棲息深度較淺外,其餘5屬的種類在水層垂直分佈上都較為廣且深,其中又以海蝦屬與膜對蝦屬種類棲息的深度最深。目前臺灣南部所記錄的管鞭蝦屬數少於北部,但種數多於北部1種。而在海洋動物地理分佈方面,臺灣目前共發現7屬22種,是印度-西太平洋地區管鞭蝦屬數和種數第二多的區域,佔全世界總屬數的77.8%和總種數的29.7%,以及佔印度-西太平洋總屬數的87.5%和總種數43.1%,其中臺灣72%以上的種類為印度-西太平洋的廣分佈種,目前並無特有種發現。而臺灣的管鞭蝦類相與日本最為接近,相似度為60.9%,其次是與菲律賓和澳洲,相似度分別為59.3%及53.1%,而臺灣與中國南海的種類相似度只有48.1%,尚低於與印尼的相似度51.7%,夏威夷和南非與臺灣的相似度最低約只有14%以下。各地區的相似度大致上符合與臺灣的距離遠近成反比。
目前臺灣深海的調查仍未完整,如有些種類分佈在台灣鄰近地區而目前臺灣卻尚未採獲,所以臺灣海域應該還有一些管鞭蝦類尚未被發現,相信在未來更深入的調查和採集後,臺灣管鞭蝦的種類數還會增加。

Solenocerid shrimps are decapod crustaceans and belong to the superfamily Penaeoidea. All solenocerid shrimps are marine and some species have high commercial values. Solenocerid shrimps are distributied from shallow water to at least 4500m deep. There are approximately 9 genera and 74 known species in the world, with 8 genera and 51 species found in the Indo-West Pacific. Previous studies of solenocerid shrimps in Taiwan were sparse and only 4 genera and 12 species have been recorded. In the present study, 7 genera and 22 species of solenocerid shrimps are found to occur in Taiwan, with 3 genera and 10 species are new records of Taiwan. The present report describes the main morphological characters of these 22 species. Their identification keys, line drawings and color photographs are also provided.
The present study attempts to use numerical taxonomy to analysis the phylogenetic relationships amongst the Taiwanese solenocerid species and the 22 species are grouped in 5 clusters. This is less than the 7 genera proposed in traditional classification schemes. This is mainly caused by the genera Mesopenaeus, Cryptopenaeus and Hadropenaeus are clustered together.
On the vertical distribution of the Taiwanese solenocerid shrimps, most genera, except Solenocera and Mesopenaeus, are generally restricted to deep waters. Amongst them Haliporus and Hymenopenaeus are the deepest. The numbers of species recorded in southern Taiwan are higher than northern Taiwan, but the difference is not large. The solenocerid fauna of Taiwan has 77.8 % genera and 29.7 % species of the world species. With respect to the Indo-West Pacific warm water region, 87.5 % genera and 43.1% species of solenocerids are found in Taiwan. Nearly 72 % of the species in Taiwan are widely distributed species and there is no endemic species in Taiwan. From NT-SYS analysis, the solenocerid fauna of Taiwan are most similar to Japan (with 60.9 % similarity). The next similar are Philippines and Australia, of 59.3 % and 53.1 % similarities respectively. However, Taiwan and the South China Sea has only 48.1 % similarity.
More surveys in the further, particularly at deep water areas, likely can discovery a few more solenocerid shrimps off Taiwan.

目錄
一、前言………………………………………………………………………1
二、材料與方法………………………………………………..….….4
(一)材料…………………………………………………………..…….….4
1.標本採集…………………………………………………………………4
(二)研究方法………………………………………………………………4
1.標本處理………………………………………………….…....4
2.種類鑑定…………………………………………………………….…....4
3.分類描述…………………………………………………….……5
4.類緣關係…………………………………………………….…....6
5.動物地理分佈…………………………………………………….…....6
三、結果………………………………………....8
(一) 分類敘述…………………………………………………………….…9
對蝦總科Superfamily Penaeoidaea Rafinesque-Schmaltz, 1815 ……..…………..……9
管鞭蝦科Family Solencoeraidae Wood-Mason, 1891……….….....……….…...……9
粗對蝦屬Cryptopenaeus De Freitas, 1979……………..………….………...….…10
卡氏粗對蝦Cryptopenaeus clevai Crosnier, 1985………………………………10
厚對蝦屬Hadropenaeus Pérez-Farfante, 1977….………………..…………..…....12
蘆卡厚對蝦Hadropenaeus lucasii ( Bate, 1881 )..……………..…………...…..12
擬海蝦屬Haliporoides Stebbing, 1914……………………………….…...…….…15
東方擬海蝦Haliporoides sibogae ( De Man, 1907 )…………….…….….….…15
海蝦屬Haliporus Bate, 1881………………………….…………………….……..17
亞菲海蝦Haliporus taprobanensis Alcock and Anderson, 1899..…….………..17
膜對蝦屬Hymenopenaeus Smith, 1882….………………….……………………..20
等似膜對蝦Hymenopenaeus equalis ( Bate, 1888 )……………….……....…....20
圓突膜對蝦Hymenopenaeus propinquus(De Man, 1907)……………………23
霍氏膜對蝦Hymenopenaeus halli Bruce, 1966……………………..……..……25
海神膜對蝦Hymenopenaeus neptunus(Bate, 1881)…..………….…….……27
間對蝦屬Mesopenaeus Pérez Farfante, 1977……………….………..……………30
刺足間對蝦 Mesopenaeus mariae Pérez Farfante and Ivanov, 1982…….……30
布氏間對蝦Mesopenaeus brucei Crosnier, 1989………………...……………..32
管鞭蝦屬Solenocera Lucas 1849 …………………………………………………34
粗角管鞭蝦Solenocera crassicornis(H. Milne Edwads, 1837)……………..35
短足管鞭蝦Solenocera comata Stebbing, 1915…….…………...……………...38
高脊管鞭蝦Solenocera alticarinata Kubo, 1949…….…………………………40
凹陷管鞭蝦Solenocera koelbeli De Man, 1911 …….……………..….………..43
憂鬱管鞭蝦Solenocera melantho De Man, 1907………….……….…....……...45
細刺管鞭蝦Solenocera spinajugo Hall, 1961………….………….….….……..48
多脊管鞭蝦Solenocera barunajaya Crosnier, 1994………………….……….50
縫合管鞭蝦Solenocera annectens (Wood-Mason, 1891)………………...…...52
華氏管鞭蝦Solenocera waltairensis George and Muthu, 1970…….…………54
多突管鞭蝦Solenocera rathbunae Ramadan, 1938…………….……………..56
節管鞭蝦Solenocera pectinata ( Bate, 1888 )…………………………………58
擬節管鞭蝦Solenocera pectinulata Kubo, 1949……….…………...…...…….60
(二) 類緣關係………………………….………………………….64
(三) 動物地理分佈…………….………………….………….65
a. 垂直分佈………………………………………………………..65
b. 臺灣南北分佈……………………….……………………………65
c. 地理分佈……………………….…………………………….……66
四、討論………………………….………………………………67
(一) 管鞭蝦類相……………………………….…………………67
(二) 分類鑑定…………………………………………………..67
(三) 類緣關係.………………………………….…………………70
(四) 動物地理分佈…………….………….………………72
參考文獻……………………………….…………………………………77
圖表…………………………Table 2-6,Figs 1-30
圖版…………………………………………………………..Plates 1-3
附錄 1-2

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