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研究生:莊文圳
論文名稱:一種應用於車速自動偵測之適應性比對演算法
指導教授:白敦文
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:資訊科學學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:70
中文關鍵詞:智慧型運用系統移動物體偵測形態學理論影像區域成長區塊連結區塊比對演算法
外文關鍵詞:ITSdifferential motion analysismathematical morphologyregion growingconnected componentsblock matching algorithm
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在本論文中,我們提出一個車速自動偵測的整合系統,並且介紹一種應用於車速自動偵測之適應性比對演算法。我們使用已經存在路旁的CCD攝影機取得實際路況之動態影片,對視訊資料加以自動分析、計算、轉換等理論與技術來求得當時的車速。使用連續影像之間的差別(differential motion analysis)、形態學的理論(mathematical morphology)、影像的區域成長(region growing)、區塊連結(connected components)等技術,用來偵測出移動中的車子。一個新的快速的演算法用來決定車子的速度,稱之為AWP(Adaptive Windowing Prediction)演算法,這種演算法是利用前一組影像所提供的資訊,有效率地在即時的系統中進行比對運算。實驗的結果顯示出我們所建議的系統,在減少計算複雜度和提升準確度方面,均展現了令人值得注意的高效能。

In this thesis, we design a novel integrated system for vehicle speed estimation, and suggest an efficient and effective searching algorithm called adaptive windowing prediction (AWP) to estimate vehicle speed automatically. The estimation algorithms in the proposed system employ a sequence of video images from existing CCD cameras on road and perform combinatorial image analysis techniques, block matching algorithms, and inverse perspective transformation as well. The methodologies of image analysis for object detection include differential motion analysis technique, mathematical morphology, region growing, and connected components technique, which enhance the results of target extraction in prior to block matching algorithm. In terms of matching theory, a new introduced adaptive windowing prediction algorithm, based on the results of previous frame calculation is proposed in this thesis. According to the physical constraints in real world, such as limited vehicle speed, driven in the permitted road direction, and un-allowed direction changing instaneously, the AWP algorithm is then able to predict the moving distance for the next video frame analysis. Finally, in order to satisfy the computational requirements of a real time system, we propose a quick look-up table in advance for mapping screen pixel distance to real world distance and physical vehicle speed. Experimental results show that the proposed system exhibits good performance in both computational reduction and improved accuracy.

目錄
論文口試委員.........................I
中文摘要...........................II
英文摘要..........................III
目錄.............................IV
圖目錄............................VI
表目錄...........................VIII
方程式目錄..........................IX
壹、背景...........................1
貳、系統架構與假設......................4
參、移動物體的偵測......................5
一、連續影像的取得................. 5
二、移動物體的偵測................. 6
1、連續影像的差.............. 6
2、背景偵測.................7
3、光流..................14
肆、影像的前置處理..................... 19
一、形態處理....................19
1、擴張..................19
2、腐蝕..................19
3、開放和封閉...............19
二、區域成長....................22
三、物件截取....................23
伍、區塊比對.........................25
一、區塊比對演算法概論...............25
二、全域搜尋演算法FSA................26
三、二維對數搜尋演算法TDLSA.............26
四、三步搜尋演算法TSSA............... 28
五、直角搜尋演算法OSA................30
六、同時搜尋演算法OTSA............... 32
七、交叉搜尋演算法CSA................33
八、四步搜尋演算法FSSA............... 36
九、適應性比對演算法AWP...............38
十、演算法比較...................41
陸、逆投影轉換與車速計算...................62
一、逆投影轉換...................62
二、車速計算....................65
柒、未來研究方向.......................67
捌、參考文獻.........................68

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