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研究生:蔡昆池
研究生(外文):KunChih Tsai
論文名稱:適應性量化技術應用於視訊編碼
論文名稱(外文):Adaptive Quantization for Alleviating Blocking Effects in Video Coding
指導教授:王榮華
指導教授(外文):JungHua Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:48
中文關鍵詞:視訊編碼量化MPEG2TM5
外文關鍵詞:video codingquantizationMPEG2TM5
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本篇論文提出一個用來在區塊編碼系統下減少區塊瑕疵效應(blocking effect)的方法。區塊瑕疵效應通常是發生在位移快速或是複雜的區塊中,會發生區塊瑕疵效應的原因是這些區域通常都需要較多的位元數來編碼。但是MPEG2的TM5通常都會忽略掉這個原因而造成區塊瑕疵效應的產生。為了使這些區域可以應用較適當的量化係數來量化其DCT係數,我們的方法係使用空間變異量來偵測編碼區塊組是複雜或是簡單的,進而決定是否需要進行適應性量化。另外為了滿足目標位元的配置,我們計算出編碼位元數來獲得較佳的量化係數。由實驗結果可以得知我們的方法比MPEG2 TM5有更佳的影像品質。特別是在位移快速及複雜的區域,我們的方法可以在物件的邊界上比MPEG2 TM5減少更多的區塊瑕疵效應,且具較高的PSNR值。

This thesis presents a novel method to reduce the blocking effects in block-based coding schemes. From our observations, the blocking effects occur mainly in regions that contain fast movements or complex structures; these regions need more bits to encode. However, this problem has not been taken care of in TM5 of MPEG2 [7]. In order to achieve fine quantization in these regions, our method employs a special measure of spatial activity to detect whether a region is complex or simple and thereby to decide whether or not to perform adaptive quantization. In order to satisfy the target bits allocation, we propose an algorithm to calculate the coding bits and to obtain a better quantization parameter. Experimental results show that our method achieve better picture quality in comparison to TM5 of MPEG2.Particuly in fast or complex motion scenes, the blocking effects in the object boundaries are far less vivid than that of TM5 of MPEG2, thereby generating much more smooth decoded images (with higher PSNR) for comfortable viewing.

目 錄
第一章 緒論 1
1-1. 背景說明 1
1-2. 研究動機與目的 2
1-3. 章節簡介 4
第二章 MPEG-2視訊標準簡介 6
2-1. 各模組及流程簡介 7
2-2. MPEG-2畫面編碼方式 13
第三章 TM5演算法 17
3-1. 目標位元配置(Target Bit Allocation) 17
3-2. 位元率控制(Rate Control) 20
3-3. 適應性量化(Adaptive Quantization) 22
第四章 適應性量化法 26
4-1. 斜率變異量應用於適應性量化法 27
4-2. 選擇性調變應用於適應性量化法 31
第五章 實驗結果 35
5-1. 區塊瑕疵效應之消除 37
5-2. 目標位元數配置與實際編碼位元數 39
5-3. SMAQ+RAQ 40
第六章 結論與討論 44
參考文獻 46

參考文獻
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[2] R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, “Digital image processing,” Addison Wesley, 1992.
[3] Motion Picture Expert Group, “Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5M bit/s MPEG-1,” International Standard 11172-2, ISO/IEC/JTC1 SC29/WG11, 1994.
[4] Motion Picture Expert Group (JTC1/SC29/WG11) and Expert Group on ATM Video Coding (ITU-T SG15), “Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio MPEG-2,” Draft International Standard 13818, ISO/IEC, Nov. 1994.
[5] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 14496-2, “Information technology coding of audio visual objects,” March 1998.
[6] Telecommunication Standardization Sector of International Telecommunication Union, “ITU-T recommendation H.261: Video codec for audiovisual services at p*64 k bit/s,” Tech. Rep., ITU-T, 1990.
[7] Motion Picture Expert Group, “Test Model 5”, ISO, April 1993.
[8] Zdepski, J.; Raychaudhuri, D.; Joseph, K.”Statistically based buffer control policies for constant rate transmission of compressed digital video,” IEEE Trans. Commun. Vol. COM-39, NO.6, pp.947-957, June 1991.
[9] Challapali, K.; Lebegue, X.; Lim, J.S.; Paik, W.H.; Snopko, P.A.” The Grand Alliance System for US HDTV,” Proc. IEEE, Vol. 83, NO. 2, pp.158-174, Feb. 1995.
[10] T. Y. Chung; K.H. Jung; Y. N. Oh; D.H. Shin “Quantization control for improvement of image quality compatible with MPEG2,” IEEE Trans. On Consumer Electronics, Vol. 40, NO. 4, pp.821-828, Nov. 1994.
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[12] Chun, K.W.; Lim, K.W.; Cho, H.D.; Ra, J.B. “An adaptive perceptual quantization algorithm for video coding,” IEEE Trans. On Consumer Electronics, Vol. 39, NO. 3, pp.555-558, Nov. 1993.
[13] Lee, L.-W.; Wang, J.-F.; Lee, J.-Y.; Chen, C.C.”On the error distribution and scene change for the bit rate control of MPEG,” IEEE Trans. On Consumer Electronics, Vol. 39, NO. 3, pp.545-554, Nov. 1993.
[14] “MPEG-2 Video Test Model 5,” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 MPEG93/457, April 1993.
[15] Minami, S.; Zakhor, A. “An optimization approach for removing blocking effects in transform coding,” IEEE Trans. On Circuits and System for Video Tech., Vol. 5, NO. 2, pp.74-81, April, 1995.
[16] C.H. Min; S. Cho; K. W. Lim; H. Lee, “A new adaptive quantization method to reduce blocking effect,” IEEE Trans. On Consumer Electronics, Vol. 44, NO. 3, pp.768-773, Aug., 1998.
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[18] Ratnakar, V.; Livny, M., “An efficient algorithm for optimizing DCT quantization,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing, Vol. 9, NO. 2, pp.267-270, Feb., 2000.
[19] Ribas-Corbera, J.; Shawmin Lei, “Rate control in DCT video coding for low-delay communications,” IEEE Trans. On Circuits and System for Video Tech., Vol. 9, NO. 1, pp.172-185, Feb., 1999.
[20] W. Ding; B. Liu, “Rate control of MPEG video coding and recording by rate-quantization modeling,” IEEE Trans. On Circuits and System for Video Tech., Vol. 6, NO. 1, pp.12-20, Feb., 1996.
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