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研究生:王信欽
論文名稱:台灣東北部沿岸海域矽藻群集之季節變動
論文名稱(外文):Seasonal variation of diatom assemblages in northeast coast of Taiwan
指導教授:蔣國平蔣國平引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:漁業科學學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:34
中文關鍵詞:台灣東北部沿岸海域季節變化矽藻群集背景群集
外文關鍵詞:Northeasterern coast of TaiwanSeasonal variationDiatom AssemblageBackground Assemblage
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為了解本省東北部沿岸海域矽藻群集與海洋環境的關係,由2001年2月至2002年2月進行採樣分析。使用主成分分析法可分辨出三種水型和四種矽藻群集。水型會呈現明顯的季節變化,其中2種低溫的水型出現在冬末(2001)及初冬(2001-2002),前者較後者有較高的磷酸鹽濃度;高溫且低營養鹽的水型則出現在夏季。矽藻數量呈現兩個季節變化型態(暖季>22℃、冷季<22℃),同時發現4種矽藻群集。溫度可能是主要限制因子使得冷季時期(冬末和初冬)呈現出密度較低的背景群集;在暖季時期,矽藻豐度呈現兩個高峰,一是梅雨群集(Rainy Assemblage)、另一是颱風群集(Typhoon Assemblage)。梅雨群集(Rainy Assemblage)是由於雨水的流入攜入矽酸鹽所產生;而颱風群集(Typhoon Assemblage),可能是由鞭毛蟲和纖毛蟲所釋放出的再生性磷酸鹽所造成的。此外,夏季也會隅而出現夏季群集(Summer Assemblage),但背景群集仍是暖季最主要出現的群集。我們推論背景群集會受到環境的變化影響,使得組成及數量發生增加或改變而成為颱風群集(Typhoon Assemblage)或梅雨群集(Rainy Assemblage)。
The temporal variation of diatom assemblages at a station on the northeasterern coast of Taiwan was investigated together with hydrographical characteristics during the period from February 2001 to February 2002. Using principal component analyses, 3 water types and 4 diatom assemblages were defined. Water types showed a clear seasonal variation. Two lower temperature water types were found in the winter-spring (2001) and fall-winter (2001-2002), former had higher phosphate concentration while the latter was low in phosphate. A high temperature and low nutrient water type was observed in summer. A two-phased (warm>22℃; cold<22℃) seasonal cycle with 4-fold variation was found in the diatom assemblages. In the cold season (winter —spring and fall-winter), when temperature is probably a limiting factor, a low density Background Assemblage existed throughout this period. In warm season, diatom abundance showed a bimodal distribution with two peaks, a Rainy Peak and a Typhoon peak. A total of four diatom assemblages occurred during this period. The Rainy Peak (Rainy Assemblage) was induced by dissolved silica which was brought in by the rain water. The typhoon peak (Typhoon Assemblage) was probably resulted from phosphate regenerated from nanoflagellates and ciliates. The Summer Assemblage was sporadically observed in this season. In addition, the Background Assemblage was also commonly found in the season. Our results suggest that Background Assemblage will change into a new and enhanced assemblage according to various events such as the Typhoon Assemblage and the Rainy Assemblage.
摘要 Ⅰ
Abstract Ⅱ
目錄 Ⅲ
表目錄 Ⅴ
圖目錄 Ⅵ
第一章 前言 ..1
第二章 材料方法 ..3
2.1 採樣與測站 ..3
2.2 矽藻的計數及分類 ..3
2.3 水文參數 ..4
2.4 資料的分析 ..4
2.4-1環境因子 ..4
2.4-2矽藻群集 ..4
第三章 結果 ..6
3.1 沿岸環境 ..6
3.1-1 水文狀況 ..6
3.1-2 水文的主成分分析 ..7
3.2 葉綠素a與矽藻現存量 ..8
3.2-1 葉綠素a與矽藻組成的變化 ..8
3.2-2 矽藻的主成分分析 ..8
(1)梅雨群集 ..9
(2)夏季成長群集 ..9
(3)颱風群集 ..9
(4)背景群集 10
3.3水溫與矽藻豐度的關係 10
第四章 討論 11
4.1水型與矽藻族群分布 11
4.2矽藻群集的季節變化與環境 12
4.3颱風攪動與矽藻群集 13
參考文獻 16
Table 1 PC1 and PC2.eigenvectors from principal component analysis of the oceanographic data percentage of variance accounted for by each component is shown in parenthesis. 19
Table 2 PC1,PC2 and PC3 eigenvectors for 27(out of 70) most influential species used in the principal component analysis. Only species whose eigenvector value exceeded 0.2(indicated with an asterisk) for at least one principal component are shown here. Percentage of variance accounted for by each component is shown in parentheses. 20
Table 3 Spearman,s rank correlation Amory diatom abundance , chlorophyll a and physical (Temperature,daily integrated solar radiation, rain)and chemical(NO3,NO2,PO4,SIO4,) factors. 21
Fig 1 Map of the northeast of Taiwan. 22
Fig 2 Seasonal variations of temperature(A, ℃ )and daily integrated solar irradiance(B, MJ/m2/day) and monthly accumulative rainfall(C, mm/month) 23
Fig 3 Seasonal variation of nitrate (A;μM), nitrite (B;μM), phosphate (C; μM), silicate (D;μM)。Toraji indicates Typhoon. 24
Fig 4 Scatter diagram of PC1and PC2 of the principal component analysis using oceanographic data. Envelopes denote three clusters identified by an average cluster analysis.(Eucliden distribution=1.05) 25
Fig 5 A Scatter plot of the Seasonal distribution of water types A,B and C vs. Silicate concentrations. 26
Fig 6 Seasonal variation of total chlorophyll a concentration (A;μ g/L)、>10 μ m of chlorophyll a concentration(B;μ g/L), and the abundance of total diatom(C;cells/L) 27
Fig 7 Scatter diagram of PC1、PC2 and PC3 based on the principal component analysis of diatom species composition. The 3-dimensional diagrams with PC1、PC2 and PC3 as the X,Y, and Z-axis respectively.(Eucliden distribution=1) 28
Fig 8 Seasonal distribution of four diatom assemblages. Y:Background Assemblage, M:Rainy Assemblage, S:Summer Assemblage, T:Typhoon Assemblage. soild line indicate the diatom abundance(cells/L) 29
Fig 9 (A) the relationship between diatom abundance and temperature; (B) the relationship between average diatom abundance at a interval of one degree of temperature and temperature. 30
Fig 10 Seasonal variation of Nitzschia delicatissmma(A) and Chaetoceros atlanticus(B) 31Fig 11 Seasonal variation of daily average wind speed (A;m/s day) and daily accumulative rainfall (B;mm/day) in July and August, 2001. 32
Fig 12 The relationship between Phosphate(PO4) or Dissolved Silica(SIO4) and the distom of total diatom(A、B)、Chaetoceros atlanticus(C、D)、Nitzschia delicatissmma(E、F)、Thalassiosira sp. (G、H) with Rainy Assemblage ( ● ). 33
Fig 13 The relationship between Phosphate(PO4) or Dissolved Silica(SIO4) and the distom of total diatom(A、B)、Chaetoceros atlanticus(C、D)、Nitzschia delicatissmma(E、F)、Thalassiosira sp. (G、H) with Typhoon Assemblage ( ● ). 34
吳芷容 2002 台灣東北部沿岸海域纖毛蟲群集之季節變動與環境關係 國立台灣海洋大學環境科學與漁業科學系碩士論文
周佑軒 2001 東海矽藻族群冬季空間分布之研究 國立台灣海洋大學漁業科學系碩士論文
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