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研究生:邵泰源
研究生(外文):Shao Tai -Yuan
論文名稱:冷凍水產品物流系統之研究--以鯖漁業為例
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Mackerel and Scad Fishery in Fishery Products Logistics System
指導教授:李國添李國添引用關係廖坤靜廖坤靜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lee Kuo -TienLiao Kun-Ching
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:漁業科學學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:水產品鯖漁業冷凍貨櫃
外文關鍵詞:Fishery ProductsMackerel and Scad FisheryReefer Container
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:4
摘要
我國近年來由於經濟發展,民生富裕,國民消費習慣顯著改變,諸如國內產業成本大幅提高,因之,農、漁、牧產品勢必仰賴冷凍、冷藏等技術,始能達到安全,完美之目標。國內冷凍水產品之冷凍鏈體系已逐漸形成,在此體系中,水產品物流中心居一樞紐地位。本文是以藉由分析層級程序法(Analytic Hierarchy Process, AHP ),解明影響目前水產品低溫物流中心經營成功的策略要素,最後根據策略要素進一步探討低溫物流中心經營管理上的策略建議。本研究結果顯示,水產品物流中心經營成功之策略要素有三,依序為內部作業電腦化管理、土地成本問題、完善的低溫倉儲設備。具體而言,本研究從水產品低溫物流中心內部經營管理著手,探討其策略要素,據以進一步取得競爭上的優勢,以供漁業界在應用低溫物流中心提升漁業競爭力時之參考依據。水產品冷凍倉儲業加入 WTO之後,水產品市場競爭更趨形劇烈,因此,建構水產品物流中心自動冷凍倉儲來從事水產品物流管理是必要工作。本實驗使用自動冷凍倉儲內溫度分布相似的模型規則理論,在實驗室利用模型規則理論使用1/10實體比例的模型,作一實驗來尋求最適化儲存料架、起重機設備和輸送帶系統之設置,再根據實驗結果來推測實體溫度分布的情形。結果顯示由模型實驗所導出實體的溫度分布,其溫差在3℃之內,此結果可供漁業界在建構自動冷凍倉儲時,推定冷凍倉儲內溫度分布之參考依據。
為尋找防止鯖漁獲鮮度不佳及貨損的最適物流條件,本實驗首先比較不同凍結溫度對鯖預冷貯存之影響,鯖魚體分別置於以-25℃預冷及-20℃預冷之凍結設備,實施急速冷凍,並定時測定其溫度。結果顯示,以-25℃送風式凍結法於凍結17小時,魚體中心溫度可以到達-19℃,而以-20℃送風式凍結法中心溫度為-15.1℃,而並無顯著的下降,距離指定運送溫度有3.9℃之溫差。當魚體表面溫度到達-19℃所須之時間,-20℃送風式凍結法為7小時、-25℃送風式凍結法為5小時。其次,比較不同積載方式對鯖漁獲之影響,鯖魚體分別以水平積載、垂直積載及超高積載方式置於以-19℃之冷凍模擬櫃,實施急速冷凍,並定時測溫。結果顯示,水平、垂直積載櫃內溫差沒有超過3℃,而超高積載方式則有超過3℃。接著,比較不同斷電期間對鯖鮮度之影響,冷凍貨櫃斷電期間,冷風循環停止,櫃內溫度將會逐漸上升,同時溫差也必然增加。短期間斷電以蘇澳運送至基隆時間2~3小時,對冷凍鯖影響有限,但人為因素延遲交櫃,而造成較長期間如隔日交櫃而斷電18小時以上,對冷凍鯖漁獲就有影響。結果顯示,以運送協議許可斷電8小時,魚體表面溫度上升至-15.6℃左右,中心溫度為-16.1℃,而櫃溫上升至-14.6℃。如以斷電18小時,魚體表面溫度上升至-11.8℃左右,中心溫度為-12.5℃,櫃內溫度為-9.5℃。
冷凍貨櫃(Reefer Container)為裝置有小型高性能冷凍機用以承載冷凍水產品之貨櫃,具有可在-25℃至+25℃間任意調整櫃內溫度並能保持於該設定溫度之功能,以及具有快速、便捷、保養容易,直接運至工廠冷凍庫等優點。在冷凍水產品配送計劃中,冷凍貨櫃配送路線安排的適當與否,將直接影響運輸成本及服務效率。近年來,國內有不少學者提出類神經網路的方法,並將其應用在巡迴銷售員最佳化的研究,但水產品物流中心冷凍貨櫃運送路線方面,國內文獻尚屬不多見有相關研究。因此,本文是以藉由類神經網路之快速運算、自組織及平行處理的特性,應用在冷凍貨櫃路線運送問題的求解上。最後,本研究結果顯示,所導出之模式可在很短的時間內解決路線規劃之問題,此結果可供水產品物流中心冷凍貨櫃配送路線規劃之參考。
供應鏈管理效益的提升有賴於業者內部整體資訊的密切配合,因此供應鏈管理系統可視為一個必須整合業者的營運流程、組織、科技、製程及產品等各類活動與資源,以達到資源有效利用及提升企業整體競爭力為目標的業者資源整合系統。供應鏈管理架構包含主要模組如下:1)供應鏈管控台(Supply Chain Cockpit)為一圖形化的發號中心。使用者可透過此一特殊設計的圖形界面瀏覽監控整個供應鏈上的所有活動,包括物料、產能、運輸及倉儲條件及分析運輸效能成本流及產能等。2)需求規劃(Demand Planning)模組主要提供一套精準的統計分析及預測工具。3)供給網路規劃(Supply Network Planning)模組主要在因應業者需求而規劃整個供應網,使採購、生產及運輸流程彼此互相搭配,以達網路平衡及最適化目標。4)生產規劃及細部排程(Production Planning & Detailed Scheduling)模組此模組集合數種工具,在協助企業因應市場條件的變化而能迅速反應。5)全球允交(ATP;Available to Promise)模組因應全球的供需,使供給皆能達成應允的需求條件,並保証能將應允業者的貨品送交客戶。
最後,本論文首先編成一組運輸倉儲管理系統,利用分析層級程序法(AHP) 粹取經營管理之策略要素,依此策略要素而建構最適化自動冷凍倉儲及規劃最佳冷凍貨櫃配送之路線,並藉由供應鏈管理系統導入來整合水產品物流橫向及縱向管理之系統,以建立冷凍鯖漁業物流系統之初步研究。
Abstract
Recently, owing to the rapid economic growth and the increase in higher consumption of reefer commodities, the food industry will become more and more reliable on the technology of frozen production to maintain the quality of its products. Cold chain systems of fishery products are developing in Taiwan, and cold storage distribution for Fishery products centers play an important role within the systems in research reviews, however, only a limited few has discussed the strategic factors of management for this type of distribution centers. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify the strategic factors for this type of distribution centers by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The results of this research indicate that there are three strategic factors in determining the success of the distribution centers. These factors are: (1) computerization of internal operations, (2) land cost, and (3) cold storage warehouse facility. In sum, this study focuses on the strategic management factors of the fishery products cold storage distribution centers and provides the findings as a source of reference for the fishery industry to increase their competitiveness.
In light of Taiwan''s upcoming entry into the WTO, fishery products cold warehouse operators must prepare themselves to meet the market needs and be competitive. Therefore, the need to establish fishery products distribution management system becomes the immediate task in preparing the industry. An automated cold warehouse requires extensive space to house its numerous storage racks, crane facility, and conveyor system. Its ceiling height reaches 30 meters and covering the net room space of 18,000 cubic meters. Prior to construction of the cold warehouse, an experiment is initiated to investigate the temperature distribution through the use of a simulated model (1/10 scale). This experiment uses the theory of similarity to match the Archimedes’ number of the temperature distribution of the model with that of the actual entity. The result of the experiment shows a maximum of 3℃ difference between the model and the actual entity. Such finding can be used as a reference when warehouse distribution companies are considering to build an automated cold warehouse.
To preserve the freshness and to prevent cargo damaged of frozen mackerel and scad, the condition on logistical process were optimized. The effects of the -25℃ air blast and -20℃ air blast freezing methods on the pre-cooling stowage of mackerel and scad were also investigated. After 17 hours of freezing by -25℃ air blast, the of frozen products reached -19℃, whereas by -20℃ air blast, the temperature of the products reached -15.1℃(3.9℃ temperature difference to transport temperature). When body surface temperature was -19℃, the -20℃ air blast was 7 hours, whereas the -25℃ air blast was 5hours. The effects of the horizontal stowage, vertical stowage and over load stowage on the different stowage methods of mackerel and scad were also investigated. After freezing by -19℃ air blast, the temperature difference for horizontal stowage and vertical stowage was<3℃, and the temperature difference for the over load stowage was>3℃, after 8 hours of power down time, body surface temperature rose to -15.6℃, central temperature was -16.1℃; after 18 hours of power down time, body surface temperature rose to -11.8℃, central temperature was -12.5℃, container temperature was -9.5℃.
Reefer containers are refrigerated containers for fishery products equipped with small-sized, high efficiency refrigeration. The interior temperatures of these containers can be maintained at -25℃ to +25℃, allowing fishery products to arrive at distribution centers faster, easier and more conveniently. One other advantage of reefer containers is that maintenance is easy. In fishery products routing, the proper arrangement of routing designs has a direct effect on freight and service efficiency. In recent years, researchers have proposed the use artificial neural network in studying the efficiency of traveling salesmen. The key beneficial factors in artificial neural network are that (1) quick operation, (2) self-organizing, and (3) parallel manipulation. In the field of reefer container routing design, however, such study is not widely seen. Therefore, this paper is aimed at solving the problems usually associated with reefer container routing design through the use of artificial neural network. Results from this study show that reefer container routing problems can be resolved using the module that this study derived at. This result can be used as reference for distribution centers’ routing designs.
The performance of Supply Chain Management depends on the internal operation of information of processing. Supply Chain Management system can integrate the various activities such as operation process, organization, technology, manufacturing and production, which in funs increase competitiveness among operators and promote effective utilization of resources. The layers of Supply Chain Management are: (1) Supply Chain Cockpit, (2) Demand Planning module, (3) Supply Network Planning module, (4) Production Planning & Detailed module, (5) ATP (Available to Promise module).
This study constitutes a transportation and warehouse management system by applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It focuses on the strategic management factors of the fishery products cold storage distribution centers and provides the findings as a source of reference for the fishery industry to build an automated cold warehouse and for distribution centers’ routing designs. The Supply Chain Management can be integrated into the fishery products management system, and the fundamental studies of the logistics system of the mackerel and scad fishery can be established.
論文章節目次
第一章 緒 論
1.1 研究背景 ---------------------------------------------- 1
1.2 研究目的 --------------------------------------------- 10
1.3 論文流程慨要 ----------------------------------------- 15
第二章 材料與方法
2.1 鯖漁獲貯存、積載之溫度實驗 ------------------------- 17
2.1.1不同凍結溫度對鯖預冷貯存之影響 -------------------- 18
2.1.2積載方式對鯖裝櫃運送之影響 ------------------------ 18
2.1.3貨櫃斷電對鯖鮮度之影響 ---------------------------- 20
2.2 經營要素、粹取及理論基礎 ----------------------------- 21
2.3 自動冷凍倉儲之溫度實驗 ------------------------------- 26
2.3.1 模型規則理論 --------------------------------------- 28
2.3.2 實驗方法 ------------------------------------------- 30
2.4 冷凍貨櫃之配送路線 ----------------------------------- 33
2.4.1 TSP原理 -------------------------------------------- 33
2.4.2網路架構 -------------------------------------------- 38
2.4.3 RCRP學習演算法 ------------------------------------- 41
2.5 水產品供應鏈管理之建構 ------------------------------- 43
2.5.1供應鏈管理 ------------------------------------------ 44
2.5.2 供應鏈作業參考模式---------------------------------- 46
2.5.3供應鏈管理系統 -------------------------------------- 48
2.5.4規劃與排程系統--------------------------------------- 49
第三章 結 果
3.1 鯖漁獲之溫度實驗結果-------------------------------- 51
3.1.1凍結溫度對鯖預冷貯存之影響------------------------- 51
3.1.2積載方式對鯖裝櫃運送之影響------------------------- 51
3.1.3斷電對鯖鮮度之影響--------------------------------- 52
3.2 經營管理之策略要素及分析 ----------------------------- 59
3.2.1 分析結果 ------------------------------------------- 59
3.2.2 策略要素 ------------------------------------------- 70
3.3 自動冷凍倉儲之溫度實驗結果 --------------------------- 74
3.4 配送路線之測試結果及分析 ----------------------------- 81
3.4.1 範例測試與分析 ------------------------------------- 81
3.4.2 G值、r值之設定 ------------------------------------ 86
3.5 供應鏈管理架構之組成 -------------------------------- 90
第四章 討 論
4.1 鯖漁獲之溫度實驗 ---------------------------------- 93
4.2 管理策略要素之粹取 ---------------------------------- 94
4.3 自動冷凍倉儲之溫度實驗 ------------------------------ 96
4.4 配送區域及路線規劃之決定 ---------------------------- 96
4.5 供應鏈管理系統之整合 -------------------------------- 97
謝辭 ----------------------------------------------------- 99
參考文獻 ------------------------------------------------ 100
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