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研究生:蕭良堅
研究生(外文):Liang-Jian Shiau
論文名稱:南海東南海域晚第四紀生物源沉積物記錄與古氣候之研究(IMAGES岩心MD972142)
論文名稱(外文):A Study on a Late Quaternary Record of Biogenic Sedimentation and Paleoclimatology from the Southeastern South China Sea (IMAGES core MD972142)
指導教授:陳明德陳明德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Min-Te Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:應用地球物理研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:生物源沉積物碳酸鹽有機碳生物源蛋白石東亞季風U37k’海水表面溫度
外文關鍵詞:biogenic sedimentcarbonateTOCbiogenic opalEast Asian MonsoonU37k’-SST
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本文分析國際海洋全球變遷計劃(International Marine Global Change Study:IMAGES)於1997年第三航次於菲律賓的巴拉望島西北隅所採的岩心MD972142中的碳酸鹽(Carbonate)、有機碳(Total Organic Carbon:TOC)以及生物源蛋白石(Biogenic Opal)的含量,及其所顯示的古氣候意義。本岩心全長35.91公尺,平均沉積速率約為4cm/kyr,提供了南海東南海域87萬年來的沉積紀錄。其中碳酸鹽含量的變化呈現出間冰期高,冰期低的變化形式,可能是受到冰期時陸源物質輸入的增加所導致。有機碳含量則與碳酸鹽含量相反,呈現出冰期高,間冰期低的型態。可能是冰期時東北季風增強導致海洋生物生產力增加所致。蛋白石含量則表現出間冰期高,冰期低的變化型態,但在330 kya之後,則表現出和有機碳含量一樣有逐漸增加的趨勢。頻譜分析的結果顯示,這三種指標都具有其特性。碳酸鹽跟有機碳以離心率和歲差週期為主,反映冰川體積和季風變化的效應;蛋白石則以地軸傾角和歲差週期為主,反映保存度和季風的效應。由頻譜與濾波分析的結果,也表現出在40~50萬年前後相位與振幅的不一致性,可能與晚第四紀太平洋地區氣候系統不穩定的非線性回饋有關。在MD972142的岩心記錄中同時紀錄了東亞季風的訊號。南海東南海域的有機碳含量與阿拉伯海的生產力紀錄具有良好的對比關係,可能顯示區域性的冬季季風變化。而由相位分析發現MD972142中的蛋白石與南半球及東赤道太平洋的海水表面溫度同相,暗示西南季風與南半球的聯繫性。
High resolution records of biogenic sediments from an IMAGES core MD972142 (12°41.133''N, 119°27.90''E, water depth 1,557m) provide information of paleoceanographic variations in the Southeastern South China Sea (SCS). We have generated 870-kyr long records of carbonate, organic carbon, and biogenic opal contents from this core. Constrained by planktic foraminifer (G. ruber) oxygen isotope stratigraphies, the records show in general high carbonate, high biogenic opal and low organic carbon concentrations in interglacial stages, and low carbonate and high organic carbon in glacial stages. This pattern indicates that the carbonate content maybe controlled by terrigenous inputs which are associated with sea level fluctuations in the past glacial-interglacial stages. The organic carbon record contains several high content peaks which are associated with lower SSTs estimated by using U37k’-SST (especially in 340-360 kya and in 430-440 kya), implying possibly a winter monsoon-driven productivity changes. I also found that organic carbon events in these intervals can be correlated to monsoon records from Arabian Sea areas. The biogenic opal data also show the same general long-term increased trend since 330 kya as organic carbon content. In addition, I used cross-spectral analyses to study the biogenic records and found that the carbonate record shows clearly Milankovitch orbital periods in 100-kyr 41-kyr, and 23-kyr, but the organic carbon record shows complex spectra mixed with orbital-related and non-orbital periods, and in-phase with ice volume maximum, which also indicate that winter monsoon related to ice volume changes. The biogenic opal record shows peaks in 41-kyr and 23-kyr, and the phase in 23-kyr band is the same with southern hemisphere and East Equatorial Pacific records, which may be reflect summer monsoon changes and climatic singles from southern hemisphere. The U37k’-SST shows clear orbital periods and in-phase with ice volume minium. After 400 kya the organic carbon and opal data show more dominance non-orbital periods. The presence of the non-orbital periods is attributed to non-linear climate response, which has been extensively-reported from many low-lattitude records. Every biogenic proxy shows different pattens after Mid-Brunhes event (~400 kya), which indicate ~400 kya is a climate change transition. The long-term increased trend of organic carbon and opal may be attributed to increase intensity of East Asian Monsoon by tectonics.
授權書………………………………………………………………………………………………… I
致謝…………………………………………………………………………………………………… III
摘要…………………………………………………………………………………………………… V
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………… VII
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………………………… IX
表目錄………………………………………………………………………………………………… X
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………………………… X
附錄…………………………………………………………………………………………………… XI
題目…………………………………………………………………………………………………… XII
一、緒論……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
1.1 研究區域地質與氣候背景……………………………………………………………………… 1
1.2 前人研究…………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.3 研究目的………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
二、 研究材料與方法……………………………………………………………………………… 7
2.1 岩心樣品之取得與實驗室處理…………………………………………………………………… 7
2.2 岩心沉積物之生物源組成………………………………………………………………………… 7
2.2.1 碳含量分析……………………………………………………………………………………… 8
2.2.2 生物源蛋白石含量的分析…………………………………………………………………… 10
2.2.3 沉積物中烯酮類不飽和有機物及陸源有機物………………………………………………… 12
2.3 年代模式的建立…………………………………………………………………………………… 17
2.4 質量累積率的計算………………………………………………………………………………… 17
2.5 時間序列分析……………………………………………………………………………………… 18
三、 結果……………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
3.1 年代模式與沉積速率…………………………………………………………………………… 20
3.2 碳酸鹽含量與質量累積率的變化……………………………………………………………… 20
3.3 有機碳含量與質量累積率的變化……………………………………………………………… 22
3.4 生物源蛋白石含量與質量累積率的變化………………………………………………………… 23
3.5 烯酮類不飽和指標古海水溫度(U37k’-SST)…………………………………………………… 25
3.6 烯酮類不飽和有機物及長鍊狀正烷類濃度………………………………………………………………………… 25
3.7 時間序列分析…………………………………………………………………………………… 26
3.7.1 交頻譜分析…………………………………………………………………………………… 26
3.7.2 濾波分析………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
四、討論……………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
4.1 南海東南海域生物源沉積物含量的控制因子………………………………………………………… 31
4.1.1 碳酸鹽的變動…………………………………………………………………………………… 31
4.1.2 有機碳的變動…………………………………………………………………………………… 32
4.1.3 生物源蛋白石的變動………………………………………………………………………… 34
4.2 南海東南海域87萬年來的氣候 36
4.2.1 軌道力週期的變化……………………………………………………………………………… 36
4.2.2 布容中期的變化…………………………………………………………………………………… 39
4.3.3 長週期的氣候變化……………………………………………………………………………… 40
五、結論……………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
圖表說明……………………………………………………………………………………………… 51
表目錄
表一、含碳實驗精確度與準確度…………………………………………………………………… 55
表二、生物源蛋白石實驗精確度及誤差……………………………………………………………… 56
圖目錄
圖一、岩心MD972142位置圖………………………………………………………………………… 57
圖二、南海(a)冬季(b)夏季表層洋流圖……………………………………………………………… 58
圖三、南海冬夏季表層水溫度及鹽度圖……………………………………………………………… 59
圖四、碳酸鹽及有機碳分析流程圖…………………………………………………………………… 60
圖五、烯酮類不飽和有機物和長鍊狀正烷類分析流程圖………………………………………… 61
圖六、氣相層析儀圖譜一……………………………………………………………………………… 62
圖七、氣相層析儀圖譜二……………………………………………………………………………… 63
圖八、MD972142的沉積速率及年代模式……………………………………………………………… 64
圖九、MD972142磁感率、碳酸鹽、有機碳以及蛋白石含量、U37k’-SST,氧同位素對
深度變化圖………………………………………………………………………………… 65
圖十、MD972142碳酸鹽、有機碳以及蛋白石含量、U37k’-SST,氧同位素對年代
變化圖…………………………………………………………………………………… 66
圖十一、MD972142碳酸鹽、有機碳、蛋白石的質量累積率………………………………………… 67
圖十二、MD972142碳酸鹽含量,烯酮類不飽和有機物濃度,有孔蟲殼體保存率,
長鍊狀正烷類濃度圖………………………………………………………………………… 68
圖十三、MD972142沉積速率,有機碳含量,長鍊狀正烷類濃度,烯酮類不飽和有機
物濃度圖………………………………………………………………………………… 69
圖十四、碳酸鹽含量與氧同位素的交頻譜分析圖…………………………………………………… 70
圖十五、有機碳含量與氧同位素的交頻譜分析圖…………………………………………………… 71
圖十六、蛋白石含量與氧同位素的交頻譜分析圖…………………………………………………… 72
圖十七、U37k''-SST與氧同位素的交頻譜分析圖…………………………………………………… 73
圖十八、碳酸鹽及氧同位素在中布容期事件前後的交頻譜分析圖,以及在軌道力週期
的濾波分析與相位變化圖…………………………………………………………………… 74
圖十九、有機碳及氧同位素在中布容期事件前後的交頻譜分析圖,以及在軌道力週期
的濾波分析與相位變化圖…………………………………………………………………… 75
圖二十、蛋白石及氧同位素在中布容期事件前後的交頻譜分析圖,以及在軌道力週期
的濾波分析與相位變化圖…………………………………………………………………… 76
圖二十一、MD972142的有機碳紀錄與阿拉伯海地區(ODP723及KL15)的生產力紀錄
比較……………………………………………………………………………………… 77
圖二十二、岩心MD972142與17957的蛋白石含量,ODP 723有機碳含量比較圖………………… 78
圖二十三、MD972142生物源沉積物指標和其他區域紀錄連比在100-kyr週期的
相位輪…………………………………………………………………………………… 79
圖二十四、MD972142生物源沉積物指標和其他區域紀錄連比在23-kyr週期的
相位輪…………………………………………………………………………………… 80
圖二十五、岩心MD972142與西赤道太平洋岩心NGC34及C4402有機碳記錄比較圖………… 81
附錄一、MD972142碳酸鹽及有機碳含量與質量累積率………………………………………… 82
附錄二、MD972142生物源蛋白石含量與質量累積率…………………………………………… 89
附錄三、MD972142U37k''-SST及烯酮類不飽和有機物濃度……………………………………… 94
附錄四、MD972142長鍊狀正烷類濃度…………………………………………………………… 97
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