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研究生:黃金錢
研究生(外文):Chin-Chien Huang
論文名稱:南海南部過去十五萬年來之古氣候記錄:IMAGES岩心MD972151
論文名稱(外文):A 150,000-years Record of Southern South China Sea Paleoclimatology: IMAGES Core MD972151
指導教授:陳明德陳明德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Min-Te Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:應用地球物理研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:古氣候浮游性有孔蟲反射率
外文關鍵詞:Paleoclimatologyplanktonic foraminiferareflectance
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低緯度海洋是全球的熱儲存所,其在大氣與海洋之間的交互關係上扮演著舉足輕重的角色,西太平洋暖池及東亞季風這兩大海洋與氣候系統不僅影響東亞的水文狀態,同時亦控制全球氣候的變化。南海位於歐亞大陸邊緣,深受東亞季風之影響;另外,南海亦位處於西太平洋暖池之邊緣,故研究南海可提供認識東亞季風演變之過程,且可一窺西太平洋暖池之演變史。
本研究利用國際古海洋全球變遷研究計畫於南海探取所得之高解析度深海岩心MD972151,進行分析、鑑種浮游性有孔蟲群聚資料,依據基礎統計分析結果得到五個浮游性有孔蟲優勢種屬,G.ruber, N.dutertrei + G.pachyderma(R.), G.sacculifer, P.obliquiloculata, G.glutinata,其總合為75%。此外,除分析岩心MD972151之浮游性有孔蟲群聚資料外,亦收集西太平洋767個岩心頂樣,並結合NOAA水文資料,藉由重新修正之轉換函數方法挑選出共變量>0.6共687個岩心頂樣,來重建南海岩心MD972151過去十五萬年來之冷暖季海水表面溫度、18劍溫躍層深度、0.5劍混合層深度、及0.125st混合層深度等變化。
南海海水之表面溫度變化與氧同位素表現一致,呈現冰期低,間冰期高之循環模式,並有數個溫度回冷之現象,且各水文參數均顯示出類似中─高緯度大西洋深海岩心與南、北極冰川岩心之記錄Heinrich 事件與新仙女木事件與多起似大陸黃土剖面記錄之氣候回冷事件。此外經頻譜分析岩心MD972151冷季海水表面溫度,結果呈現明顯之歲差週期(23kyr) 變化,顯示本區域過去海洋環境變化深受季風之影響。另一方面岩心MD972151冷季之海水表面溫度最大值與混合層厚度最小值變化與全球冰川體積之交頻譜分析結果顯示海水表面溫度之歲差週期與全球冰川體積最小值呈現同相位之變化;混合層厚度最小值則稍落後全球冰川體積最小值之變化,此意味著熱帶地區之氣候變化較北半球之冰川體積變化先受到南半球之氣候改變影響。
另外,亦利用因子分析岩心反射色資料之一階導數因子,及利用前人研究之成果進行判斷鐵的氧化礦物如針鐵礦與赤鐵礦隨時間之變化:冰期時,研究區域之氣候較為乾燥,故赤鐵礦因子負荷重值相對高於間冰期之時;而針鐵礦因子負荷重值則是間冰期高於冰期之變化,反應出間冰期之區域降雨量高於冰期,且針鐵礦因子負荷重值於離心率週期上領先全球冰川體積之變化,而於歲差週期上呈現同相位之變化,顯示歲差週期對於季風區域氣候變化之重要性。並藉由不同方法量測所得之代表區域性降雨量變化之指標參數:剛性等溫殘磁,與岩心反射率一階導數微分,均顯示出冰消期時區域性降雨增加領先氧同位素資料之變化,暗示著熱帶地區區域性雨量增加與暖化現象較冰川體積變化來的早。
Low latitude oceans play an important role in the interaction of atmosphere and ocean and the heat budget of the world. Western Pacific Warm Pool and East Asia monsoon, the two major climate components, not only impact the hydro-condition of east Asia, but also control the global climate change. The South China Sea (SCS), the largest marginal sea of the western Pacific, is presently under the influences of East Asia monsoon and Western Pacific Warm Pool. Therefore sedimentary records from this area provide opportunities for examining western Pacific climate variability over time scales of long-term changes. In this study I report high-resolution records of planktic foraminiferal assemblages, faunal-derived estimates of SST and thermocline depth, mixed-layer depth, and color reflectance spanning the past 150,000 years from a giant piston core taken from the southern SCS in an IMAGES III cruise in 1997 (MD972151: 843.73''N, 10952.17''E, water depth: 1589m).
Based on planktic foraminiferal assemblages data, I found that the core are dominated by five species which constitute over 75% of total planktic foraminifer compositions: G.ruber, N.dutertrei + G.pachyderma(R.), G.sacculifer, P.obliquiloculata, and G.glutinata. Besides this, I also collected published 767 coretops data from the western Pacific Ocean and using Revised Transfer Function (RTF) method to reconstruct the warm/cold season paleo-hydrographics for the past 150,000 years: sea surface temperature, depth of thermocline (criteria of 18劍), and depth of mixing layer (criteria of 0.5劍 and 0.125st). Cross-spectral analysis indicates that sea surface temperature is in phase with the global ice volume in precession frequency bands, and leads the global ice volume in eccentricity frequency bands. The mixed layer depth leads global ice volume in eccentricity frequency bands but lags in precession frequency bands.
The records of core MD972151 exhibit not only glacial/interglacial variations but also high frequency, millenarian-scale variations such as the Younger Dryas-like and Heinrich-like events that have been reported from studies on high latitude Atlantic Ocean cores and ice cores of Greenland ice sheet, and some large-amplitude variations which seem to be synchronous with events of coarse grain size found in Chinese loess.
Factor analysis of the color reflectance data measured using Minolta 2022 from the sediment surface of the core indicates three factors interpretable of sediment compositional changes. Three factors explain totally 82% variance of the first derivative spectra of the color reflectance data. Factor 1 represents carbonate/non-carbonate. Factor 2 has a major peak near 525nm and a minor peak near 445nm, which may represent goethite content. Factor 3 peaks near 565nm and represents hematite content variability. Using the factors as proxies for precipitation changes I observed that the precipitation increased before the beginning of major deglaciations. It implies a more active role of the tropical oceans in global climate change.
壹、緒論
1.1南海環境背景
1.2區域水文
1.3前人研究
1.4研究目的
貳、材料與方法
2.1 研究材料
2.1.1 深海岩心
2.1.2 表層沉積物
2.1.3 水文資料
2.2岩心樣本之前置處理
2.2.1碳氧同位素分析與有孔蟲化石組成鑑定
2.2.2岩心反射色與有機碳、碳酸鹽迴歸分析
2.3分析、研究方法
2.3.1鑑種分析
2.3.2 岩心沉積物表面反射色測量與分析
2.3.3 岩心沉積物碳組成分析
2.4資料處理
2.4.2浮游性有孔蟲之相對豐度
2.4.3古生態轉換函數之建立
2.4.4有機碳及碳酸鹽含量經驗方程式
2.4.5交頻譜分析(Cross-Spectral Analysis)
參、研究結果
3.1 年代模式與沈積速率
3.2 岩心記錄MD972151之浮游性有孔蟲基礎敘述統計分析與相對豐度變化
3.3轉換函數與古水文環境之估測
3.4時間序列分析與交頻譜分析(Cross-Spectra Analysis)
3.5千年尺度之高頻變化
3.6岩心沉積物表面反射色與礦物組成變化
3.7地球化學資料分析與經驗方程式
肆、討論
4.1 冰期─間冰期南海南部之轉換函數古水文環境估測
4.2 區域事件
4.3 高頻氣候事件
4.4 岩心沉積物表面反射色與礦物之組成
伍、結論
陸、參考文獻
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