跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.225.157) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/15 23:53
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:施泰華
研究生(外文):SHIH TAI-HWA
論文名稱:我國蛋品消費風險分析管理之探討
論文名稱(外文):Management of Risk Analysis on Shell Eggs Consumption in Taiwan
指導教授:張正明張正明引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士在職專班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:風險分析食品衛生檢驗及動植物檢疫措施協定
外文關鍵詞:eggrisk analysisSPS@Risk
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:638
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:196
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
風險分析管理係經由實施選擇性風險所採用之適當措施,目前己被應用於食品安全管理以保護大眾之健康。國際組織如世界貿易組織(WTO)、世界衛生組織(WHO)及國際糧農組織(FAO)已建議各國政府食品衛生部門予以採用,其包含有:風險評估、風險管理及風險溝通三部份風險分析管理之食品安全。隨著我國於今(2002)年加入世界貿易組織後,就必須遵照國際規範之食品衛生檢驗及動植物檢疫措施協定(The Agreement of Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures, SPS),該協定則強調應以科學之風險分析管理做為國際食品貿易之基礎。
本研究係以現有調查數據做為基礎以建立蛋品風險分析管理之模式,供政府衛生管理機關及蛋品產業之決策。以風險定性化分析發現蛋品中潛在之危害,生物性危害則以Salmonella enteritidis 、動物用藥殘留危害如:磺胺藥類、抗生素、化學性藥物殘留及重金屬(鉛及銅)污染等化學性之危害,提供管理之決策。並以電腦軟體Monte Carlo (@Risk)量化上述蛋品中定性危害物質對於消費者之風險量。其結果於Salmonella spp.之中風險2%及低風險之0.19%。而磺胺類殘留物質(包括SMM、SDM、SQX、及SMX)從高風險性之0.11﹪至中風險之0.03﹪。抗生素殘留(如Tetracycline)、及Pyrimethamine、Ormethoprim為高風險性之0.02﹪至0.005﹪。而重金屬之鉛及銅污染則以中風險性之0.4﹪至0.13﹪。經由風險評估之資料可提供政府相關機關、消費者或產業界,了解如何運用風險評估及風險管理之模式做為食品安全管理及立法之依據,進而可做為爾後國際貿易爭端之策略運用。
本研究係我國首次以調查數據探討國人消費農產品之風險分析模式,以運用科學化之定量風險分析管理且強調於評估政策之可行性及實用性,並兼具符合國際化之SPS政策透明性之規範。
Management of risk analysis has been applied to food safety management to protect public health from risks associated with food through the selection and implementation of appropriate measures. International organizations such as WTO, WHO and FAO recommend government’s food authorities to adopt the components of risk analysis: risk assessment, risk management and risk communication, to approach the control of food safety. The international regulations -Agreement of Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS) should be complied in the wake of Taiwan as a member in WTO January 2002. The scientific risk analysis stressed by SPS is the prime foundation in the international food trade.
This study establishes an egg risk analysis model from available survey data to develop a decision making process to assist either government authorities or egg industry. Biological hazard: Salmonella enteritidis, and chemical hazards: sulfa drugs, antibiotics, and heavy metal (lead and copper) contaminants associated with eggs are identified as significant hazards and used to assess the potential risks and their managerial strategies. The Monte Carlo (@Risk) computer software is used to quantify the public health risk associated with egg consumption. As a result of risk value of Salmonella spp. was in moderate risk 2% and low risk 0.19%. The risk of sulfa drugs (including SMM, SDM, SQX and SMX) residues presenting in shell eggs from high to moderate risk categories were 0.11-0.03%, the antibiotics residues -tetracycline, or pyrimethamine, and ormethoprim in high risk categories were 0.005-0.02%, while the heavy metals were 0.4 to 0.13% for moderate risk categories, respectively. Results of risk analysis provide information to government authorities, consumer, and egg processors understanding how risk assessment and management model can be applied in developing food safety control measures and legislations. Further, this control strategy should make available to international organization or trade partner countries in case of trade dispute occur.
This is the first trial of applying field data to develop risk analysis model for Taiwan agricultural products. The ultimate goals of risk analysis are not only measuring and quantifying risks scientifically, but also emphasizing in a more practical sense, for evaluating policy impact and feasibility, as well as for meeting the requirement of transparency principle under SPS agreement for the international trading communities.
CONTENTS
I.Contents-----------------------------------------------------I
II.Table contents---------------------------------------------IV
III.Figure contents--------------------------------------------V
Abstract in Chinese ------------------------------------------VI
Abstract in English ----------------------------------------VIII
1. INTRODUCTION------------------------------------------------1
2. MOTIVATION OF STUDYING--------------------------------------2
3. LITERATURE REVIEW-------------------------------------------4
3.1. Risk Assessment-------------------------------------------9
3.1.1. Hazard identification----------------------------------11
3.1.2. Hazard characterization--------------------------------13
3.1.2.1. Hazard characterization of biological nature---------13
3.1.2.2. Hazard characterization of chemical nature-----------15
3.1.3. Exposure assessment------------------------------------16
3.1.3.1. Exposure assessment of chemical hazards--------------16
3.1.3.2. Exposure assessment of chemical hazards--------------17
3.1.3.3. @Risk for risk analysis------------------------------19
3.1.4. Risk characterization----------------------------------24
3.2. Risk Management------------------------------------------26
3.2.1. Risk evaluation----------------------------------------27
3.2.2. Risk assessment----------------------------------------28
3.2.3. Option implementation----------------------------------29
3.2.4. Monitoring and review----------------------------------30
3.3. Risk Communication---------------------------------------30
3.3.1. Transparency-------------------------------------------31
3.3.2. Equivalence--------------------------------------------32
3.3.3. Difference effect risk analysis policy among nations---34
3.4. Risk Assessment of Shell Eggs----------------------------35
4. MATERIAL AND METHODS---------------------------------------39
5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION-------------------------------------44
5.1. Risk Analysis of Biological Hazards in Shell Eggs -------44
5.2. Risk Analysis of Chemical Hazards in Shell Eggs ---------45
6. RECOMMENDATIONS--------------------------------------------49
7. REFERENCES-------------------------------------------------53
@Risk 4.5, 2002. version Palisade Corporation. Newfield, NY. USA.
Ababouch, L., 2000. The role of government agencies in assessing HACCP. Food Control. 11:137-142.
Ahl, A.S., and Buntain, B., 1997. Risk and the food safety chain: animal health, public health and environment. Review Science Technique Office International Epizootic. 16:322-330.
Anadon, A., and Martinez-Larranage, M.R., 1999. Residues of antimicrobial drugs and feed additives in animal products: regulatory aspects. Livestock Production Science. 59:182-198.
Barlett, P.C., and Judge, L.J., 1997. The role of epidemiology in public health. Review Science Technique Office International Epizootic. 16:331-336.
Baynes, R.E., Martin-Jimenez, T., Craigmill, A.L., and Riviere, J.E, 1999. Estimating provisional acceptable residues for extralabel drug use in livestock. Regulatory toxicology and Pharmacology. 29:287-299.
Bemrah, N., Sanaa, M., Cassin, M. H., Griffiths, M. W., and Cerf, O., 1998. Quantitative risk assessment of human listeriosis from consumption of soft cheese made from raw milk. Prevent Veterinary Medicine. 37:129-145.
Billy, T.J., and Wachsmuth, I.K., 1997. Hazard analysis and critical control point system in the United State Department of Agriculture regulatory policy. Review Science Technique Office International Epizootic. 16:342-348.
Brown, M., 2000. HACCP in the meat industry. Woodhead Pblishin Limited. England. pp.293-317.
Braun, P., and Fehlhaber, K., 1995. Migration of Salmonella enteritidis from the albumen into the egg yolk. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 25:95-99.
Buchanan, R.L., Smith, J., and Long, W., 2000. Microbial risk assessment: dose-response relations and risk characterization. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 58:159-172.
Byrd, D. M., and Cothern, R., 2000. Introduction to risk analysis: a systematic approach to science-based decision. Government Institutes, Maryland, U.S.A. pp. 4-7.
Cassin, M.H., Lammerding, A.M., Todd, E.C.D., Ross W., and McColl R. S., 1998. Quantitative risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef hamburgers. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 41: 21-44.
Caswell, J.A., 2000. Economic approaches to measuring the significance of food safety in international trade. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 62: 261-266.
Cerniglia, C.E., and Kotarski, S., 1999. Evaluation of veterinary drug residues in food for their potential to affect human intestinal microflora. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 29:238-261.
COA, 2002. Annual Agriculture Report of Shell Egg production, Antibiotics and Chemical residues, Taipei.
Coleman, M.E., and Marks, H.M., 1999. Qualitative and quantitative risk assessment. Food Control. 10:289-297.
Collins, T.F.X., Sprando, R.L., Shackelford, M.E., Hansen, D.K., and Welsh, J.J., 1999. Food and Drug Administration proposed testing guidelines for developmental toxicity studies. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 30:39-44.
D’Aoust, J.Y., 1994. Salmonella and the international food trade. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 24:11-31.
Davies, R.H., and Wray, C., 1994. An approach to reduction of salmonella infection in broiler chicken flocks through intensive sampling and identification of cross-contamination hazards in commercial hatcheries. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 24:147-160.
Dawson, R. J., 1995. The role of the codex Alimentarius commission in setting food standards and the SPS agreement implementation. Food Control. 6:261-265
Deligenette-Muller, M.L., and Rosso, L., 2000. Biological variability and exposure assessment. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 58:203-212.
DOH, 2000. Annual Report of Heavy Metal contaminant, National Laboratories of Food and Drugs, Department of Health, Taiwan R.O.C. 2000. 18:180-186.
Duvall, S.T. and Barron, M.G., 2000. A screening level probabilistic risk assessment of mercury in Florida everglades food webs. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 47:298-305
Ebel, E., and Schlosser, W., 2000. Estimating the annual fraction of eggs contaminated with Salmonella enteritidis in the United States. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 61:51-62.
Edler, L., Poirier, K., Dourson, M., Kleiner, J., Mileiner, B., Nordmann, H., Renwick, A., Slob, W., and Würtzen, G., 2002. Mathematical modeling and quantitative methods. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 40:283-326.
FAO/WHO, 1995, Application of Risk analysis to food Standards Issues. Geneva.
FAO/WHO, 1996. Report of the 12 session of Codex Committee on general principles Paris, France 25-28
FAO/WHO, 1997. Application of risk management to food safety matters. Report of the joint FAO/WHO expert consultation. Rome, Italy, 27-31
FAO/WHO, 2002. Global forum of food safety regulators: New inspections approaches and techniques- implication for food safety regulations. http://www.fao.org/docrep/meeting/004/ab423e.htm.
FDA, 2000. U.S. Egg safety action plan. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/
fs-egg3.html
Finley, B.L., Scott, P., and Paustenbach, D.J., 1993. Evaluating the adequacy of maximum contaminant levels as health-protective cleanup goals: An analysis based on Monte Carlo technique. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 18:438-455.
Foegeding, P.M., 1997. Driving predictive modeling on a risk assessment path for enhanced food safety. International Journal Food Microbiology. 36:87-95.
FSIS, 1998. Salmonella enteritidis risk assessment shell eggs and egg products. http://www.fsis.usda.gov.ophs/risk/pdfrisk1a.pdf.
Gaylor, D., Axelrad, J.A., Brown, R.P., Cavagnaro, J.A., Cyr, W.H., Hulebak, K.L., Lorentzen, R.J., Miller, M.A., Mulligan, L.T., and Schwetz, B.A., 1997. Health risk assessment practices in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 26:307-321.
Gaylor, D., Ryan, L., Krewski, D., and Zhu, Y., 1998. Procedures for calculating benchmark doses for health risk assessment. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 28:150-164.
Griffith, C., Worsfold, D, and Mitchell, R., 1998. Food preparation, risk communication and the consumer. Food Control. 9:225-232.
Grijspeerdt, K., 2001. Modelling the penetration and growth of bacteria in eggs. Food Control. 12:7-11.
Groten, J.P., Butter, W., Feron, V.J., Kozianowski, G., Renwick, A.G., and Walker, R., 2000. An analysis of the possibility for health implications of Joint Actions and Interactions between Food Additives. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 31:77-91.
Hathaway, S.C., 1991. The application of risk assessment methods in making veterinary public health and animal health decisions. Review Science Technique Office International Epizootic. 10:215-231.
Hathaway, S.C., 1993. Risk analysis and meat hygiene. Review Science Technique Office International Epizootic. 12:1265-1290.
Hathaway, S.C., and Cook, R.L., 1997. A regulatory perspective on the potential uses of microbial risk assessment in international trade. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 36:127-133.
Halthaway, S., 1999a. Management of food safety in international trade, Food Control. 10:247-253.
Halthaway, S., 1999b. The principle of equivalence. Food Control. 10:261-265.
Herrman, J. L. and Younes, M., 1999. Background to the ADI/TDI/PTWI. Regulatory Toxicology and pharmacology. 30:S109-S113
Hogue, A., White, P., Guard-Petter, J., Schlosser, W., Gast, R., Ebel, E., Farrar, J., Gomez, T., Madden, J., Madison, M., Mcnamara, A.M., Morales, R., Parham, D., Sparling, P., Sutherlin, W., and Swerdlow, D., 1997. Epidermiology and control of egg-associated Salmonella Enteritidis in Unite States of American. Review Science Technique Office International Epizootic. 16:542-553.
Holcomb, D. L., Smith, M. A., Ware, G. O., Hung, Y. C., Brackett, R. E., and Doyle, M. P., 1999. Comparision of six dose-response models for use with food-brone pathogens. Risk Analysis. 19:1091-1100.
Hoornstra, E., and Notermans, S., 2001a. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment. International Journal Food Microbiology. 66:21-29
Hoornstra, E., Northolt, M. D., Notermans, S., and Barendsz, A.W., 2001b. The use of quantitative risk assessment in HACCP. Food Control. 12:229-234.
Horst, H.S., Dijkhuizen, A.A., Huirne, R.B.M., and Meuwissen, M.P.M., 1999. Monte Carlo simulation of virus introduction into the Netherlands. Prvention Veterinary Medicine. 41:209-229.
Huggett, A., Petersen, B.J., Walker, R., Fisher, C.E., Notermans, S.H.W., Rombouts, F.M., Abbott, P., Debackere, M., Hathaway, S.C., Hecker, E.F.F., Knaap, A.G.A., Kuznesof, P.M., Meyland, I., Moy, G., Narbonne, J.F., paakkanen, J., Smith, M.R., Tennant, D., Wagstaffe, P., Wargo, J., and Wurtzen, G., 1998. Assessment Towards internationally acceptable standards for food additives and contaminants based on the use of risk analysis. Enviromental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 5:227-236.
Jouve, J.L., 1998. Principles of food safety legislation. Food Control. 9:75-81.
Jukes, D., 2000. The role of science in international food standards. Food Control. 11:181-194.
Kaneene, B.J., and Miller, R., 1997. Problems associated with drug residues in beef from feeds and therapy. Review Science Technique Office International Epizootic. 16:694-708.
Kastner, J.J., and Pawsey, R.K., 2002. Harmonising sanitary measures and resolving trade disputes through the WTO-SPS framework. Part I: a case study of the US-EU hormone-treated beef dispute. Food Control. 13:49-55.
Kilic, Z., Acar, O., Ulasan, M., and Ilim, M., 2002. Determination of lead, copper, zinc, magnesium, calcium, and iron in fresh eggs by atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chemistry. 76:107-116.
Klapwijk, P.M., and Stringer, M.F., 2000. Microbiological risk assessment in Europe: the next decade, International Journal of Food Microbiology. 58:223-230.
Kroes, R., Galli, C., Munro, I., Schilter, B., Tran, L.A., Walker, R., and Würtzen, G., 2000. Threshold of toxicological concern for chemical substance present in the diet: A practical tool for assessing the need for toxicity testing. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 38:255-312.
Kroes, R., and Kozianowski, G., 2002. Threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) in food safety assessment. Toxicology Letters. 127:43-46.
Kurtzweil, P., 1999. Safer Eggs: Laying the groundwork. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fdaceggs.html.
Lammerding, A.M. and Fazil, A., 2000. Hazard identification and exposure assessment for microbial food safety risk assessment. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 58:147-157.
Latimer, H.K., Jaykus, L.A., Morales, R.A., Cowen, P., and Douglas, C.B., 2002. Sentivity analysis of Salmonella enteritidis levels in contaminated shell eggs using a biphasic growth model. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 75:71-87.
Maroni M., Fait A., and Colosio C., 1999. Risk assessment and management of occupational exposure to pesticides. Toxicology Letters. 107:145-153.
McMeekin, T.A., Olley, J., Ratkowsky, D.A., and Ross, T., 2002. Predictive microbiology: towards the interface and beyond. International Journal Food Microbiology. 73:395-407.
Motarjemi, Y., vanSchothorst, M., and Käferstein, F., 2001. Future challenges in global harmonization of food safety legislation. Food Control. 12:339-346.
NAIF, 2002. Annual Report of Salmonella spp, National Animal Industry Foundation. Taipei.
Nasreddine, L., and Parent-Massin, D., 2002. Food contamination by metals and pescides in the European Union. Toxicology Letters. 127:29-41.
Nauta M. J., 2000. Separation of uncertainty and variability in quantitative microbial risk assessment models. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 57:9-18.
Notermans, S., and Teunis, P., 1996a. Quantitative risk analysis and the production of microbiologically safe food: an introduction. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 30:3-7.
Notermans, S., and Mead, G.C., 1996b. Incorporation of elements of quantitative risk analysis in the HACCP system. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 30:157-173.
Notermans, S., Mead, G.C., and Louve, J.L., 1996c. Food products and consumer protection: a conceptual approach and a glossary of terms. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 30:175-185.
Notermans, S., Nauta, M.J., Jansen, J., Jouve, J.L., and Mead, G.C., 1998. A risk assessment approach to evaluating food safety based on product surveillance. Food Control. 9:217-223.
Ohanian, E.V., Moore, J.A., Fowle III, J.R.,Omenn, G.S., Lewis, S.C., Gray, G.M., and Warner North, D., 1997. Workshop overview Risk Characterization: A bridge to informed decision making. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 39:81-88
Oriss, G.D., 1999. Equivalence of food quality assurance system. Food Control. 10:255-260.
Perrin-Guyomard, A., Cotton, S., Corpet, D.E., Boisseau, J., and Poul, J.M., 2001. Evaluation of residual and therapeutic doses of tetracycline in the Human-Flora-Associated (HFA) mice model. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 34:125-136.
Poirier L.A., Doerge, D.R., Gaylor, D.W., Miller, M.A., Lorentzen, R.J., Casicano, D.A., Kadlubar, F.F., and Schwetz, B.A., 1999. An FDA review of Sulfamethazine toxicity. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 30:217-222.
Poultry Association, 2002. Report of Poultry Association for Sulfa drugs residues. The inspection plan for enhancing poultry sanitation. Taipei.
Pugh, D.M., 2002. The EU precautionary bans of animal feed additive antibiotics. Toxicology Letters. 128:35-44.
Putzrath, R.M., 2000. Reducing uncertainty of risk estimates for mixtures of chemicals within regulatory constraints. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 31:44-52.
Randell, A.W., and Whitehead, A.J., 1997. Codex Alimentarius: food quality and safety satandards for international trade. Review Science Technique Office International Epizootic. 16:313-321.
Ross T., and McMeekin, T.A., 1994. Predictive microbiology. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 23:241-264.
Schilter, B., Holzhäuser, D., Cavin, C., and Huggett, A.C., 1996. An integrated in vivo and in vitro strategy to improve food safety evaluation. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 7:327-332.
Schlundt, J., 1999. Principles of food safety risk management. Food Control. 10:299-302.
Schlundt, J., 2000. Comparison of microbiological risk assessment studies published. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 58:197-202.
Schoeni, J.L., Glass, K.A., McDermott, J.L., and Wong, A.C.L., 1995. Growth and penetration of Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella heidelberg, and Salmonella typhimurium in eggs. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 24:385-396.
Serra J.A., Domenech E., Escriche I., and Martorell S., 1999. Risk assessment and critical control points from the production perspective. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 46:9-26.
Sinell H. J., 1995. Control of food-borne infectious and intoxications. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 25:209-217.
Slorach, S.A., 2002. Integrated approaches to the management of food safety throught the food chain. FAO/WHO Global Forum of food Safety Regulators Marrakesh. http://www.fao.org/docrep/ meeting/004/y1956e. htm.
Soboleva, T.K., Peasants, A.B., and Roux, G.L., 2000. Predictive microbiology and food safety. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 57:183-192.
Somogyi, A., 2000. Food regulation: Use of science-based decisions to determine Appropriate Levels of Protection. Regulatory Toxicology and pharmacology. 31:106-111.
Speijers G.J.A., 1999. Precision of estimates of an ADI (or TDI or PTWI). Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 30:87-93.
Sperber W.H., 2001. Hazard identification: from a quantitative to a qualitative approach. Food Control. 12:223-228.
Strachan, N.J.C., Dunn, G.M., and Ogden, I.D., 2002. Quantitative risk assessment of human infection from Escherichia coli O157 associated with recreational use of animal pasture. International Journal Food Microbiology. 75:39-51.
Telo, A., Bijo, B., Sulaj, K., and Bell, E., 1999. Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in imported eggs into Albania. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 49:169-171.
Tennant, D.R., 1997. Food Chemical Risk Analysis. Chapman & Hall. London.
Tennant, D.R., 1999. Estimating acute dietary intakes of chemicals. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 30:S99-S102.
Teuber, M., 2001. Veterinary use and antibiotic resistance. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 4:493-499.
Teuschler, L.K., Dourson, M.L., Stiteler, W.M., McClure, P., and Tully, H., 1999. Health risk above the reference dose for multiple chemicals. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 30:S19-S26.
Tompkin, R.B., 2001. Interactions between government and industry food safety activities. Food control. 12:203-207.
Todd, E.C.D. 1996, Risk assessment of use of cracked eggs in Canada, International Journal of food microbiology, 30:125-143.
USDA, President’s Council on Food Safety, 1999. Egg Safety: An Action plant to eliminate Salmonella enteritidis illnesses due to eggs. http://www.foodsafety.gov/~fsg/ceggs.html.
USDA, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 2000. U.S. Egg Safety Action Plan. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/cf-egg3s.html.
Van Den Bogarrd, A.E., and Stobberingh, E.E., 2000. Epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics links between animals and humans. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 14:327-335.
Van Gerwen, S.J.C., Wit, J.C., Notermans, S., and Zwietering, M.H., 1997. An identification procedure for foodborne microbial hazard. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 38:1-15.
Van Schorthorst, M., 1998. Principle of establishment of microbiological food safety objectives and related control measures. Food Control. 6:379-384.
Van Schorthorst, M., 2002. Microbiological Risk Assessment of foods in international trade. Safety Science. 40:359-382.
Verger, P., Garnier-Sagne, I., and Leblanc, J.C., 1999. Identification of risk group for intake of food chemicals. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 30:S103-S108.
Vose D.J., 1998. The application of quantitative risk assessment to microbial food safety. Journal of Food Protection. 61:640-648.
Voysey, P.A., and Brown, M., 2000. Microbiological risk assessment: a new approach to food safety control. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 58:173-179.
Walls I., and Scott V.N., 1997. Use of predictive microbiology in microbial food safety risk assessment. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 36:97-102.
Whiting R.C., and Buchanan R.L., 1997. Development of a quantitative risk assessment model for Salmonella enteritidis in pasteurized liquid eggs. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 36:111-125.
Wolt, J.D., 1999. Exposure endpoint selection in acute dietary risk assessment. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 29:279-286.
WTO. 1995. Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. World Trade Organization. www.wto.org.
Zwietering, M.H., and Gerwen, S.J.C., 2000. Sensitivity analysis in quantitative microbial risk assessment. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 58:213-221.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top