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研究生:林淑釵
研究生(外文):Lin, Shwu Chai
論文名稱:添加物對綠豆澱粉膠體的質感特性之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of additives on the textural characteristics of mung bean starch gel
指導教授:蔡震壽蔡震壽引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsai, Jenn Shou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士在職專班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:綠豆澱粉乳化劑重合磷酸鹽質感特性
外文關鍵詞:mung bean starchemulsifierpolyphosphatetextural characteristics
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本研究以綠豆澱粉為原料,探討綠豆澱粉的量及添加物、乳化劑對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度的影響。以不同濃度的綠豆澱粉(5∼9%)製成的膠體,破斷力由10.6增加至71.9g,破斷點由5.7增加至7.1mm,膠強度由60.4增加至512 g´mm。經由感官品評結果顯示,以 8%綠豆澱粉製成的膠體之評分最高。以 8%綠豆澱粉製成的膠體為基準,添加不同濃度(0∼0.5%)的硼酸鈉及重合磷酸鹽類(A-450、BA-230)對其膠體質感特性的影響顯示:添加硼酸鈉時,其破斷力由50.2下降至32.0 g;添加 A-450時在54.9與58.8 g間;添加BA-230時在55.8與58.5 g間。在破斷點方面,添加硼酸鈉者由7.2增加至9.3mm; 添加A-450者由7.3下降至6.3mm;添加BA-230者由7.2下降至6.7mm。在膠強度方面,添加硼酸鈉者由360下降至295 g´mm;添加A-450者由402下降至371 g´mm;添加 BA-230則在391與389 g´mm間。
綠豆澱粉中添加五種乳化劑DMG (HLB=3.5)與SE-1570(HLB=15)、TW-SL (HLB=156.7)、TW-SO (HLB=15)、SLL (HLB=18)所製得的膠體,其破斷力、破斷點及膠強度均隨著添加濃度的增加(0 ~ 0.1%)而下降。除了添加乳化劑之外,再添加0.1%A-450,其結果顯示,單獨添加DMG、SE-1570與TW-SL者的破斷力及膠強度比再添加0.1%A-450者為低。而單獨添加TW-SO與SLL者的破斷力、破斷點及膠強度比再添加0.1%A-450者為高。
添加蔗糖濃度達15%時,其破斷力、破斷點及膠強度均明顯增高。檸檬酸添加濃度為0.1%時,其破斷力高於未添加者,但隨著濃度的增加(0.3~0.5 %)而下降。添加柳橙汁者,其破斷力、破斷點及膠強度均隨著濃度的增加(0~100%)而下降。
This study was to investigate the effects of the concentrations of mung bean starch and the additives, i.e., borax, composite phosphate salts, and emulsifiers on the gel strength of mung bean starch gel. Starch gels were prepared using different contents of mung bean starch ranging from 5 to 9 % and their corresponding breaking force, breaking point, and gel strength were 10.6 ~ 71.9g, 5.7 ~ 7.1 mm, and 60.4 ~ 512 g´mm, respectively. Based on the sensory evaluation, starch gel made from 8 % mung bean starch was recommended as a basis in the following experiments. First, the effects of different concentration (0 ~ 0.5%) of borax and composite poly phosphate salts (A-450 and BA-230) on the gel’s texture of mung bean starch were studied. The results showed that the breaking force could drop from 50.2 to 32 g using borax, while it could range from 55.9 to 58.8 g using A-450 and range from 55.8 to 58.5 using BA-230. As the effect to breaking point, it could increase from 7.2 to 9.3 mm using borax, while the additions of A-450 and BA-230 could cause its reduction from 7.3 to 6.3 mm and 7.2 to 6.7 mm, respectively. The effect to gel strength showed that it could drop from 360 to 296, 402 to 371, and 391 to 390 g´mm with the additions of borax, A-450, and BA-230, respectively.
Secondly, the effect of concentration (0 ~ 0.1%) of five emulsifiers,
i.e., distilled monoglycerides (DMG) (HLB=3.5), sucrose ester 1570 (SE-1570) (HLB=15), polysorbate 20 (TW-SL) (HLB=16.7), polysorbate 80(TW-SO) (HLB=15), and sodium stearly-2-lactyate (SLL) (HLB=18) on the gel’s texture of mung bean starch gel were evaluated. The results showed that the breaking force, breaking point, and gel strength were all decreased with increasing of their concentrations. The effect of two additives (emulsifiers and 0.1% A-450) and emulsifiers only were also evaluated. The breaking force and gel strength of gel with DMG, SE-1570, and TW-SL only were lower than that of using both additives, while the breaking force, breaking point, and gel strength of using TW-SO or SLL were higher than that of using both additives.
Finally, the effects of sucrose, citric acid, and orange juice on gel strength of mung bean starch gel were studied. The breaking force, breaking point, and gel strength were all increased significantly as the concentration of sucrose increased up to 15%. The breaking force of gel with 0.1% citric acid was higher than that of without citric acid, however, it could drop with increases of citric acid’s concentration (0.3 ~ 0.5%). The breaking force, breaking point, and gel strength of mung bean starch gel were all decreased with increasing of orange juice’s concentration (0 ~ 100%).
中文摘要…………………………………………………………….…. Ⅶ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………….. Ⅸ
壹、前言………………………………………………………………… 1
貳、文獻整理…………………………………………………………… 2
一、澱粉結構………………………………………………………. 2
二、綠豆澱粉的特性………………………………………………. 3
三、澱粉之糊化……………………………………………………. 4
四、影響澱粉糊化之因素…………………………………………. 4
1、水分含量……………………………………………………. 4
2、加熱速率……………………………………………………. 6
3、添加物………………………………………………………. 6
(1)糖………………………………………………………… 6
(2)鹽類……………………………………………………… 8
(3)脂質……………………………………………………… 8
(4)乳化劑…………………………………………………… 9
五、澱粉之回凝……………………………………………………. 10
六、影響澱粉回凝之因素………………………………………… 11
1、澱粉種類……………………………………………………. 12
2、澱粉濃度…………………………………………………… 12
3、貯藏溫度…………………………………………………… 13
4、水分含量…………………………………………………… 14
5、貯藏時間…………………………………………………… 14
6、添加物………………………………………………………. 15
(1)糖………………………………………………………… 15
(2)鹽類……………………………………………………… 16
(3)脂質……………………………………………………… 17
(4)乳化劑……………………………………………………. 17
參、材料與方法………………………………………………………… 19
一、實驗材料………………………………………………………. 19
二、實驗方法………………………………………………………. 20
1、綠豆澱粉膠體的製作………………………………………. 20
2、綠豆澱粉膠體之品質測定…………………………………. 20
(1)質感特性測定……………………………………………. 20
(2)pH值……………………………………………………... 21
(3)水分………………………………………………………. 21
3、喜好性品評…………………………………………………. 21
4、統計分析……………………………………………………. 21
肆、結果與討論………………………………………………………… 22
一、不同濃度綠豆澱粉製得膠體之性質………………………….. 22
1、膠強度………………………………………………………. 22
2、官能品評…………………………………………………….. 22
3、冷藏的影響………………………………………………….. 23
二、重合磷酸鹽類與硼酸鈉對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度、pH值與水份的影響………………………………………….. 24
1、破斷力……………………………………………………….. 24
2、破斷點……………………………………………………….. 24
3、膠強度……………………………………………………….. 25
4、pH值………………………………………………………… 25
5、水分………………………………………………………….. 26
三、不同乳化劑與濃度對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響………………………………………………… 26
1、Distilled monoglycerides ( DMG )…………………………. 26
2、Sucrose ester 1570(SE-1570)…………………………… 27
3、Polysorbate 20 ( TW-SL )…………………………………... 28
4、Polysorbate 80 ( TW-SO ) …………………………………. 29
5、Sodium Stearly-2-Lactyate ( SLL )…………………………. 30
四、蔗糖、檸檬酸、柳橙汁對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響………………………………………………... 32
1、蔗糖………………………………………………………… 32
2、檸檬酸……………………………………………………… 33
3、柳橙汁……………………………………………………… 33
伍、結論……………………………………………………………….. 35
陸、參考文獻…………………………………………………………... 36
表………………………………………………………………….. 46
圖………………………………………………………………….. 64
表目錄
頁次
表一、綠豆澱粉濃度對其膠體膠強度之影響………………………... 46
表二、綠豆澱粉膠體之感官品評…………………………………….. 47
表三、冷藏對不同濃度綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度的影響……………….. 48
表四、重合磷酸鹽類與硼酸鈉對綠豆澱粉膠體pH之影響………… 49
表五、重合磷酸鹽類與硼酸鈉對綠豆澱粉膠體水分之影響………... 50
表六、乳化劑DMG濃度的添加對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響………………………………………………………….. 51
表七、乳化劑DMG濃度與0.1%重合磷酸鹽的添加對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響………………………………….. 52
表八、乳化劑SE-1570濃度的添加對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響………………………………………………………….. 53
表九、乳化劑SE-1570濃度與0.1%重合磷酸鹽的添加對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響………………………………….. 54
表十、乳化劑TW-SL濃度的添加對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響………………………………………………………….. 55
表十一、乳化劑TW-SL濃度與0.1%重合磷酸鹽的添加對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響…………………………….. 56
表十二、乳化劑TW-SO濃度的添加對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響…………………………………………………….. 57
表十三、乳化劑TW-SO濃度與0.1%重合磷酸鹽的添加對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響…………………………….. 58
表十四、乳化劑SLL濃度的添加對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響……………………………………………………….. 59
表十五、乳化劑SLL濃度與0.1%重合磷酸鹽的添加對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響……………………………….. 60
表十六、蔗糖濃度對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響………………….. 61
表十七、檸檬酸濃度對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響………………... 62
表十八、不同比例柳橙汁的添加對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響……………………………………………………….. 63
圖目錄
頁次
圖一、重合磷酸鹽類與硼酸鈉對綠豆澱粉膠體破斷力之影響………………………………………………….. 64
圖二、重合磷酸鹽類與硼酸鈉對綠豆澱粉膠體破斷點之影響………………………………………………….. 65
圖三、重合磷酸鹽類與硼酸鈉對綠豆澱粉膠體膠強度之影響………………………………………………….. 66
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