跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(18.208.126.232) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/08/12 01:45
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:賴芳林
論文名稱:台北縣私人廢棄物棄置場址地下水污染之探討
論文名稱(外文):Investigation in pollution of groundwater of private waste downing sites in Taipei prefecture
指導教授:黃登福黃登福引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系碩士在職專班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:58
中文關鍵詞:氮循環硝化作用藍嬰症變性血紅素不飽和含水層
外文關鍵詞:Nitrogen circulationNitrificationCyanosisMethemoglobinUnconfined aquifer
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:520
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:83
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
摘要
環保署八十六年版環境白皮書指出,國內地下水污染情形嚴重,超過四成的地下水無法直接作為飲用水源,近十三分之一的地下水無法作為農業灌溉用水。在臺北縣境內有多處遭私人掩埋廢棄物之場址,有污染地下水源之虞,於是在淡水河五股疏洪區、大漢溪下游板橋段、林口台地等地區選出3處場址,掩埋時間均三年以上,並以場址附近不飽和含水層之9口地下水井為採樣點,自89年9月底至90年12月底,分四季採樣6次,每批樣品檢驗19個項目,共969個檢驗項次。檢驗結果與飲用水水質標準比較,不合格率最高者為錳 68.6 ﹪,其次為鐵56.9 ﹪、氨氮52.9 ﹪。整體而言,林口台地之地下水質優於大漢溪下游板橋段及淡水河五股疏洪區。另外,地下水中氮循環之濃度變化,可作為水污染狀態及程度之指標,因此本實驗另以pH值4.7及8.0、溫度4 ℃及20 ℃的實驗組中添加107 CFU/mL以上之好氧性菌液,分別於0、3、6、12、24天檢測,並與對照組(未添加菌者)比較,發現水中1.0 mg/L氨氮的硝化速率,添加菌者大於未添加菌者,pH 8.0者大於pH 4.7者,20 ℃者大於4 ℃者。整體而言,以有添加好氧性菌液、pH 8.0、20 ℃條件下,第24天亞硝酸鹽氮0.058 mg/L、第12天硝酸鹽氮0.59 mg/L之濃度最高。

Abstract
According to environmental white-book issued by Environmental Protection Administration of Taiwan in 1997, it indicated that groundwater in Taiwan was seriously contaminated in which more than 40% of it could not be used as a source for drinking water, nor about 7% of the groundwater could be used for agricultural irrigation. In Taipei county, there were many illegal private waste landfills. In order to prevent the sources of groundwater contamination, three available sites for waste landfills were selected at the dredge area in Dan-shuei river, at Pan-chiao area in the down-stream of Ta-Han river, and at the platform of Lin-kou, respectively. The landfills could be used for at least 3 years and there were 9 unsaturated-hydrated wells for sampling the groundwater near these three sites. Between September 2000 and December 2001, 6 sampling were performed for every 3 months. There were 19 items were examined for each sample and there were 969 items investigated totally. The concentrations obtained were compared with those of standard levels for drinking water. Among them, 68.6% of Mn, 56.9% of Fe, and 52.9% of NH4-N were much higher than the allowable standard levels. Over all, the quality of the groundwater at the platform of Lin-kou was better than that at Pan-chiao in the down-stream of Ta-Han river and at the dredge area in Dan-shuei river.
In addition, a variation of concentrations of nitrogen-cycle in groundwater can be used as an indicator or an index for the status of water pollution. In this experiment, more than 107 CFU/mL of an aerobic fungus were added to groundwater samples ( pH values at 4.7 and 8.0 ; and temperatures at 4℃ and 20℃, respectively ). The concentrations of NO3--N and NO2--N were examined against those of the control ( without any cultured bacteria ) at the beginning and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 days, respectively, and the results were compared. It was concluded that the rate of nitrification for nitrogen in groundwater was faster for those added with aerobic cultured bacteria than that without adding the cultured bacteria ; the pH values at 8.0 was faster than that at 4.7 ; and the temperature at 20℃ was faster than that at 4℃. Over-all, highest concentrations of 0.058 mg/L of NO2--N on the 24th day and 0.59 mg/L of NO3--N on the 12th day were observed at pH 8.0 and 20℃ when the aerobic cultured bacteria was employed.

目 錄
中文摘要……………………………………………………………..1
英文摘要……………………………………………………………..2
壹、前言……………………………………………………………..4
貳、文獻整理
一、導電度與灌溉用水指標……………………………………...7
二、pH值對飲用水水質影響……………………………………..8
三、濁度的測定…………………………………………………....8
四、總硬度與循環系統疾病………………………………………8
五、硫酸鹽與伽師病………………………………………………9
六、氯鹽的污染源………………………………………………..10
七、汞的污染及健康影響………………………………………..10
八、鉛的污染及健康影響………………………………………..12
九、鋅的污染及健康影響………………………………………..12
十、鎘的污染及健康影響………………………………………..13
十一、鎳的污染及健康影響……………………………………..14
十二、銅的污染及健康影響……………………………………..15
十三、鐵的污染及健康影響……………………………………..16
十四、錳的污染及健康影響……………………………………..16
十五、鉻的污染及健康影響……………………………………..17
十六、砷的污染及健康影響……………………………………..17
十七、氮及其化合物……………………………………………..18
參、材料與方法
一、私人廢棄物棄置場址地下水之試驗
1、檢體來源………………………………………………...23
2、檢體保存方法……………………………………….…..23
3、標準品試劑及試藥………………………………………24
4、儀器設備與裝置…………………………………………25
5、檢驗方法…………………………………………………26
二、水中氨氮之硝化作用試驗
1、材料………………………………………………………27
2、硝化作用實驗條件………………………………………27
3、總菌數測定………………………………………………28
4、檢驗方法及試劑…………………………………………28
肆、結果與討論
一、各採樣點污染物最高濃度值及平均值……………………..29
二、導電度與地下水中鹽類濃度……………………………..…29
三、地下水中酸度、鹼度來源………………………………..…30
四、Hardness的影響…………………………………………..…31
五、地下水中金屬元素影響……………………………………..32
六、地下水中金屬元素與飲用水水質標準之比較……………..33
七、各採樣點之污染物不合格率比較……………………..……33
八、採樣井位置與水質變化…………………………………. …34
九、土壤環境之地下水中硝化作用………………………..……34
十、氨氮與硝酸鹽氮濃度之相關性…………………………..…35
伍、結論………………………………………………………….…37
陸、參考文獻…………………………………………………….…38
柒、圖表…………………………………………………………….44

陸、參考文獻
于迺文、林正鈁,2001,重金屬元素個論及其在土壤中的來源。工業污 染防治78(4):58-76。
王一雄,1997,土壤環境污染與農藥。國立編譯館,台北。pp.229-272。
王正雄、張小萍、洪文宗、李宜樺、黃壬瑰、陳佩姍,2000,台灣地區擬似環境荷爾蒙物質管理及環境流布調查。微生物與環境荷爾蒙研討會論文集。pp.1-25。
王明光譯,1997,土壤環境化學。國立編譯館,台北。pp.387-430。
王碧,2002,環境檢測方法。環境保護署環境檢驗所,台北。
王肇齡、何啟功,1999,變性血紅素與化學物質。基層醫學14(9):169-173。
王將克、常弘、廖金鳳、鄭卓、鄒和平、王建華、鍾月明,2000,生物地球化學。淑馨出版社,台北。pp.247-496。
方煒,2002,溫室環境控制工程。農業自動化科技教育改進計畫(4):1-3。
石秉鑫,2001,以固定之好氧脫硝菌應用於同槽硝化反應之可行性研究。台灣大學環境工程研究所碩士論文,台北。
丘依樞,1994,環境衛生學。淑馨出版社,台北。pp.135-156。
呂峰洲,1996a,飲水污染與化學性地方性疾病之六-伽師病。健康世界96(7),23-25。
呂峰洲,1996b,飲水水質與腦溢血疾病。健康世界96(9):30-32。
呂峰洲,1997,飲水水質與消化系統癌症。健康世界97(5):28-31。
何元順,1994,亞硝基化合物致肝癌分子機制之研究。臺灣大學醫學院生化研究所博士論文。台北。
何秉宜,2000,臺北縣地下水水質監測站網設置實施計畫。台北縣政府環境保護局,台北。
何俊傑,1995,鎘對人體的危害。勞工安全衛生簡訊12(8):9-11。
林良平、楊鳳玲,1995,氮循環與生態環境之關係。科學農業43(5):149-156。
林佾選,2001,氧化血紅素強化轉形人上皮細胞之增殖。台灣大學生化學研究所碩士論文,台北。
胡漢升,1989,環境醫學。科技圖書股份有限公司,台北。pp.13-134。
施英隆,2000,環境化學。五南圖書出版有限公司,台北。pp.146-157。
郁仁貽,1988,環境污染防治。復文書局,台南。pp.403-498。
洪崑煌、王明光、陳尊賢、賴朝明、何聖賓、李達源譯,1996,土壤化學。國立編譯館,台北。pp.384-434。
陳秋楊,2000,飲用水中硬度對人體健康及口感的影響。環境檢驗30:31-32。
陳鴻烈,1994,水源中污染物之探討研究(上)。自來水會刊雜誌52:60-75。
陳慎德、王凱中、何秉宜、何忠賢,1999,對台灣地區土壤地下水整治工作之看法。環境工程學會10:67-105。
莊文壽,1997,地球水圈及地下水的化學成分。台電核能月刊6:8-19。
張樂天,2000,低鋅與疾病。台灣醫界41(9):741-744。
張碧芬、吳先琪、陳玉麟、王一雄,1990,垃圾滲出水中重金屬鎘及鉛在土壤中之移動。中國農業化學會誌28(4):332-340。
程梅萍和王西華,1995,台灣地區四種土壤硝化作用及其影響因子之相關性。中國農業化學誌33(3):280-287。
廖文彬,1991,污染物在地下水之傳輸現象。地工技術35:28-37。
劉鎮宗,1995,汞對生態環境的影響。科學月刊26(1):41-46。
鄭顯榮、陳志銘、黃明輝,2000,內分泌干擾物質及持久性有機污染物之環保管制情形。第一屆環境荷爾蒙與持久性有機污染物研討會論文集,pp.12-29。
蔡勳雄,1998,安全飲用水。行政院環境保護署,台北。pp.18-37。
譚鎮中和劉智文,2000,鹽分對土壤硝化作用之影響。土壤與環境3(1):63-72。
蕭水銀,1991,環境毒物對神經致毒作用之研究。科學發展19(1):75-79。
嚴健漢,1985,環境土壤學。華中師範大學出版社,武漢。
Adachi, S. and Takemoto, K. 1987. Through accumulation of istopathological examinations of the lung cancer cases, nickel and squamous cell. Igaku 29 (5) : 345-57.
Agarwal, A. S., Singh, B. R. and Kanehiro, Y. 1971. Ionic effect of salts on mineral nitrogen release in an allophonic soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 35 : 454-457.
Aruna, D., Ashwin, P. and Habibullah, S. 2001. Acute methemoglobinemia — A common occupational hazard in an industrial city in western India. J. Occup. Health 43 : 168-171.
Bang, D. Y., Watanabe, Y. and Noike, T. 1995. An experimental study on aerobic denitrification with polyvinyl alcohol as carbon source in biofilm. Wat. Sci. Tech. 32(8) : 235-242.
Bouchard, D. C., Mary, K. W.and Rao, Y. S. 1992. Nitrate contamination of groundwater : Sources and potential health effects. J. AWWA. 18 : 85-90.
Brzoska, M. M. and Jakoniuk, J. M. 2001. Interactions between cadmium and zinc in the organism. Food Chem. Toxicol. 39 : 967-980.
Brzoska, M. M., Jakoniuk, J. M., Jurczuk, M., Sidorczuk, M. G. and Rogalska, J. 2001. The effect of zinc supply on cadmium-induced changes in the tibia of rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 39 : 729-737.
Camilla, G. and Gunnel, D. 2001. Development of nitrification inhibition assays using pure cultures of Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter. Wat. Res. 35(2) : 433-440.
Chambers, B. J. and klein, N. W. 1993. Role of laminin autoantibodies on the embryo toxicity of sera from mercuric chloride treated brown Norway rats. Report Toxicol. 7(4) : 333-341.
Cole, J. A. and Ferguson, S. J. 1987. Assimilatory and Dissimilatory Reduction of Nitrate to Ammonia in the Nitrogen and Sulphur Cycles. Cambridge University Press. London. pp.281-330.
David, J. R. and Nicholas, J. W. 1999. Inorganic nitrogen metabolism in bacteria. Current Opinion in Chem. Biol. 3 : 207-219.
Gupta, S. K., Gupta, R. C. and Seth, A. K. 1999. Adaptation of cytochrome-b5 reductase activity and methaemoglobinaemia in areas with a high nitrate concentration in drinking-water. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 77(9): 749-753.
Hamadani, J. D., Fuch, G. J., Osendarp, S. J., Khatum, F., Huda, S. N. and Grantham, S. M. 2001. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of zinc supplementation on the mental development of Bangladeshi infants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 74 : 381-386.
Hanson, B. 1986. Physical and Chemical Properties of Nickel, Toxicokinetics and Human Exposure to Nickel. USA Government Reports Annoucements & Index 4. Washington, D.C.
Hochstein, L. I. and Tomlinson, G. A. 1988. The enzymes associated with denitrification. Annu. Rev. Microbial. 42 : 231-261.
Huheey, J. E. 1972. Inorganic Chemistry. Harper & Row. New York. pp.141-184.
Hwang, D. F., Lin, J. F. and Jeng, S. S. 1996. Comparative toxicity of copper and zinc to isolated eel hepatocytes. Chem. Ecol. 12 : 109-114.
Javier, S. W. and Jurinak, J. J. 1975. The chemistry of lead and cadmium in soil : Soil phase formation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 39 : 851-856.
Jonnalagadda, S. B. 1993. Toxicity bioavailability and metal speciation. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 106C(3) : 585-595.
Mateju, V., Cizinska, S. Krejci, J. and Janoch, T. 1992. Biological water denitrification : A review. Enzyme Microbial. Technol. 14 : 170-183.
Paul, E. A. and Clark, F. E. 1989. Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry. Academic Press. San Diego. pp.131-146.
Raymond, P. D. 1992. Preservation of metabolic activity in lyophilized human erythrocytes. Medical Sciences 89 : 967-971.
Rick, W. Y. and Stuart, M. T. 2001. Microbial nitrogen cycle : Physiology, genomics and applications. Current Opinion in Microbiology 4 : 307-312.
Robertson, L. A. and Kuenen, J. G. 1984. Aerobic denitrification : A controversy revived. Arch. Microbiol. 139 : 351-354.
Sian, L., Krebs, N. F., Westcott, J. E., Fengliang, L., Tong, L., Miller, L. V., Sonko, B. and Hambige, M. 2002. Zinc homeostasis during lactating in a population with a low zinc. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 75 : 99-103.
Singleton, P. and Sainsbury, D. 1988. Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology. 2nd. John Wiley and Sons. New York. pp.53-110.
Weiss, S. J. 1982. Neutrophil-mediated methemoglobin formation in the erythrocyte : The role of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. J. Biol. Chem. 257 : 2947-2953.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top