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研究生:黃維平
論文名稱:二維非靜力模式對颮線之數值模擬
指導教授:許武榮許武榮引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:大氣科學研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:大氣科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:颮線上沖流下沖流傾斜對流對流胞降水雷雨風暴潛在不穩定超大胞
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本研究內容主要是利用NTU-Purdue非靜力模式,對於颮線作二維架構的模擬,並且在初始條件的設定上,參考了過去相關颮線之數值模擬研究論文,而在環境風場的作用上,我們分別實驗了颮線在環境中是受到低層之垂直風切,以及是受到較為深層結構之垂直風切的影響,觀察其各自的發展情況。然而,在比較過去其他的數值模擬研究論文之後,發現在我們的低層垂直風切之模擬其結果能夠發展出典型的颮線特徵,即上沖流和下沖流相對的分離,在垂直方向上維持著傾斜的對流,而在颮線前也有週期性的對流胞降水的現象,此外,在模擬過程的最後階段之中,整個系統呈現達到準恆定之狀態(quasi-steady state),此與在觀測上的個案,有著相符合的情形,即可能颮線並不一定是要靠不斷的激生對流胞才能維持著系統,只要有完整之傾斜對流機制且有前方充足的水氣補給,颮線就有可能維持穩定而長生命期的狀態。另外在使用比較深層的風切時,可能由於積分時間的關係,在最後的階段裡並沒有明顯的準恆定之狀態出現,但是也有清楚的模擬到颮線特殊的傾斜對流之構造,而且在下沖流的部份也發現到,其比低層風切的模擬結果有著更深厚和強度更強的情形發生,所以這也證明了在使用比較深厚的風切時,要發展成明顯的傾斜對流機制是需要比較長的時間的。實驗中我們也發現了這一數值模擬的議題具有很強的 ” model dependent ”,也就是說即使是使用相同的初使條件、相同的假設等,不同的模式所模擬出來的結果也都不盡相同,而即便是使用相同的模式,若稍稍的改變一點初始條件,在實驗結果上也會有相差很大的現象。
摘要………………………………………………………………………………...….i
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………..ii
圖表目錄……………………………………………………………………………iv
第一章 前言
1-1 簡介…………………………………………………………………..1
1-2 颮線發展理論之相關論文回顧……………………………………..2
1-3 颮線型態的判斷……………………………………………………..5
1-4 颮線的觀測資料與階段……………………………………………..7
1-5 伴隨颮線雷雨風暴的中尺度特徵…………………………………..9
1-6 研究目的……………………………………………………………10
第二章 模式計算之數值方法
2-1 坐標設定……………………………………………………………12
2-2 預報方程及診斷方程………………………………………………12
2-3 差分方式……………………………………………………………13
2-4 網格結構……………………………………………………………16
2-5 邊界條件……………………………………………………………16
2-6 雲物理過程…………………………………………………………16
第三章 實驗設計與初始條件
3-1 模擬颮線之環境場…………………………………………………19
3-2 模擬條件及垂直風切………………………………………………19
3-3 以RKW之垂直風切作模擬……………………………………….20
3-4 以FO之垂直風切作模擬………………………………………….22
第四章 模擬結果之分析與敏感度測試
4-1 颮線的雲結構和上下沖流之分析………………………………….23
4-2 溫度場、擾動虛位溫場與氣流線之分析……………………….…25
4-3 降水強度之分析…………………………………………………….26
4-4 敏感度測試………………………………………………………….27
( a ) Without wind-shear………………………………………………..27
( b ) Without cloud physics……………………………………………..28
( c ) With Δx = 2000 m………………………………………………....29
( d ) With 2nd order advection scheme………………………………….30
4-5以FO垂直風切作模擬之結果分析………………………………..31
第五章 結論與未來展望
5-1 研究結論…………………………………………………………….33
5-2 未來研究展望……………………………………………………….35
圖表…………………………………………………………………………....37
誌謝…………………………………………………………………………....80
參考文獻………………………………………………………………………81
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