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研究生:陳玠廷
研究生(外文):Chieh-Ting Chen
論文名稱:鈮酸鋰上波導製作及於週期反轉鈮酸鋰波導內之三倍頻
論文名稱(外文):Waveguide Faricaiton on Lithium Niobate and Third-harmonic Generation in Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate Waveguides
指導教授:楊志忠楊志忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):C.C Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:光電工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:波導非線性光學
外文關鍵詞:waveguidenonlinear optics
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本論文我們將討論鈮酸鋰及週期區域反轉鈮酸鋰通道式波導的製作以及波導內二次諧波和三次諧波的產生。通道式波導的製作是利用質子交換法來產生折射率的變化。這裡我們使用兩種製作方法,包括回火質子交換和氣態質子交換。而氣態質子交換法因其交換速度較緩慢,不需再經過回火的處理就可以得到漸進式的折射率曲線。從近場模態的量測可以發現,波導的特性與質子交換的時間、回火的時間、波導的寬度以及導光波長有關。利用這兩種製作方法,在不同的製作條件下,我們可以得到單模態波導及多模態波導。
在所製作之波導內產生倍頻及和頻效果以製作二次及三次諧波中,我們使用一個1560 毫微米波長之毫微微秒雷射來當基頻光。我們也在波導結構的週期區域反轉鈮酸鋰中從事相同的非線性波長轉換實驗,以求比較。我們發現,有了波導結構後,三次諧波產生效率提高。由於波導內等效折射率的不同,相位的條件也不同,而在單模態及多模態波導內,傳播常數不同,相位匹配的條件也不同。因此,不同波導及非波導結構下之非線性光學作用結果也稍稍不同。

In this thesis, we report the fabrication of channel waveguides on LiNbO3 and PPLN. The second harmonic generation and third harmonic generation in such waveguides are also discussed. Here, two methods were used for waveguide fabrication. One was the annealed proton exchange (APE) method with benzoic acid melt and the other was the proton exchange vapor (PEV) method with benzoic acid vapor. The characteristics of the waveguides showed the dependencies on guiding width, proton exchange time, annealing time and wavelength. With these two methods, single-mode and multi-mode waveguides were fabricated on LiNbO3 and periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) under different fabrication conditions.
Second-harmonic and sum-frequency generations with a 1560 nm femtosecond source were implemented in the fabricated waveguides. The same nonlinear processes were also implemented on bulk PPLN for comparison. Since the effective extraordinary refractive index was different in a waveguide, the phase-matching condition based on the Sellmeier equation was no longer accurate. Also, because the propagation constants varied among single-mode and multi-mode waveguides, their phase-matching conditions were different. Therefore, the results of nonlinear wavelength conversion were slightly different between bulk PPLN and waveguides of different geometries.

Contents
中文摘要
Abstract
1 Introduction.……………………………………….………1
1.1 Basic Concept of c(2) Optical Nonlinearity………..2
1.2 Operation Schemes Based on c(2)Nonlinearity……….4
1.3 Application for c(2) Nonlinearity…………………...7
1.4 SHG Based on QPM………………………………………..9
1.5 Waveguides on LiNbO3 and PPLN……………………….10
1.6 Research
Motivation……………………… 11
2 Annealed Proton-exchange Channel Waveguide with the Immersion Method……………………………………….18
2.1 Introduction of Annealed Channel Waveguide……………18
2.2 Fabrication Procedures……………………………………19
2.2.1 Waveguide Pattern Formation……………………………20
2.2.2 Proton Exchange Process………………………………...20
2.2.3 End Faces Polished………………………………………21
2.2.4 Annealing………………………………………………...21
2.3 Measurement Setup……………………………………….22
2.4 Experiment Results………………………………………..23
2.4.1 Dependence on Waveguide Width………………………..23
2.4.2 Dependence on Proton Exchange Time………………….24
2.4.3 Dependence on Annealing Time…………………………25
2.4.4 Wavelength Dependence…………………………………26
2.5 Summary………………………………………………….27
3 Proton-exchange Channel Waveguide with Benzoic Acid Vapor……………………………………………...42
3.1 Introduction of the Benzoic Acid Vapor Method………42
3.2 Fabrication Procedures and Measurements……………….44
3.3 Experiment Results………………………………………..45
3.4 Summary………………………………………………….47
4 Second-harmonic and Third-harmonic Generations in APE PPLN Channel Waveguides………………………..56
4.1 Preparation of Channel Waveguides on PPLN……………56
4.2 Experimental Setup……………………………………….57
4.3 Experimental Results……………………………………...58
4.3.1 Bulk SHG………………………………………………58
4.3.2 Waveguide SHG………………………………………..59
4.4 Discussions………………………………………………..60
5 Conclusion.……………………………………………......78
Reference……………………………………………………. 80

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