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研究生:張琳
研究生(外文):Lin Chang
論文名稱:有翅型家白蟻(等翅目:鼻白蟻科)之趨光性與複眼形態及電生理之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the Phototaxis of the Alates of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki ( Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae ), Morphology and Electrophysiology of Their Compound Eyes
指導教授:吳文哲吳文哲引用關係徐爾烈徐爾烈引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Jer WuErr-Lieh Hsu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:家白蟻群飛趨光性複眼複眼網膜電圖
外文關鍵詞:Coptotermes formosanusswarmingalatephototaxiscompound eyeelectroretinogram
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本研究首先測試家白蟻 (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) 之有翅成蟲群飛期間對數種光源之趨光性。三種發光二極體(light-emitting diode, LED)發出的色光照射到水面之反射光,所誘集到的有翅型家白蟻以藍色光 (367~583 nm) 與綠色光 (525~648 nm) 顯著多於紅色光 (600~733 nm);三種常用路燈誘集得的有翅型家白蟻數量,以複金屬燈最多,水銀燈其次,若包覆防紫外線濾膜後,則此二種燈光誘集得的有翅型家白蟻數量顯著減少,又以複金屬燈之誘集效應銳減尤為顯著,甚至少於水銀燈者;而高壓鈉燈則不論有無包覆防紫外線濾膜,均極顯著少於複金屬燈及水銀燈,此結果與室內試驗之結果相符。本試驗顯示三種路燈對群飛家白蟻之誘集效果差異極為顯著,且紫外光對有翅型家白蟻之誘集效應亦極為顯著。再將上述三種LEDs及UV-LED (350~425 nm)的光譜圖套上上述三種常用路燈之光譜圖,配合以LEDs及室內、室外試驗的誘集結果,推測短波長的光對有翅型家白蟻的誘集效果最佳。
再觀察其複眼之形態,以做為視細胞電生理試驗之準備。有翅型家白蟻複眼之外部形態為卵圓形、橢圓形或略不規則的圓形,雌蟲的複眼較雄者略大。每隻複眼由300~ 400個小眼所組成,每一小眼面呈不規則的四角形到六角形。依其縱剖面由外而內之次序,最外層為外平內凸約30層的角膜。角膜之下有四個圓錐晶體細胞,當亮適應時周圍包圍大量的色素粒。圓錐晶體之下為網膜,8 個網膜細胞組成的視官柱體厚約100~ 120 mm,周圍包圍有色素細胞。基底膜附近有少量的氣管集結。
又針對有翅型家白蟻複眼對於六種發光二極體的感光性,由視覺電生理的角度,探討與趨光行為之相關性。所測得的複眼網膜電圖均為過極化單相波型,其振幅由大至小依次為:紫外線、藍光、綠光,且三者之相對感光性有顯著差異;又,當光強度愈弱,所測得視網膜電圖振幅就愈小;其對黃光、橙光、紅光則無反應。對於六種發光二極體的感光性雌雄之間並無差異。綜合電生理試驗與趨光行為試驗之結果,推測有翅型家白蟻對短波長的光源有較強烈的反應。
Laboratory study was conducted to investigate the phototaxis of alates of Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) toward three different-colored light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and to elucidate the extent of their phototropic wavelength. Studies were also conducted to determine the effects of three different kinds of street lights, a MetalArc metal halide lamp, a high-pressure sodium lamp, and a mercury lamp, on attracting swarming C. formosanus. Based on the results of attraction by the LED color reflected from a water surface, the numbers of alates attracted by blue (367~583 nm) and green (525~648 nm) were significantly greater than that by red (600~733 nm). Results of the number of alates attracted by the three different street lights showed that the MetalArc metal halide lamp caught the most and then followed by the mercury lamp. When all of the three lamps were covered by a UV-filter plastic membrane, numbers of alates caught by the above two lamps were significantly reduced, especially for the MetalArc metal halide lamp, to which, the reduction was most noticeable. The number caught by the MetalArc metal halide lamp was even less than that by the mercury lamp. The fewest number of alates was caught by the high-pressure sodium lamp was the least among the three street lamps regardless of whether or not it was covered with a UV-filter plastic membrane. Results of this field study were consistent with those of the laboratory study. This study further shows that differences in the three street lamps in attracting swarming alates were highly significant. Also, UV light significantly influenced the attractive-ness to swarming alates. When the spectrographs of the above LEDs and UV-LED (350~425 nm) were superimposed with those of the three street lamps in conjunction with LEDs for both laboratory and field tests, it was apparent that lights with a shorter wavelength had a better effect in attracting swarming alates of C. formosanus.
The compound eye of C. formosanus Shiraki alates was round or egg-shaped, composed of 300-400 ommatidia. Each of them was unequilateral from quadrilateral to hexalateral facet. The cornea was about 30 layers biconvex, outer layer is smooth with slightly-curved, inner layer is largely-curved. The crystalline cone was eucone-type with 4 cells. Retina were apposition-type directly below the cones about 100~120 mm, consisted of 8 retinular cells around the rhabdom. Pigment cells around the rhabdom, but after light-adaption the pigment granules gathered around the crystalline cones. There were more trachea assembled as a tapetum near the basement membrane.
The electrophysiological characteristics of the compound eyes of C. formosanus Shiraki alates, stimulated by 6 LEDs, were investigated by the electroretinograms (ERG). The ERGs showed monophasic hyperpolarized deflection. The spectral sensitivity in a descending order to UV, blue, and green light was significantly different. When UV and blue light were filtered, their light intensity became weaker, resulting in a weaker spectral sensitivity. The Formosan subterranean termite was not sensitive to yellow, orange, and red light. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between males and females in their spectral sensitivity.
緒言 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
往昔研究 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 3
引用文獻 ---------------------------------------------------------------- 5
第一章 有翅型家白蟻之趨光行為
前言 --------------------------------------------------------------- 7
材料與方法 ------------------------------------------------------ 8
結果 --------------------------------------------------------------- 12
討論 --------------------------------------------------------------- 13
引用文獻 --------------------------------------------------------- 15
表 ------------------------------------------------------------------ 18
圖 ------------------------------------------------------------------ 21
第二章 有翅型家白蟻複眼形態之結構
前言 --------------------------------------------------------------- 28
材料與方法 ------------------------------------------------------ 30
結果 --------------------------------------------------------------- 31
討論 --------------------------------------------------------------- 33
引用文獻 --------------------------------------------------------- 36
圖 ------------------------------------------------------------------ 39
第三章 有翅型家白蟻複眼電生理研究
前言 --------------------------------------------------------------- 53
材料與方法 ------------------------------------------------------ 54
結果 --------------------------------------------------------------- 56
討論 --------------------------------------------------------------- 56
引用文獻 --------------------------------------------------------- 59
圖 ------------------------------------------------------------------ 63
誌謝 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 66
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