(3.238.7.202) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/04 00:03
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:涂予文
研究生(外文):Yu-Wen Tu
論文名稱:薏仁、山楂、荷葉與陳皮水萃物對倉鼠脂質代謝的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of the extract of Adlay,Hawthorn,Lotus leaf and Citrus peel on lipid metabolism of hamster
指導教授:江文章江文章引用關係許順堯
指導教授(外文):Wenchang Chiang, Ph. D.Stephen Hsu, Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:食品科技研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:倉鼠脂質代謝薏仁山楂荷葉陳皮膽固醇
外文關鍵詞:Hamsterslipid metabolismAdlayHawthornLotus leafCitrus peelCholesterol
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:17
  • 點閱點閱:1166
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:278
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
本實驗的主要目的是探討在高油、高膽固醇的飲食之下,薏仁、山楂、荷葉、陳皮的水萃混合物對於倉鼠脂質代謝的影響。第一次實驗時,採用RSM(response surface methodology)的方法加以設計。用雄性的倉鼠132隻,依體重隨機區分成三十三組,包括兩組控制組,十六組試驗點,七組中心點組,八組軸上組。每一點的動物4隻,4週的實驗期中採用自由攝食、飲水的方式(ad libitum)進行,以求得降低倉鼠血脂質的最適配方條件。結果由於高脂模式的條件太過劇烈,以及動物個體差異不小,導致誤差太大,而沒有顯著的差異。第二次實驗,則是以64隻雄性的倉鼠,隨機分成8組,其中一組為控制組,其他七組實驗組則為添加不同配方比例的薏仁、山楂、荷葉、陳皮的水萃混合物。實驗期間為30天。結果顯示,在血脂質方面,各實驗組間與控制組比較皆無顯著的差異。但是在肝臟膽固醇方面,第一、四、五、六組實驗組比控制組低。肝臟三酸甘油酯方面,第三、四、五組實驗組比控制組低,而肝臟總脂質方面則是以第四、五、七組實驗組比控制組低,在血漿TBARS是以第四、五、六、七組實驗組比控制組低,肝臟TBARS是以第五、六組實驗組比控制組低。本次實驗所使用的複方食品對血脂質的調節並無明顯的作用,但是有幾組能夠有效降低肝臟脂質,以及血漿和肝臟中過氧化物的含量。顯示複方食品中仍具有抗氧化的作用,但這些物質可能並沒有降低血脂質的能力。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of water extract of adlay, hawthorn, lotus leaf and citrus peel on lipid metabolism in hamsters. In the first experiment, we used RSM(response surface methodology) as our experimental design. 132 male hamsters were divided into 33 groups. 2 groups were control groups. 16 groups were experimental points. 8 groups are central points, and 7 groups were axial points. There were 4 hamsters in every group. We used high fat and high cholesterol diet to induce hyperlipidemia. During experiment, all hamsters were free to eat and drink. The experimental condition was too violent and the hamsters were so variant that we couldn’t acquire any hint from this experiment design.
In the second experiment, we used 64 male hamsters which were divided into 8 groups. One was the control group, the others are experimental groups which we added different amounts of water extract of adlay, hawthorn, lotus leaf and citrus peel. We used the same way to breed the hamsters. Finally we found that the experimental groups 1, 4 ,5 ,6 significantly reduced the liver cholesterol. Groups 3, 4, 5 reduced the liver triglyceride, and groups 4, 5, 7 reduced the liver total lipids when compared with control group. We also found that plasma TBARS in groups 4, 5, 6, 7 and liver TBARS in groups 5, 6 were lower than those in the control group.
There was no significant different between the treatment and control groups in plasma lipids,but some treatment groups could lower liver lipids and plasma and liver TBARS. We could say these combined water extracts still antioxidative effect, but had no hypolipidemic effect.
目錄
中文摘要------------------------------------------------------Ⅰ
英文摘要-----------------------------------------------------Ⅱ
目錄----------------------------------------------------------Ⅲ
表目錄--------------------------------------------------------Ⅴ
壹、前言-------------------------------------------------------1
貳、文獻整理---------------------------------------------------3
一、脂質代謝---------------------------------------------------3
(一)三酸甘油酯-----------------------------------------------3
1.合成 ------------------------------------------------------- 3
2.消化吸收 ----------------------------------------------------4(二)膽固醇---------------------------------------------------6
1.合成 --------------------------------------------------------6
2.合成的調節-------------------------------------------------- 7
3.轉化---------------------------------------------------------9
(三)脂蛋白-------------------------------------------------- 9
1.乳糜微粒-----------------------------------------------------9
2.極低密度脂蛋白----------------------------------------------10
3.低密度脂蛋白------------------------------------------------11
4.高密度脂蛋白------------------------------------------------11
二、高血脂症--------------------------------------------------12
(一)高血脂的定義--------------------------------------------12
(二)高血脂症的類型------------------------------------------12
(三)高血脂症的危險因子------------------------------------- 14
三、效應曲面法----------------------------------------------- 14
(一)簡介--------------------------------------------------- 14
(二)效應曲面法的優點--------------------------------------- 15
四、材料的文獻回顧------------------------------------------- 16
(一)糙薏仁------------------------------------------------- 16
(二)山楂--------------------------------------------------- 18
(三)荷葉------------------------------------------------- 19
(四)陳皮--------------------------------------------------- 20
參、實驗架構------------------------------------------------- 22
肆、材料與方法----------------------------------------------- 23
一、材料製備------------------------------------------------- 23
二、動物飼養------------------------------------------------- 24
伍、實驗結果------------------------------------------------- 32
實驗一、以四因子中心混成設計探討糙薏仁、山楂、荷葉、陳皮水萃物對倉鼠血脂的影響。----------------------------------------------32
(一)生長與體重的變化 ---------------------------------------- 32
(二)組織臟器重量的變化----------------------------------------32
(三)血漿脂質的含量--------------------------------------------32
實驗二、以混合不同比例的糙薏仁、山楂、荷葉、陳皮水萃物對倉鼠脂質代謝的影響。--------------------------------------------------32
(一)生長與體重的變化------------------------------------------32
(二)組織臟器重量的變化----------------------------------------32
(三)血漿脂質的含量--------------------------------------------32
(四)血漿中葡萄糖的含量----------------------------------------33
(五)血漿中過氧化物的含量--------------------------------------33
(六)肝臟脂質的含量--------------------------------------------33
(七)肝臟中過氧化物的含量--------------------------------------34
(八)肝臟中酯化膽固醇的含量------------------------------------34
實驗三、探討以不同採血方式對倉鼠血脂質和血糖的影響。----------34
(一)用眼窩採血時血漿脂質,血糖的含量--------------------------34
(二)用腹大動脈時血漿脂質,血糖的含量--------------------------34
陸、討論
一、複方未能降低血脂質的可能原因------------------------------35
二、複方降低肝臟脂質的可能原因 ------------------------------ 36
三、複方具抗氧化作用的可能原因--------------------------------36
四、不同採血方式對倉鼠血脂質和血糖的影響----------------------36
柒、結論------------------------------------------------------38
捌、參考文獻--------------------------------------------------57
表目錄
表Ⅰ-1、四因子中心混成設計------------------------------------39
表Ⅰ-2、實驗飼料組成分----------------------------------------40
表Ⅰ-3、每隻動物每天攝食的實驗材料量 -------------------------41
表Ⅰ-4、不同比例水萃混合物餵食四週後對血漿中膽固醇、三酸甘油酯與脂蛋白的影響表------------------------------------------------42
Ⅰ-5、RSM統計表-----------------------------------------------44
表Ⅱ-1、實驗飼料組成分----------------------------------------45
表Ⅱ-2、糙薏仁、山楂、荷葉、陳皮的各組混合原料量及其比例------46
表Ⅱ-3、不同水萃物混合餵食30天後對倉鼠體重、臟器的影響--------47
表Ⅱ-4、不同水萃物混合餵食兩週後對血漿中膽固醇、三酸甘油酯與葡萄糖的影響------------------------------------------------------48
表Ⅱ-5、不同水萃混合物餵食四週後對血漿中膽固醇與葡萄糖的影響 -49
表Ⅱ-6、不同水萃混合物餵食30天後對血漿中膽固醇、三酸甘油酯與葡萄糖的影響 -----------------------------------------------------50
表Ⅱ-7、不同水萃混合物餵食30天後對血漿中脂蛋白膽固醇的影響----51
表Ⅱ-8、不同水萃混合物餵食30天後對血漿中脂蛋白三酸甘油酯的影響52
表Ⅱ-9、不同水萃混合物餵食30天後對血漿、肝臟中過氧化物的影響--53
表Ⅱ-10、不同水萃混合物餵食30天後對肝臟中脂質的影響 ----------54
表Ⅱ-11、不同水萃混合物餵食30天後對肝臟酯化膽固醇含量的影響---55
表Ⅲ、以不同飼料餵食五週後探討不同採血方式對血清中膽固醇、三酸甘油酯、葡萄糖的影響--------------------------------------------56
大野公吉。1965。 脂質代謝。 中外醫學雙書。
丁杏苞, 薑岩看, 仲英, 左春旭。 1990。 山楂葉化學成分的研究。 中國中藥雜誌。 15:39-41。
王仲志。1998。 山楂丙酮抽出物對膽固醇酯轉移蛋白抑制作用之研究。 台灣大學食品科技研究所碩士論文。
王富君, 陳俊勇。1998。 山楂的食療藥膳。 中藥材。 9 : 483。
江文章, 張子文。1993。 薏苡的食療與加工利用。 第二屆中國飲食文化學術研討會文集。
江文章。 1997。 上品養命藥-薏仁的營養價值和特殊機能。鄉間小路 23:48-51。
江怡萱。 2001。 糙薏仁添加綠豆對STZ所誘發之糖尿病大白鼠脂質代謝與醣類代謝的影響。 國立台灣海洋大學水產食品科學研究所碩士論文。
行政院衛生署。1997。 高血脂防治手冊。 遠流出版社。
朱小曉。 1996。 降脂平治療高血脂症48例臨床觀察。 湖南中醫雜誌。 12:4-5。
何菁菁。 2000。 糙薏仁對STZ所誘發之糖尿病大白鼠脂質與醣類代謝的影響。 國立台灣海洋大學水產食品科學研究所碩士論文。
杜力軍, 孫虹, 李敏, 金文, 徐麗珍。 2000。 荷葉大豆其合劑調脂活性部位的研究。 中草藥 31:526-528。
杜姿瑩。 1999。 糙薏仁降血脂作用之研究。 國立台灣大學食品科技研究所碩士論文。
吳宜娟。 2001。薏仁加工產品對大白鼠脂質代謝之影響。 國立台灣大學食品科技研究所碩士論文。
沈明來。1999。 試驗設計學。九州圖書文物有限公司。
沈明勤, 葉其正, 常複蓉。 1997。 陳皮水溶性總生物鹼的升血壓作用量-效關係及藥動學研究。 臨床藥學32:97-99。
周慶平, 王立為, 高光訞。 1999。 四種山楂果實抗氧化及降血脂作用的研究。 基層中醫雜誌。 13:5-7
周瑕青, 宋劍南, 呂愛平, 李愛華, 金紅, 李豔, 滕靜如, 王少君。 1996。 實驗性高血脂症兔主動脈內膜脂斑形成的影響。 中醫雜誌 37:174-175。
薑家鳳。 1997。 膳食膽固醇與脂肪含量對脂質過氧化的影響。輔仁大學食品營養學研究所碩士論文。
唐乃進。 1994。 金絲荷葉汁治療化膿性中耳炎。 四川中醫。8:51。
徐明麗。 1997。 薏仁抗過敏及抗腫瘤之研究。國立台灣大學食品科技研究所碩士論文。
徐劍、黃元元、沈玲、頤淑方。 1989。 複方荷葉沖劑降脂作用研究。 中成藥 11:24-25。
崔東生。 1996。 鮮荷葉在兒科疾病的應用。 四川中醫 14:23。
張子文。 1992。 薏苡於擠壓加工過程中薏苡酯與膳食纖維含量之變化。 國立台灣大學農業化學研究所碩士論文
許臘英。 1996。 荷葉降血脂的開發研究。 湖北中醫雜誌。4:42-43。
陳正哲。 1998。 中草藥在抗氧化作用的測定。 私立靜宜大學應用化學研究所碩士論文。
陳國群。 1996。 高血脂症治療藥物。藝軒圖書出版社。
陶波。 2000。 荷葉水煎劑對高脂血症大鼠血脂及血液流變學的影響。 中醫藥學報 6:55-56。
傅茂組。 1986。 血脂質的新陳代謝及血管硬化。國防醫誌。2:45-49。
程金燕。 1998。 糙薏仁對大白鼠腸道生理機能性的影響。 國立台灣大學食品科技研究所碩士論文
楊莉君, 陳美櫻, 許文音, 白永河, 喻小珠, 蔡敬民。 1998。 薏仁對高血脂病患血脂質及血糖的影響。 食品科學 25:727-736。
楊莉君, 蔡敬民。 1998。 薏苡對倉鼠血清脂質的影響。 食品科學 25:638-650。
楊莉君。 1998。 薏苡對血與肝脂質之影響。 輔仁大學食品營養研究所碩士論文。
廖春蘭。 2001。 山楂果抗氧化活性及其機制之研究。 中山醫學院生物化學研究所碩士論文。
劉伯康, 陳惠英, 顏國欽。 1999。 數種傳統食用植物甲醇萃取物抗氧化性之研究。 中國農業化學會誌 37:105-116。
劉桂萍。 2000。 薏苡殼甲醇萃取物清除自由基成分之分離與純化。 國立台灣大學食品科技研究所碩士論文。
蔡敬民, 楊莉君, 許輝吉。 1999。 薏苡攝取可改善倉鼠因高油飲食所造成之肝臟脂質堆積。 食品科學 26:265-276。
潘結昌。 1999。 利用反應曲面法尋求以Aspergillus terreus 生產lovastatin之培養。 朝陽大學應用化學系碩士論文。
羅珮文。 2001。 台灣數種特有水果抗氧化活性及清除自由基能力之評估。 輔仁大學食品營養學系碩士論文。
蘇佩琪。 1996。 薏仁對高脂血症和糖尿症病患血清脂質和血糖的影響。 輔仁大學食品營養學研究所碩士論文。
龔康敏, 魏克民, 厲美娜, 姚雪豔, 沈金妹。 1999。 荷葉飲對高脂血症大鼠血脂及血流變學的影響。 河南中醫19:28。
Acton S, Rigotti A, Landschultz KT, Xu S, Hobbs HH, Krieger M. 1996. Identification of scavenger receptor SR-BI as a high density lipoprotein receptor. Science 271: 518-520.
Agellon, LB, Walsh A, Hayek T, Mculin P, Jiang XC, Shelanski, SA, Breslow, JL, Tall AR. 1991. Reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol in human cholesteryl ester transfer protein transgenic mice. J Biol Chem 266:10796-10801.
Alaupovic P, Heinonen T, Shurzinske L, Black DM. 1997. Effect of a new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, on lipids, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein particles in patients with elevated serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Atherosclerosis 133:123-33.
Alber JJ, Tollefson JH,Cheng CH, Steinmetz A. 1984. Isolation and characterization of human plasma transfer proteins. Arteriosclerosis 4:49-58.
Amin, D, Gustafson SK, Weinacht JM, Cornell SA, Neuenschwander K, Kosmider B, Scotese AC, Regan JR, Perrone MH. 1993. RG12561 ( Dalvastatin ) : A novelsynthetic inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol lowering agent. Pharmacology 46:13-22.
Aoki M, Tuzihara N. 1984. Effects of the hatomugi (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen) on the blood pressure, cholesterol absorption and serum lipids level. Kaseigaku Zasshi 35:89-96.
Aoki M, Tuzihara N. 1985. Effects of the hatomugi (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen) on the hyperlipidemia in rats. Kaseigaku Zasshi 36:27-33.
Aoki M, Tuzihara N. 1989. Comparative effect of separated parts of job’s tears on the prevention of hyperlipidemia. Kaseigaku Zasshi 40:9-15
Bell RM, Coleman RA.1980. Enzymes of glycerolipid synthesis in eukaryotes. Annu Rev Biochem 49:459-487.
Berthou L, Staels B, Saldicco I, Berthelot K, Casey J, Fruchart JC, Denefle P, Branellec D. 1994. Opposite in vitro and in vivo regulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I gene expression by retinoic acid: absence of effects on apolipoprotein A-II gene expression. Arterioscler Thromb 14:1657-1664.
Beutler E. 1989. Nutritional and metabolic aspects of glutathione. Annu Rev Nutr 9:287-302.
Bezard J, Bugaut M. 1986. In:Fat absorption. Vol.Ⅰ.Boca Ration. 119-158 p.
Biardi L, Krisans S. 1996. Compartmentalisation of cholesterol biosynthesis. Conversion of mevalonate to farnesyl diphosphate occurs in the peroxisomes. J Biol Chem 271:1784-1788.
Bonaome A Grundy SM. 1988. Effect of dietary stearic acid on plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels. N Engl J Med 318:1244-1248.
Box GEP, Hunter WG, Hunter JS. 1978. Statistics for experiments. John Wiely & Sons, Inc., USA
Breslow JL. 1996. High density lipoprotein and heart disease: induced mutant mouse studies. Isra J Med Sci 32:486-489.
Brewer HB, Greegg RE, Hoeg JM, Fojoss. 1988. Apolipoprotein and lipoproteins in human plasma: an overview. Clin Chem 34:4-8.
Brindley DN. 1991. Metabolism of triacylglycerols. In: Biochemistry of lipids,lipoproteins and membranes. Amsterdam:Elsevier.171-203 p.
Brinton EA, Eisenberg S, Breslow JL. 1994. Human HDL cholesterol levels are determined by apo A-I fractional catabolic rate, which correlated inversely with estimates of HDL particle size. Arterioseler Thromb Vasc Biol 14:707-720.
Brinton, EA, Eisenberg S, Breslow JL. 1990. A low-fat diet decreases high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels by decreasing HDL apolipoprotein transport rates. J Clin Invest 85:144-151.
Brown MS, Goldstein JL. 1975. Regulation of activity of the low density lipoprotein receptor in human fibroblast. Cell 6:307-316.
Brown MS, Goldstein JL. 1986. A receptor-mediated pathway for cholesterol homeostasis. Science 232:34-47.
Carriho AJF, Medina WL, Nakandakare Er, Quintao ECR. 1997. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein is lowered by treatment of hypercholesterolemia with cholestyramine. Clin Pharmaco Ther 62:82-88.
Chang Q, Zhu M, Zuo Z, Chow M, Ho WKK.2001. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of hawthorn active components in rat plasma. J Chromatogr Biomed appl 760: 227—235
Chang LBF, Hopkims GJ, Barter PJ. 1985. Particle size distribution of high density lipoprotein as a function plasma triglyceride concentration in human subjects. Atherosclerosis 56:61-71.
Chang S, Tan C, Frankel EN, Barrett,DM. 2000. Low-density lipoprotein antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and polyphenol oxidase activity in selected clingstone peach cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 48: 147-151.
Chen JD, Wu YZ, Tao ZL, Chen ZM. Liu XP.1995. Hawthorn(shan zha)drink and its lowering effect on blood lipid levels in humans and rats. Plant in Human Nutrition. 77:147-154.
Chen ZY, Zhang ZS, Kwan KY,Zhu M, Ho WKK, Huang Y.1998. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by hawthorn extract in rat mesenteric artery. Life Sci 63(22):1983-1991
Chin KL, Luskey KL, Anderson RG.W. 1982. Apperarance of crystalloid endoplasmic retiuculum in compactin resistant Chinese hamster cells with a 500-fold increase in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79:1185-1189.
Choi YS, Goto S, Ikeda I, Sugano M. 1989. Interaction of dietary protein, cholesterol and age in lipid metabolism of the rats. Brit J Nutr 61:31-43.
Christensen NJ, Rubin CE, Cheung MC. 1983. Ultrastructural immunolocalization of apolipoprotein B within human jejunal absorptive cells. J Lipid Res 24:1229-1242.
Chung BS, Suzuki H, Hayakawa S, Kim JH, Nishizawa Y. 1988. Studies on the plasma cholesterol-lowering component in coix. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi. 35(9):618 -623.
Clayton PT. 1998. Disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis. Arch Dis Child 78:185-189.
Coleman RA, Haynes EB.1984. Hepatic monoacylglycerol cyltransferase.Characterization of an activity associated with the suckling period in rats. J Biol Chem 259:8934-8938.
Corsini A, Maggi FM, Catapano AL. 1995. Pharmacology of competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase. Pharmacol Res 31:9-27.
Cryer A.1981. Tissue lipoprotein lipase activity and its action in lipoprotein metabolism. Int J Biochem 13:525-541.
Datta S, Luo CC, Li WH, VanTuinen P, Ledbettrer DH, Brown MA, et al.1998. Human hepatic lipase. Cloned cDNA sequence, restriction fragment lengthpolymorphisms, chromosomal localization, and evolutionary relationships withlipoprotein lipase and pancreatic lipase. J Biol Chem 263:1107-1110.
Davis RA, malone-McNeal M, Moses RL. 1982. Intrahepatic assembly of very low density lipoprotein ; competition by cholesterol ester for the hydrophobic core. J Biol Chem 257:2634-2640.
Davis RA, Thrift RN, Wu CC, Howell KE. 1990. Apolipoprotein B is both integrated into and translocated across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. J Biol Chem 265:10005-10011.
De Man FHAF, Castro CM, Van-Barlingen, HHJJ, Erkelens DW, De Burin TWA. 1996. Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: post-prandial metabolism and relation to premature atherosclerosis. Eur J Clin Invest 26:89-108.
Desager, J-P. and Horsmans, Y. 1996. Clinical pharmacokinetics of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Clin Pharmacokinet 31:348-371.
Ding YA, Change WK, Chen ML. 1992. Changes in nutritional supply and atherosclerotic disease from 1945 to 1989 in Taiwan. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 13: 137-146.
Drayna D, Jarnagin AS, McLean J, Henzel W, Kohr W, Fielding C, Lawn R. 1987. Cloning and sequencing of human cholesteryl ester transfer protein cDNA. Nature 327 : 632-634.
Eisenberg, S. 1984. High density lipoprotein metabolism. J Lipid Res 25:1017-1045.
Endo, A. 1992. The discovery and development of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. J Lipid Res 33:1569-1582.
Erkelens DW, Chen C, Mitchell CD, Glomset, JA. 1981. Studies of the interaction between apolipoproteins A and C and triacylglycerol-rich particles. Biochim Biophys Acta 665:221-233.
Field, FJ, Kam NTP, Mathur SN. 1990. Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the intestine. Gastroenterology 99:539-551.
Fielding CJ, Fielding PE. 1995. Molecular physicology of reverse cholesterol transport. J Lipid Res 36:211-328.
Fisher RM, Coppack SW, Humphreys SM, Gibbons GF, Frayn KN. 1995. Human triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein subfractions as substrates for lipoprotein lipase Clin Chim Acta 236(1):7-17.
Folch J, Less M, S-S GM. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue. J Biol Chem 226:497-509.
Fungwe TV, Cagen LM, Cook GA, Wilcox HG., Hermberg M. 1993. Dietary cholesterol stimulates hepatic biosynthesis of triglyceride and reduces oxidation of fatty acid in the rat. J Lipid Res 34:933-941.
Fungwe TV, Cagen LM, Wilcox HG, Heiberg M. 1992. Regulation of hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein by dietary cholesterol. J Lipid Res. 33: 179-191.
Gabor J, Spain M. Kalant N. 1980. Composition of serum very-low-density lipoprotein in diabetes. Clin Chem 26:1261-1265.
Glomset JA. 1968. The plasma lecithins:cholesterol acyltransferase reaction. J Lipid Res 9:155-167.
Goldberg AC, Schonfeld G. 1985. Effects of diet on lipoprotein metabolism. Ann Rev Nutr 5:195-212.
Goldstein JL, Brown MS. 1984. Progress in understanding the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase, two membrane proteins that regulate the plasma cholesterol. J Lipid Res 25:1450-1461.
Goldstein JL, Brown MS. 1990. Regulation of the mevalonate pathway. Nature. 343:425-430.
Grundy SM. 1988. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. N Engl J Med 319: 24-33.
Grundy SM. 1997. Cholesterol and coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 157:1177-1184.
Grundy SM, Denke MA. 1990. Dietary influences on serum lipids and lipoproteins. J Lipid Res 31:1149-1172.
Hafeman DG. Sunde RA. Hoekstra WG. 1974. Effect of dietary selenium on erythrocyte and liver glutathione peroxidase in the rat. J Nutr 104(5):580-587.
Hajri T, Chanussot F, Ferezou J, Riottot M, Lafont H, Laruelle C, Lutton C. 1997. Reduced cholesterol absorption in hamsters by crilvastatin, a new 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor. Eur J Pharmacol 320:65-71.
Harrison DG, Armstrong ML, Freiman PC, Heistad DD. 1987. Restoration of endothelium-dependent relaxation by dietary treatment of atherosclerosis. J Clin Invest. 80:1808-1811.
Havel RJ. 1992. Role of the liver in hyperlipidemia. Semin Liver Dis 12:356-363.
Havel RJ, Hamilton RL. 1988. Hepatocytic lipoprotein receptors and intracellular lipoprotein catabolism. Hepatology 8:1689-1704.
Heinecke JW. 1998. Oxidants and antioxidants in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: implication for the oxidized low density lipoprotein hypothesis. Atherosclerosis 141:1-15.
Hesker C, Swenson T, Tall AR. 1987. Purification and characterization of human plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein. J Biol Chem 262:2275-2282.
Hitunen TP, Luoma JS, Nikkari T, Y-H S. 1998. Expression of LDL receptor, VLDL receptor, LDL receptor-related protein, and Scavenger receptor in rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. Circulation 97:1079-1086.
Igarashi M, Takeda Y, Mori S, Ishibashi N, Komatsu E, Takahashi K, Fuse T, Yamamura M, Kubo K, Sugiyama Y, Saito Y. 1997. Suppression of neointimal thickening by a newly developed HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, BAYw6228, and its inhibitory effect on vascular smooth muscle cell growth. Bri J Pharmacol 120:1172-1178.
Ishida F, Sato A, Iizuka Y, Kamei T. 1989. Inhibition of acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Chem Pharm Bull 37:1635-1636.
Jamdar SC, Cao WF.1992. Properties of monoglycerol acyltransferase in rat adipocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys 296:419-425.
Jansen MD, Haymond MW, Gerich JE, Cryer PE, Miles JM. 1987. Lipolysis during fasting. J Clin Invest 79:207-213.
Javitt NB. 1990. HepG2 cells as a resouce for metabolic studies : lipoprotein, cholesterol, and bile acids. FASEB J 4:161-168.
John RB, Lisa JW, Huff MW. 1999. Acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibition and hepatic apolipoprotein B secretion. Clin Chim Acat 286:231-242
Jonas A.1998. Regulation of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity. Prog Lipid Res 37:209-234.
Jonnalagadda SS, Thye FW, Roberston JI. 1993. Plasma total and lipoprotein cholesterol, liver cholesterol and fecal cholesterol excretion in hamsters fed fiber diets. J Nutr 123:1377-1391.
Kesaniemi YA, Witztum JL, Steinbrecher UP. 1983. Receptor-mediated catabolism of low density lipoprotein in man. Quantitation using glucosylated low density lipoprotein. J Clin Invest 71:950-959.
Kim SH, Kang KW, Kim KW, Kim ND.2000. Procyanidins in crataegus extract evoke endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rat aorta. Life Sci 67:121-131.
Kris-Etherton PM, Krummel D, Russell ME, Dreon D, Mackey S, Borchers J, Wood PD. 1988. National cholesterol education program: the effect of diet on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and coronary heart disease. J Am Diet Assoc 88:1373-1400.
Kroyer G. 1986.The antioxidant activity of citrus fruit peels.Z Ernahrungswiss 25(1):63-69.
Kwiterovich PO. 1998. The antiatherogenic role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Cardiol 82:13Q-21Q.
Lagrost L. 1994. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein. Biochem Biophy Acta 1215:209-236.
Lagrost L. 1994. Regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein activity: review of in vitro and in vivo studies. Biochem Biophys Acta 1215:209-236.
Lagrost L, Gambert P, Dangremont V, Athias A, Lallemant C. 1990. Role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in the HDL conversion process as evidenced by using anti-CETP monoclonal antibodies. J Lipid Res 31:1569-1575.
Lehner R, Kuksis A.1996. Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols. Prog Lipid Res 35:169-201
Liu CH, Huang MT, Huang PC. 1995. Source of triacylglycerol accumulation in liver of rats fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet. Lipids 30:527-531.
Luskey KL. 1988. Regulation of cholesterol synthesis : mechanism for control of HMG-CoA reductase. Recent Prog Horm Res 44:35-51.
Mayse PA. 1988. Harper’s biochemistry, 21th eds.241-252p.
Mann CJ, Yen FT, Grant AM, Bihain BE. 1991. Mechanism of plasma cholesteryl ester transfer in hypertriglyceridemia. J Clin Invest 88:2059-2066.
Marotti KR, Castle CK, Boyle TP, Lin AH, Murray RW, Melchior GW. 1993. Several atherosclerosis in transgenic mice expressing simian cholesteryl ester transfer protein. Nature 364:73-75.
Massoni G. 1968. On the use of hawthorn extract (Crataegus) in the treatment of certain ischemic myocardial diseases in old age. G Geronto l16(9):979-984
Matheson HB, Colon IS, Story JA. 1995. Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase activity is increased by dietary modification with psyllium hydrocolloid, pectin, cholestyramine in rats. J Nutr 125:454-462.
Montgomery. 1997. Design and analysis of experiments .4th ed. John Wiely and Sons, New York, USA.
Murakami S, Kondo Y, Toda Y, Kitajima H, Kameo K. 2002. Effect of taurine on cholesterol metabolism in hamsters:Up-regulation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor by taurine. Life Sci 70(20):2355-2366.
Nakamura Y, Ishimitsu S, Tonogai Y. 2000. Effects of quercitin and rutin on serum and hepatic lipid concentration and serum antioxidant properties. J Health Sci 46(4):229-240
Ness G.C, Zhao Z, Lopez D. 1996. Inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis increase hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor protein degradation. Arch Biochem Biophys 325:242-248
Nigon F, Lesnik P, Rouis M, Chapman MJ. 1991. Discrete subspecies of human low density lipoproteins are heterogeneous in their interaction with the cellular LDL receptor. J Lipid Res 32:1741-1753.
Ockner RK, Hughes FB, Isselbacher KJ. 1969. Very low density lipoprotein in intestinal lymph: role triglyceride and cholesterol transport during fat absorption. J Clin Invest 48:2367-2373.
Park Y, Suzuki H, Hayakawa S, Kim JH, Nishizawa Y. 1988. Effect of coix on plasma, liver and fecal lipid components in the rat fed on lard or soybean oil cholesterol diet. Biochem Med Metab Biol 39:11-17.
Park S-Y, Bok S-H, Jeon S-M, Park YB, Lee S-J, Jeong T-S,Choi M-S. 2002. Effect of rutin and tannic acid supplements on cholesterol metabolism in rats. Nutrition res 22:283-295
Quintao ECR, Sperotto G.. 1987. The role of dietary cholesterol in the regulation of human body cholesterol metabolism. Adv Lipid Res 22:173-188.
Rajendran S, Parasakthy K, Devaraj H, Niranjali S. 1996. Effect of tinture of Crataegus on the LDL-receptor activity of hepatic plasma membrane of rats fed an atherogenic diet. Atherosclerosis 123:253-241.
Reed DR, Tordoff MG., Friedman MI. 1991. Enhanced acceptance and metabolism of rats fed a high -fat diet. Am J Physiol 261:1084-1088.
Regnstron J, Nilsson J. 1994. Lipid oxidation and inflammation-induced intimal fibrosis in coronary heart disease. J Lab Clin Med 124(2):162-168.
Rewerski W, Lewak S.1967. Some pharmacological properties of flavan polymers isolated from hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha). Arzneim-forsch 17(4):490-491
Rigelsky JM,Sweet BV. 2002. Hawthorn: pharmacology and therapeutic uses.Am J Health-Syst Pharm 59(5):417-422
Rober A.1995. The intergated antioxidant system. Nutr Res 15(5):755-766
Rosenstock J, Raskin P. 1986. Early diabetic nephropathy: assessment and potential therapeutic interventions. Diabetes Care 9:529-545.
Sammett D, Tall AR. 1985. Mechanisms of enhancement of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity by lipolysis. J Biol Chem 260:6687-6697.
Sanan DA, Fan J, Bensadoun A, Taylor JM.1997. Hepatic lipase is abundant on both hepatocyte and endothelial cell surfaces in the liver. J Lipid Res 38:1002-1013.
Saxena PS, Alberti KG, Goldberg IJ. 1989. Release of endothelial cell lipoprotein lipase by plasma lipoproteins and free fatty acids. J Biol Chem 264: 4349-4355.
Smith JD, Brinton EA, Breslow JL. 1992. Polymorphisms in human apolipoprotein A-I gene promoter region. J Clin Invest 89:1796-1800.
Sorci-Thomas M, Wilson MD, Johnson FL, William DL, Rudel LL. 1989. Studies on the expression of genes encoding apolipoproteins B100 and B48 and the low density lipoprotein receptor in nonhuman primates. Comparison of dietary fat and cholesterol. J Biol Chem 264:9039-9045.
Sosenko JM, Breslow JL, Miettinen OS, Gabbay KH. 1980. Hyperglycermia and plsma lipid levels: a prospective study of young insulin dependent diabetes patients. N Engl J Med 302:650-654.
Spady DK, Dietschy JM. 1985. Dietary saturated triglyceride suppress hepatic low density lipoprotein receptor in the hamster. Pro Ntal Acad Sci U S A 53:4526-4530.
Spady DK. Dietschy JM. 1988. Interaction of dietary cholesterol and triglycerides in the regulation of hepatic low density lipoprotein transport in the hamster. J Clin Invest 81:300-309.
Speijer H, Groener JEM, van ramshorst E, van Tol A. 1991. Different locations of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein activaties in plasma. Atherosclertsis 90:159-168.
Stalenhoef AFH, Malloy MJ, Kane JP. 1984. Metabolism of apolipoprotein B-48 and B-100 of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in normal and lipoprotein lipase-deficient humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81: 1939-1843.
Stanhke G, Sprengel R, Augustin J, Will H.1987. Human triglyceride lipase: cDNA cloning, amino acid sequence and expression in a cultured cell line.Differentiation 35:45-52.
Steinberg D. 1986. Studies on the mechanism of action of probucol. Am J Cardiol 57:16H-21H.
Steinberg D. 1997. Oxidative modification of LDL and atherogenesis. Circulation. 95:1062-1071.
Sugiyama Y, Odaka H, Itokawa S, Itokawa E. 1995. TMP-153,a novel ACAT inhibitor, lowers plasma cholesterol through its hepatic action in Golden hamsters. Atherosclerosis 118(1):145-153.
Takahashi M, Konno C, Hikino H. 1986. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of coixan A, B, C, glycans of Coix lachryma-jobi var. ma-yuen seed. Planta Med. 64-66.
Takehisa F, Nikkle EA. 1990. Effects of guar gum and cholestyramine on plama lipoprotein cholesterol in rats. J Jpn Soc Nutr Sci 43:269-274.
Tall AR, Abreu E, Shuman JS. 1983. Separation of plasma phospholipid transfer protein from cholesterol ester / phospholipid exchange protein. J Biol Chem 258: 2174-2186.
Tall AR. 1990. Plasma high density lipoprotein-metabolism and relationship to atherogenesis. J Clin Invest 86: 379-384.
Tall AR. 1993. Plasma cholesterol ester transfer protein. J Lipid Res 34:1255-1274.
Tall AR. 1995. Plasma lipid transfer proteins. Annu Rev Biochem 64:235-257.
Tan MH, Wilmhurst EG, Gleason RE. 1973. Effect of posture on serum lipids. N Engl J Med 289:416-149.
Ukita T, Tanimura A. 1961. Studies on the anti- tumor component in the seeds of Coix lachryma-jobi L var. ma-yuen ( Roman.) Stapf. I. Isolation and anti- tumor activity of coixenolide. Chem Pharm Bull 9:43-46.
Vahouny GV. 1982. Dietary fiber, lipid metabolism, and atherosclerosis. Fed J Clin 49(3):S18-S21.
Weisgraber KH, Innerarity TL, Mahley RW. 1978. Role of lipase residues of plasma lipoproteins in high affinity binding to cell surface receptors in human fibroblasts. J Biol Chem 253:9053-9062.
Yamada H, Yanahira S, Kiyohara H, Cyong JC, Otsuka Y.1986. Water- soluble glucans from the seed of coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen. Phytochem 25:129-136.
Yao Z, Vance DE. 1988. The acitive synthesis of phosphatidylcholine is required for very low density lipoprotein secretion from rat hepatocytes. J Biol Chem 263:2998-3004.
Yen FY, Deckelbanm RJ, Mann CJ, Marcel YL, Milne RW, Tall AR. 1989. Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity by monoclonal antibody : Effect on cholesteryl ester formation and neutral lipid mass transfer in human plasma. J Clin Invest 83:2018-2024.
Zhang Z, Chang Q, Zhu M,Huang Y ,Ho W.K.K, Chen Z-Y. 2001.Characterization of antioxidants present in hawthorn fruits. J Nutr Biochem 12:144-152
Zhang Z, Ho WK, Huang Y, James AE, Lam LW, Chen ZY. 2002. Hawthorn fruit is hypolipidemic in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet. J Nutr. 132:5-10.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 尤重道(1994),「略論既成道路之使用與徵收補償」,土地事務月刊第270期,台北:土地事務雜誌社。
2. 楊重信(1992),「以發展權移轉與聯合開發方式取得公共建設用地之探討」,研考報導第18期。
3. 楊松齡(1997),「基本權、財產權與土地徵收」,人與地雜誌第165期,p.36-40。
4. 黃冠仁(1979),「利用發展權移轉辦法保留都市開放空間問題之研究」,土地改革月刊第29卷第10期,p22-23。
5. 陳明燦(1998),「論德國水源保護區內農地之使用受限與損失補償」,農業經濟半年刊第63期,台中:中興大學農經系。
6. 陳明燦(1997),「台灣土地徵收制度之研究」,人與地雜誌167,168期,P.65。
7. 陳新民,(1986),「憲法財產權保障之體系與公益徵收之概念」,政大法學評論第33期,p.341。
8. 陳錫禎(1979),「美國發展權移轉觀念輿我國平均地權理想之比較」,土地改革月刊第29卷第10期,p6、19-21。
9. 許仁舉(1999),「整合區段徵收與市地重劃,建立新的土地開發制度」,土地事務月刊第336期,p.4-10。
10. 許嘉贊(1981),「如何利用發展權移轉制度解決山坡地保育與利用問題之研究」,土地改革月刊第31卷第5期,p19-21、28。
11. 呂衛青(1978),「土地發展權之移轉與土地使用管制」,土地改革月刊第28卷第7期。
12. 吳清輝(1998),「台灣之綜合開發計劃與發展許可制」,人與地雜誌,第179、
13. 蔡尚正(1979),「運用發展權移轉辦法解決名勝古蹟之保存問題」,土地改革月刊第29卷第10期,p24-26。
14. 鄭明安(1979),「美國馬里蘭州實施土地發展權移轉方案之研究」,土地改革月刊第29卷第10期,p15-18。
15. 簡豐源(1979),「運用發展權移轉制度解決公共設施保留地問題之研究」,土地改革第29卷第8期,p22-24。
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔