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研究生:郭秋燕
研究生(外文):Kuo, Chiu-Yen
論文名稱:台灣東南沿海賞鯨船對瑞氏海豚(Grampusgriseus)行為之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of whale-watching boats on behavior of Risso’s dolphins (Grampus griseus) in the coastal waters of southeastern Taiwan
指導教授:周蓮香周蓮香引用關係葉顯椏葉顯椏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chou, Liien-ShianYeh, Shean-Ya
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:海洋研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:瑞氏海豚賞鯨行為反應
外文關鍵詞:Risso''s dolphinswhale watchingbehavioral reaction
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為兼顧觀光發展與鯨豚保育,確保賞鯨事業之永續經營,本研究於2001年7/1日至9/15日在台東成功海域租漁船對常見之瑞氏海豚進行密集調查,探討其基礎行為生態特徵及其遭受遊憩衝擊之影響。在該海域記錄到132群次至少10種鯨豚,瑞氏海豚為最常被發現者,共記錄到35群次。瑞氏海豚與他種混群者共有12群,包括弗氏海豚(31.4 %)及瓶鼻海豚(8.6 %)兩種。以瑞氏海豚目擊海域之海況特徵來看,無偏好在潮境附近出現。本研究共辨識出304隻個體,重覆率為4.93 %。由追蹤結果推測瑞氏海豚活動範圍超過調查所及。海豚群體中有母子對出現者佔總群次的49 %,本海域夏季應為瑞氏海豚生殖育幼的地點及季節。從活動狀態來看,「休息」在上午至下午3點間的比例皆高,佔所有活動狀態的45 %以上; 下午3點以後的活動狀態則以「兜圈」為主(佔54%)。瑞氏海豚休息時泳向與洋流有關,泳向與流向的交角介於145-217度之間,平均約181度。
在受到賞鯨活動干擾時,瑞氏海豚的活動狀態明顯地由「休息」轉為「兜圈」。其下潛頻率及轉向頻率增加、下潛出水面後與賞鯨船間的距離顯著增加、水面呼吸率縮短,然而展示行為則無明顯的改變。賞鯨船出現時,瑞氏海豚整體行為表現以負向反應為主,佔50.3 %。此負向行為反應與賞鯨距離、船隻數、賞鯨船之駕駛行為及賞鯨時間有關。當靠近海豚群體至200公尺以內的範圍時,其負向行為反應顯著增加。船隻數多於單艘時負向行為亦顯著增加。賞鯨過程中,有包圍、直行衝向海豚群體等不當駕駛行為時,瑞氏海豚負向行為反應的比例最高。由邏輯迴歸模式推估海豚在受干擾後的前30分鐘內負向行為反應的機率會隨著賞鯨時間的增加而上升,30分鐘後則有隨時間的增加而下降的趨勢。
目錄
緒言…………………………………………………………………1
研究對象……………………………………………………………3
研究海域 …………………………………………………………4
研究方法 …………………………………………………………5
結果…………………………………………………………………12
討論 ………………………………………………………………20
結論…………………………………………………………………32
參考文獻……………………………………………………………34
表……………………………………………………………………39
圖……………………………………………………………………44
附錄一………………………………………………………………60
附錄二………………………………………………………………64
表目錄
表一a,b、海豚行為的定義…………………………………………39
表二、海豚活動狀態之定義…………………………………………41
表三、干擾因子之定義………………………………………………42
表四、受干擾時海豚行為反應之定義………………………………43
表五、海豚下潛出水面後與船隻距離的變化………………………43
圖目錄
圖一、研究海域範圍…………………………………………………44
圖二、東北季風時期(夏季),台灣周圍Sb-ACDP合成海流於水深30 m之空間分佈……………………………………………………………45
圖三、瑞氏海豚………………………………………………………46
圖四、海豚與賞鯨船的相對位置……………………………………46
圖五、瑞氏海豚出現水域的流速……………………………………47
圖六a,b、瑞氏海豚活動狀態之百分比……………………………48
圖七、瑞氏海豚活動狀態之分配……………………………………‥49
圖八、調查期間所追蹤瑞氏海豚之活動路線圖………………………50
圖九、受到干擾時瑞氏海豚之行為表現………………………………51
圖十a、下潛前海豚與賞鯨船距離等級之百分比……………………52
圖十b、海豚出水面後與賞鯨船距離等級之百分比…………………52
圖十一a、 海豚下潛前和船隻的相對位置…………………………53
圖十一b、海豚出水面後與船隻相對位置…………………………54
圖十二、瑞氏海豚在不同情況下所量測之水面呼吸率………………55
圖十三、賞鯨船行駛行為與海豚之行為反應…………………………56
圖十四、賞鯨船與海豚相對距離及海豚行為之變化…………………57
圖十五、船隻數與海豚行為之關係…………………………………58
圖十六、受到賞鯨活動干擾時海豚負向行為反應的機率…………59
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