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研究生:黃譯樘
論文名稱:台北都會區大氣懸浮微粒的化學特性研究
指導教授:林斐然林斐然引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:海洋研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:大氣懸浮微粒雨水沈降通量
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本研究在台北地區同步且連續的收集大氣懸浮微粒與雨水標本,採樣時間自2000年4月至2001年3月為期一年,共計採集大氣懸浮微粒標本170個及雨水標本52個,各標本經化學處理後以石墨爐式及火焰式原子吸收光譜儀分析其中所含的Al、Fe、Mn、Na、Mg、K、Ca、Cu、Zn、Pb與Cd等11種金屬元素。分析結果顯示台北地區大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素之濃度有明顯的季節變化,經由元素相對於地殼及海水成分富集值的計算可以鑑別出這十一種元素分屬三種來源,其中Al、Fe、Mg、Ca和Mn主要為地殼源;Na與Mg為海水源;Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd和K為污染源。其中屬地殼源的Al、Fe、Mn、Mg和Ca等元素在春、冬兩季濃度較高,因為此時的台灣盛行東北季風,很容易接收到來自中國大陸的陸源性物質,特別是跟沙暴有關的地殼物質。另外海水源的Na在秋、冬兩季時有較高的濃度,因為在此季節風速較強,能吹濺起的海鹽顆粒自然較多。而代表污染源的元素如Cu、Zn、Pb、K與Cd在春、冬兩季有較高的濃度,此與東北季風所帶來的中國大陸污染物質有關,夏季時各元素的濃度均較低,此與夏季時的降雨量較大有關,降雨使大氣中的懸浮微粒被有效清除。
在本研究期間曾收集到了兩個沙塵暴的標本與一個颱風期間的標本,由此三個特殊標本的元素濃度及地殼富集值之比較可以界定出兩者分別代表地殼源與污染源,其中沙暴標本中代表地殼源的元素Al與颱風期間收集的標本中代表污染源的元素Pb、Cd的濃度分別是年平均值的30倍與10倍,元素富集值的計算結果也顯示在沙塵暴標本中污染源元素如Cu、Zn、Pb和Cd因受到沙塵暴物質的影響其地殼富集值比年平均值低了2個數量級,吾人可以選取兩種標本作為台北地區地殼源與污染源兩種端成分的指標,來評估台北地區大氣受沙暴或污染物影響的程度。
在台北地區雨水標本中筆者將其分為顆粒態與溶解態兩種標本,在顆粒態標本中平均濃度最高的元素是Al,最低的是Cd,而在溶解態標本中平均濃度最高的是Zn,最低的是Cd。由各標本的濃度與降雨量的關係可以發現當降雨量升高時元素的濃度普遍降低,不論是顆粒態標本或溶解態標本均如此。
通量計算結果顯示台北地區大氣之總顆粒通量為25 g/m2/yr,且降雨量高時顆粒通量也升高。元素沉降通量的計算結果顯示本地區大氣中的Al、Fe和Mn是以乾沈降的移除為主,此佔總沉降通量的80%,而Cu、Zn、Pb和Cd是以濕沈降的移除為主,此佔總沉降通量的70∼100%。
摘要…………………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
目錄…………………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
表目錄………………………………………………………………………Ⅴ
附錄…………………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
一、緒論………………………………………………………………1
二、研究方法………………………………………………………………4
1. 標本採集……………………………………………………………4
1. 1採樣地點………………………………………………………4
1. 2採樣設備………………………………………………………4
1. 3採樣時間及方法………………………………………………4
2. 分析方法……………………………………………………………5
2.1實驗儀器與試劑……………………………………………5
2.2標本的前處理…………………………………………………5
2.2.1大氣懸浮微粒………………………………………5
2.2.2雨水…………………………………………………6
2.3標本的全消化處理……………………………………………6
2.4儀器分析………………………………………………………7
三、結果與討論……………………………………………………………8
1. 分析的準確度………………………………………………………8
2. 大氣懸浮微粒………………………………………………………8
2.1大氣懸浮微粒中金屬元素的濃度……………………………8
2.2元素的來源鑑定………………………………………………9
2.3大氣懸浮微粒的來源區……………………………………11
2.4特殊事件的分析………………………………………………13
3. 雨水標本的化學特性研究…………………………………………15
3.1雨水標本中各金屬元素的濃度變化…………………………16
3.2台北地區大氣的沈降通量……………………………………17
3.2.1大氣中的總顆粒通量……………………………………17
3.2.2大氣中顆粒態和溶解態金屬元素的沈降通量與金屬元素的總沈降通量………………………………18
3.2.3大氣中金屬元素的乾與濕沈降通量…………………19
四、結論……………………………………………………………………21
五、備註……………………………………………………………………23
六、誌謝……………………………………………………………………25
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………26
圖與表………………………………………………………………………32
附錄…………………………………………………………………………74
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中文部分
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