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研究生:蕭仁傑
研究生(外文):Jen-Chieh Shiao
論文名稱:以耳石日週輪特性探討淡水鰻Anguillaaustralis、A.reinhardtii以及A.dieffenbachii的初期生活史與輸送途徑
論文名稱(外文):The study of early life history and migrating routes of Anguilla australis、A. reinhardtii and A. dieffenbachii by otolith daily growth increment
指導教授:曾萬年曾萬年引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wann-Nian Tzeng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:動物學研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:Anguilla australisA. reinhardtiiA. dieffenbachii耳石初期生活史遷徙
外文關鍵詞:Anguilla australisA. reinhardtiiA. dieffenbachiiotolithearly life historymigration
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為了瞭解A. australis、A. reinhardtii與A. dieffenbachii的初期生活史與仔魚從繁殖場到哺育場的輸送機制與途徑,本論文檢視來自澳洲東部沿岸與紐西蘭沿岸河口的鰻線耳石,根據耳石的日週輪輪寬與鍶鈣比的時序變化,可將鰻線的仔魚期分為柳葉鰻時期與變態後的玻璃鰻時期。當耳石的日週輪輪寬急速變寬而同時鍶鈣比快速降低時,即是柳葉鰻開始變態為玻璃鰻的時期。另外,玻璃鰻從海洋環境進入河口時,於耳石中會產生一至數條不連續帶,藉此可將玻璃鰻時期再細分成沿岸漂流時期與河口停留階段。
根據日齡估算,A. australis (n=183)、A. reinhardtii (n=176)與A. dieffenbachii (n=96)從柳葉鰻變態為玻璃鰻的平均日齡為171.2±20.0天、144.5±12.2天與225.4±15.1天。玻璃鰻的平均沿岸漂流時期約53.8±15.2天、38.2±9.4天與62.4±11.7天。到達河口時的平均日齡約225.0±28.9天、182.7±16.3天與287.9±19.4天。玻璃鰻的仔魚期以A. dieffenbachii最長、A. australis次之,而A. reinhardtii最短,然而成長速率則相反。
在這3種鰻線中,其柳葉鰻的變態日齡與鰻線到達河口時的日齡皆呈高度正相關,顯示著變態較早的柳葉鰻,也就是日齡較小,其到達河口時的鰻線日齡也較小。
經由日齡回推A. australis、A. reinhardtii與A. dieffenbachii的主要孵化日期,分別為12-3月、6-9月與10-1月。藉由日齡與洋流流速推測A. australis、A. reinhardtii與A. dieffenbachii的產卵場可能分別在Fiji與Samoa之間、Fiji西側以及Cook Islands與French Polynesia之間,由此可見這3種鰻魚的生殖在時間與地點上都有明顯的隔離現象。
澳洲東岸A. australis鰻線的全長與日齡都呈現由北向南遞增的地理傾斜現象,顯示鰻線是經由南赤道洋流與東澳洋流,從澳洲北部擴散到澳洲南部,然而,因為到達澳洲東岸與紐西蘭的A. australis鰻線其日齡極為接近,表示紐西蘭的鰻線並非經由澳洲東岸穿越Tasman Sea到達,而是可能經南赤道洋流的西南分流抵達紐西蘭北部。
A. reinhardtii與A. australis的地理分布差異亦可從初期生活史的比較中得到合理的解釋,A. reinhardtii仔魚期較短且成長速率較快,因此柳葉鰻的輸送距離較短,造成A. reinhardtii鰻線大多入添到熱帶與亞熱帶區域。相對地、A. australis仔魚期長且成長速率慢,能讓洋流攜帶到較遠的距離,而入添到澳洲與紐西蘭的溫帶區域。總結之,洋流的流向與流速、產卵場的地理位置、仔魚的成長速度與仔魚期的長度等因素的相互配合,造成這3種鰻魚有各自穩定的地理分布。
關鍵字:Anguilla australis、A. reinhardtii、A. dieffenbachii、耳石、初期生活史、遷徙。

The otoliths of the glass eels Anguilla australis, A. reinhardtii and A. dieffenbachii specimens collected from the estuaries of eastern Australian and New Zealand were examined to clarify their early life history and migrating routes from the spawning grounds to the nursing grounds. The ages of the glass eels were estimated by counting daily growth increments in otoliths. The dramatic increase in increment width and the decline of the Sr:Ca ratios in otoliths were used to determine the timing of metamorphosis from leptocephalus to glass eel stage. One to several discontinuous rings (elver check) appeared at the edge of otoltihs after the glass eels entered the estuaries from the ocean. The elver check was an indicator to distinguish the estuarine duration from oceanic duration in glass eel stage. The mean ages of leptocephali at metamorphosis of A. australis (n=183)、A. reinhardtii (n=176) and A. dieffenbachii (n=96) were 171.2±20.0d, 144.5±12.2d and 225.4±15.1d, respectively. The age from metamorphosis to estuarine arrival of A. australis, A. reinhardtii and A. dieffenbachii glass eels were 53.8±15.2d, 38.2±9.4d and 62.4±11.7d, respectively. The mean ages of A. australis, A. reinhardtii and A. dieffenbachii glass eels at estuarine arrival were 225.0±28.9d, 182.7±16.3d and 287.9±19.4d, respectively. The larval duration of glass eel was longest in A. dieffenbachii, middle in A. australis and shortest in A. reinhardtii but vice verse in growth rate. Among the 3 species, the ages at metamorphosis were linearly related with ages at estuarine arrival. This indicates that the leptocephalus metamorphosing at a younger age will arrive at the estuary as a younger glass eel. The main spwaning seasons of A. australis、A. reinhardtii and A. dieffenbachii, back-calculated from daily increments, were between December to March、June to September and October to January. The presumed spawning grounds of A. australis、A. reinhardtii and A. dieffenbachii were between Fiji and Samoa, west of Fiji and between Cook Islands and French Polynesia, respectively. Therefore, there were temporal and spatial isolation of reproduction among the 3 species. The total length and daily age of A. australis showed geographical declined from north to south, indicating that the glass eels were transported from norther to southern Australia by South Equatorial Current and East Australian Current. In addition, based on the current direction and the similarity in age of leptocephali at metamorphosis, age at catch and the time between metamorphosis and estuarine arrival, the New Zealand glass eels were unlikely to be transported across Tasman Sea from southern Australia by the East Australian Current, and they must reach their destination via different routes. Another possible migration route is transportation by the southwest flowing portion of the SEC. The differences in geographical distribution between Anguilla reinhardtii and A. australis on the eastern coast of Australia can be understood by comparing, by otolith growth increments and microchemistry, the ages between species of the eels at metamorphosis from leptocephalus to glass eels and the ages of glass eels at estuarine arrival. The shorter duration of the marine larval period and faster growth rate may make A. reinhardtii occur in tropical-subtropical waters while the longer marine larval duration and slower growth rate make A. australis dominate in more temperate waters. Consequently, the oceanic current, spawning grounds, growth rate and larval duration play an important role in determining the geographical distribution of the 3 eels.
Key words, Anguilla australis, A. reinhardtii, A. dieffenbachii, otolith, early life history, migration.

目錄
一、中文摘要………………………………………………………………1
二、英文摘要………………………………………………………………3
三、前言……………………………………………………………………5
1.洄游生活史………………………………………………………………5
2.地理分布…………………………………………………………………6
3.問題與假設………………………………………………………………7
4.耳石在魚類生活史上的應用……………………………………………9
5.研究動機…………………………………………………………………10
6.研究目的…………………………………………………………………13
四、材料與方法……………………………………………………………14
1.鰻線之採集與保存………………………………………………………14
2.鰻線的色素發育階段……………………………………………………14
3.耳石的微化學分析與日週輪之觀察……………………………………15
4.耳石結構與鰻線發育階段………………………………………………16
5.統計分析…………………………………………………………………16
五、結果……………………………………………………………………18
1.鰻線全長…………………………………………………………………18
2.鰻線的色素發育階段……………………………………………………19
3.耳石輪寬的時序列變化…………………………………………………19
4.耳石周圍的不連續帶……………………………………………………21
5.耳石鍶鈣比的時序列變化………………………………………………21
6.河口間鰻線生活史各階段日齡的比較…………………………………22
7.耳石半徑與日成長率……………………………………………………26
8.變態日齡(Tm)與抵岸日齡(Tr)的季節性與年間變動…………………28
9.孵化日期…………………………………………………………………28
六、討論……………………………………………………………………31
1.耳石日週輪之驗證………………………………………………………31
2.從耳石日週輪寬推測鰻魚之初期成長…………………………………32
3.鰻線各階段之日齡………………………………………………………33
4.根據日齡與洋流回推產卵場……………………………………………34
5.柳葉鰻變態機制之探討…………………………………………………36
6.洋流與仔魚期長短對柳葉鰻仔魚輸送之影響…………………………38
7.影響A. australis玻璃鰻的沿岸漂流時期之因素……………………41
8.南赤道洋流的變動對柳葉鰻輸送的影響………………………………42
9.產卵季節與生殖隔離……………………………………………………43
10.A. australis與A. reinhardtii的早期成長差異性……………….45
11.柳葉鰻時期與成長速率對鰻魚分布之影響………………………….45
12.A. dieffenbachii與A. australis初期生活史之比較…………….46
13.溫帶鰻與熱帶鰻之差異……………………………………………….47
14.由初期生活史看鰻魚的演化趨勢…………………………………….48
七、總結論…………………………………………………………………51
八、引用文獻………………………………………………………………52
九、表………………………………………………………………………60
十、圖………………………………………………………………………76
十一、發表之SCI論文……………………………………………………110

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