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研究生:張宗怡
研究生(外文):Chung-Yi Chang
論文名稱:應用局部平滑法分析樹輪阻抗圖譜之研究
論文名稱(外文):Applications of a Locally Smoothing Procedure
指導教授:關秉宗
指導教授(外文):Biing T. Guan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:森林學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:林業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:阻抗圖譜局部平滑法
外文關鍵詞:Resistograph profileslocal smoothine method
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藉由樹輪分析可瞭解林木過去生活的歷史與推估未來生長的趨勢,以提供森林資源經營、林分動態研究之用。以往,樹輪資料多以鑽取樹蕊或圓盤方式取得,取得數量有限且對林木傷害大。本研究以阻抗鑽孔儀鑽取柳杉與紅檜圓盤,以獲得樹輪資料。其原理係利用一鑽頭寬3mm,直徑1.5mm,長度約950mm之鋼針,以定速前進方式鑽入試材,同時將切削不同密度之試材所需消耗的電力,轉換成介於0~4095間的相對阻抗數值,並輸出成阻抗圖譜。此法的優點為迅速、簡便,可快速取得大量之樹輪圖譜,且對木材傷害較小。本研究目的為應用局部加權迴歸(LOESS)解讀阻抗儀所輸出之阻抗圖譜,期能獲得樹輪數目、寬度等資訊的估計。並將估計結果與圓盤量測者做一比較,以作為估計準確性之參考。LOESS為一無母數平滑法,其係利用局部的觀測值,透過加權之最小平方進行估計,此法可有效地提供反應與解釋變數間趨勢的變化。分析結果顯示,樹輪數估計十分準確,誤差在5個年輪以下;樹輪寬度估計於樹皮兩側較準確,近髓心處誤差大。樹輪數的估計受到圖譜規律性和人為因子影響;樹輪寬估計主要受鑽取路徑和人為量測影響,其中髓心附近的誤差係由鑽取未過髓心與弧度效應所造成。由此可知,應用LOESS分析阻抗圖譜確實為一可行且潛力十足的方式。
Tree ring analysis can be used not only to understand the history and future trend of tree growth, but also provides important information for forest management and stand dynamic research. Tree ring analysis has traditionally been based on data measured from incremental cores and tree cross-sectioned discs. Such an approach is limited by the numbers of increment cores or discs available.
In this research, tree ring data from Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis formosensis were collected by a drilling resistance machine, RESISTOGRAPH®. Using a steel needle, the machine penetrates into a sampled tree at a constant speed to collect wood resistance data. The electric power needed to penetrate through different wood density is transformed to a relative resistance value ranging from 0 to 4095. Since such a machine penetrating wood in high speed and causing less damage than coring or cutting a sampled tree, it potentially provides a faster and more efficient alternative for collecting tree ring data.
The purpose of this research is to apply a locally weighted regression (LOESS) method to analyze the drilling profiles, which are automatically saved and output by RESISTOGRAPH®, to estimate tree ring numbers and width. The estimated results were then compared to data measured from scanned disc images. LOESS is a nonparametric smoothing method that uses neighborhood observations to perform weighted least square estimation to get fitted values.
The results show that LOESS method estimated tree ring numbers accurately, but the method estimated tree ring width less accurately, especially near the pith. We believe that the accuracy in estimating tree ring data is mainly controlled by whether a drilling passes through the pith and by the actual path that the drilling needle travels. Various aspects of using LOESS method to decipher drilling profiles were also discussed. Overall, we consider LOESS procedure to be a good method for analyzing RESISTOGRAPH® drilling profiles.
中文摘要 vii
ABSTRACT viii
目 錄 ix
壹、前言 1
貳、前人研究 3
參、研究目的 7
肆、研究方法 8
一、試材來源 8
(一)圓盤處理與量測 9
二、鑽孔阻抗儀(RESISTOGRAPH®)簡介 9
三、阻抗資料取得與擷取 12
四、資料處理與分析 14
(一)原始阻抗資料壓縮 14
(二)配適LOESS曲線 14
(三)界定樹輪的標準 20
(四)假設檢定 22
(五)資料分析之步驟 22
伍、結果 23
一、原始阻抗資料壓縮 23
二、LOESS配適與樹輪數目及寬度估算 24
三、柳杉立木樹輪估算 32
四、假設檢定 33
陸、討論 35
一、阻抗資料取得與分析 35
二、樹輪估計與誤差之產生 38
三、LOESS假設檢測 40
四、應用LOESS方法之優點與限制 41
五、未來展望 41
柒、結論 43
捌、參考文獻 45
玖、附錄 48
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