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研究生:魏慧珍
研究生(外文):WEI HUEI-CHEN
論文名稱:以逢機定序策略探討花生簇葉病病原菌質體之基因體DNA
論文名稱(外文):A Preliminary Survey of the Genome of Phytoplasma Associated with Peanut Witches'' Broom by Using Random Sequencing
指導教授:林長平林長平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin Chan-Pin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:植物病理學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:植物保護學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:花生簇葉病病原菌質體逢機定序
外文關鍵詞:PhytoplasmaPeanut Witches'' BroomRandom Sequencing
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花生簇葉病(Peanut witches’ broom, PNWB)是由植物菌質體(phytoplasma)所引起之病害。由於植物菌質體仍無法人工培養,因此有關其生理生化特性的研究仍屬有限。本研究利用逢機解序的策略對花生簇葉病病原菌質體的基因體進行分析及探討,以罹病日日春植株之全DNA及健康植株之全DNA,為核酸探針,以差異性雜合反應(differential hybridization)針對花生簇葉病病原菌質體構築在lambda ZapII之基因庫,與花生簇葉病病原菌質體DNA構築在pBluescriptII SK(-)phagemid上之重組質體進行篩選。在本實驗中,共選殖了108個選殖株,將這些選殖株進行核酸定序並進行分析比對後,除去重複選殖具有相同嵌入片段 (insert DNA) 的選殖株後,共完成了八個選殖株嵌入DNA之全部序列之解序。將此等核酸序列以NCBI的ORF finder進行分析,發現其共具有十九個putative ORFs,再以DNASTAR (MAPDRAW) 將核苷酸序列轉譯成胺基酸序列後,利用NCBI中之Standard protein-protein BLAST (blastp) 比對,經由比對結果顯示,選殖株C2及選殖株H13中所具有的putative ORFs,與NCBI基因庫中之已有的資料具較高之相似度,其中選殖株C2中之ORF (1至nt 84 及nt 4225至nt 3116) 與病毒的replication protein (Rep) gene具有相似性,而在其他植物菌質體之extrachromosomal DNA上亦曾發現與病毒的replication protein (Rep) gene具有相似性之ORF,因此以選殖株已知序列設計反向引子對,對罹病日日春全DNA進行反向聚合酵素連鎖反應(IPCR)實驗,經電泳分析結果只具有單一條帶,此一結果顯示選殖株C2之嵌入DNA為一環狀 (circular) DNA。進行南方氏雜合反應實驗時,發現以不同內鑑識酵素酵解的罹病日日春全DNA中都具有多條訊號出現,而在ORF之nt 2及nt 2955分別具有ClaI及HindIII內鑑識酵素所辨識的切位,所以使得其訊號與其他內鑑識酵素酵解者不同。另外,選殖株H13之ORF (nt 1748至nt 2686) 經NCBI分析比對後,發現其與Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis、Bacillus licheniformis等微生物的轉位子(putative transposase gene)具有相似性,且具有DDE motif之保守區域,並在ORF兩側也發現inverted repeat sequence。本研究中不論以轉位子或以其間之序列為核酸探針其南方氏雜合反應結果皆為單一訊號,顯示此花生簇葉病病原菌質體中所發現之轉位子只具有single copy或者是low copy。
A random (”shotgun”) sequence strategy was conducted to investigate the genome of the phytoplasma associated with peanut witches’ broom (PNWB) in this study. Total DNA of periwinkle infected with PNWB phytoplasma and that of healthy periwinkle were used as a mode of infected periwinkle probes for differential screening of lambda ZapII genomic libriay and pBluescriptII SK(-)recombinant plasmids of PNWB-Phytoplasma. Eight out of 108 random clones thus selected were completely sequenced and analyzed. A total of 29 putative open reading frames (ORFs) were identified among the sequences. The insert DNA of recombinant plasmid C2 consists of 4225 nucleotides and encompasses an incomplete ORF homologous to extrachromosomal DNA of other organisms. In order to clone the whole ORF and to analyze the recombinant plasmid C2 further, a pair of oligo-nucleotides primers C2R1/C2F1 for inverse polymerase chain reaction (IPCR) were designed according to the nucleic acid sequences of the recombinant plasmid C2. Total DNA from diseased periwinkles infected with PNWB phytoplasma was prepared as the template for IPCR reaction. A 265 bp fragment was amplified using the primers C2R1 and C2F1. The result indicates that the 4.2 kbp insert DNA of the recombinant plasmid C2 is a circular form DNA (plasmid). The IPCR product was sequenced and aligned with the recombinant plasmid C2 and its nucleic acid sequence is consistent with that of recombinant plasmid C2, and thus a complete ORF was determined. According to the analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences, this ORF was identified to be a putative Rep gene. The results of Southern hybridization analysis using Rep gene as a probe suggested that multiple copies of Rep gene may exist in PNWB-Phytoplasma. Recombinant plasmid H13 encompasses a complete ORF of 3988 nucleotides. The sequence of this ORF is homologous to the transposase gene of other organisms. An eight-nucleotide inverted repeats between nucleotides 1713-1720 and 2737-2744 near the ORF was found and a conserved DDE motif in this ORF was identified. According to the results of the Southern hybridization analysis by using the probe for transposase gene or insertion sequence element, it is suggested that only one copy of transposase and insertion sequence element may exist in PNWB-phytoplasma.
目 錄
壹、前言 1
貳、前人研究 3
參、材料方法
一、試驗植物來源及繁殖 15
二、植物全DNA及植物菌質體DNA之純化 15
三、DNA濃度及純度測定 16
四、花生簇葉病病原菌質體噬菌體基因庫之增量(amplification) 17
五、花生簇葉病病原菌質體基因庫篩選
(一)花生簇葉病病原菌質體核酸探針之製備 18
(二)基因庫之轉印(plaque lifting) 19
(三)雜配反應 21
(四)生體內剪接作用(in vivo excision) 22
(五)選殖株之特性分析
1.微量抽取質體DNA 23
2.嵌入片段大小之分析 24
3.準轉型株所帶重組質體嵌入DNA之核酸定序與序列分析 24
六、以pBluescriptII SK(-)phagemid建構花生簇葉病病原菌質體基
因 體DNA之重組質體
(一)以內鑑識酵素進行DNA的酵解(digestion)
1.嵌入片段(insert DNA)的製備 25
2.載體的製備 26
(二)DNA黏結反應 27
(三)轉形作用
1.大腸桿菌Escherichia coli DH5α 勝任細胞之製備 27
2.轉形作用 28
(四)菌落雜合反應(colony hybridization ) 28
七、選殖株特性分析
(一)選殖株C2的分析 29
1.反向聚合酵素連鎖反應(IPCR)測定 30
2.IPCR反應產物之選殖及核酸定序 31
3.南方氏轉漬及雜配反應 32
(二)選殖株H13的分析
1.南方氏轉漬及雜配反應 35
肆、結果
一、以日日春為宿主繁殖花生簇葉病植物菌質體 37
二、植物菌質體DNA之純化 37
三、選殖株特性分析 37
伍、討論 51
陸、中文摘要 54
柒、英文摘要 56
捌、參考文獻 58
玖、圖 71
拾、附錄
一、附錄一 79
二、附錄二 88
三、附錄三 104
四、附錄四 113
五、附錄五 128
六、附錄六 137
七、附錄七 146
八、附錄八 151
捌、參考文獻
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