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研究生:鍾旻潔
研究生(外文):Min-Chieh Chung
論文名稱:溫度、季節、容器大小與矮化劑對盆菊生育及品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Temperature, Season, Container volume, and Retardant on Growth and Flowering Quality of Potted chrysanthemum.
指導教授:李哖李哖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Nean Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:菊花溫度季節容器大小矮化劑
外文關鍵詞:ChrysanthemumTemperatureSeasonContainer volumeRetardant
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台灣仲夏初秋之際不易生產盆菊,主要缺乏適宜品種、氣溫過高、日長太長及其栽培技術不良。本研究由實生苗的選拔初秋開花品種並探討適宜冬季生產盆菊品種對氣溫、栽培季節中日長的長短、容器大小及矮化劑對其生育及品質之影響。
購自Sakade種苗公司之‘幻想’及‘珠寶石’二菊花種子,其發芽率不整齊,發芽率分別為72.2%及42.6%,且實生苗生育期不一致,於短日低溫簇生化,然從實生苗中可選優良植株。結果自選‘珠寶石11’、 ‘幻想31’及由業者選出之‘白花’及‘紫花’二品系參試,此四無性繁殖系於台灣4月至7月自然日長下均可花芽分化至見苞發育,但花苞發育受高溫30/25℃延遲,在20/15℃環境下枝條著苞不整齊,以25/20℃為適。在短日下,枝條則呈短縮簇生化,因此推薦應於台灣4月至7月日長下,利用中海拔氣溫近25/20℃範圍下生產,若於平地則可於7月至8月扦插,於秋天開花具有好的觀賞壽命。大菊‘大訥言’、‘紅牡丹’由日本引入之早生種,‘Spear’、‘Stoplight’及‘Yellow Tan’由美國引入之8至9週品種,夏天花芽分化及花苞發育受高溫及長日延遲,溫度20/15℃以上除‘大訥言’及‘Spear’外,均無法開花。
以單株盆菊栽培於口徑9公分(240ml)、10公分(350ml)、11公分(450ml)及13公分(560ml)容器中,盆菊在小容器栽培下因根域限制,影響地上部生長,且顯著減少淨光和作用率,同時降低葉綠素含量。以3株或5株以向外斜45o角定植口徑15公分盆,並配合10ppm paclobutrazol葉面噴施,二者對觀賞品質及壽命相近。
於口徑10公分(350ml)容器生產迷你盆菊,‘大訥言’以uniconazole及paclobutrazol施用,其高度抑制效果不若‘紅牡丹’。 ‘Spear’ 、‘Stoplight’ 及‘Yellow Tan’以uniconazole及paclobutrazol 灌注濃度在0.020mg/pot至0.40mg/pot 間可抑制盆菊株高,其中以‘Spear’所需濃度最低,以‘Stoplight’所需濃度最高。
The effects of temperature, season, container size, and growth retardants on seedlings and some cultivars introduced from Japan and Florida were studied, and in order to select heat and day length insensitive plants for miniature potted chrysanthemums production.
‘幻想’and ‘珠寶石’ chrysanthemum seeds, produced from Sakada company didn’t germinate well, germination rate were 72.2% and 42.6%, respectively, and didn’t flower uniformly. The seedlings would be rosette in winter. ‘珠寶石11’ and ‘幻想31’ selected from NTU and ‘白花’ and ‘紫花’ selected by a grower from seedlings would flower initiation and differentiation to bud visible from April to July in Taiwan, but flower bud development would be delayed on 30/25℃. And a part of shoots could not set bud with rosette type in 20/15℃. Optimum temperature for growth and flower development of ‘白花’, ‘紫花’, ‘珠寶石11’ ,and ‘幻想31’ was 25/20℃. However, during winter, shoots became rosette. The results showed that selected seedling could be grown in highland where the temperature near 20 to 15℃ from April to July and July to August in low land.
‘大訥言’ and ‘紅牡丹’, Japanese early-flowering standard chrysanthemums, and ‘Spear’, ‘Stoplight’, and ‘Yellow Tan’, American pot mum 8 to 9 weeks response group, would delay flower initiation and development in high temperature (>20/15℃) in late summer and autumn. As temperature was higher than 20/15℃, all of cultivars couldn’t flower, expect ‘大訥言’ and ‘Spear’.
For producing various size of potted chrysanthemums, plants were grown in 9 (240mL), 10 (350mL), 11 (450mL), and 13-cm-diameter (560mL) pots. Vegetative growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll concentration were reduced in 9-cm-diameter pot size due to restriction of the roots. In 15 cm-diameter pot with 3 or 5 cuttings could get the similar flowering quality.
To produce small potted (350mL) chrysanthemums, plants drenched with paclobutrazol and uniconazole would reduce the plant high. ‘紅牡丹’ was more sensitive to retardants than ‘大訥言’. The concentration of uniconazole for 10-cm-diameter pot was about 0.02 mg/pot to 0.20 mg/pot and concentration of paclobutrazoel was about 0.02 mg/pot to 0.04 mg/pot. Among the cultivars, ‘Spear’ was most sensitive, and ‘Stoplight’ was most insensitive to retardants.
前言(INTRODUCTION).................1
前人研究(LITERATURE REVIEW)........2
一、菊花品種特性分類.................2
(一)、歐美系統菊花:...............2
(二)、日本系統菊花:...............4
(三)、菊花實生苗特性:.............6
二.、溫度與日長對菊花生育的影響......7
三、盆菊株高控制:...................12
(一)矮化劑:.......................12
(二) 日夜溫差........................15
(三) 光質控制........................16
四、容器大小對植物生長的影響:.......18
(一)生長量的改變:.................18
(二)內部生理的改變.................19
材料與方法(MATERIALS AND METHODS)..23
一、植物材料(Plant Materials)......23
二、試驗場所(Growing location).....23
三、栽培管理(Culture management)...23
四、試驗方法(Experimental methods).24
(一)盆菊實生苗之選拔與栽培.........24
(二)冬季栽培之大菊及多花型盆菊.....26
五、試驗之調查項目與測定標準.........29
(一)調查項目.......................29
(二)測定標準.......................29
六、氣象資料之測量、紀錄與試驗數據之統計分析...32
結果(RESULTS)......................33
一、盆菊實生苗選拔與栽培.............33
(一)子播種與生育觀察...............33
(二)盆菊栽培及生育試驗.............34
二、冬季栽培之大菊及多花型盆菊.......38
(一)冬季大局盆菊生育試驗...........38
(二)冬季多花型盆菊生育試驗.........40
討論(DISCUSSION)...................96
一、菊花種子播種與生育觀察...........96
二、溫度與日長對盆菊生育之影響.......98
三、容器大小對盆菊生育之影響.........103
四、矮化劑濃度對盆菊生育之影響.......105
中文摘要.............................109
SUMMARY..............................110
參考文獻(REFERENCE)................112
附 錄................................113
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