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研究生:羅士凱
研究生(外文):LO SHIH KAI
論文名稱:控水、採後修剪及催芽劑對自根台農甜蜜桃台北生長結實之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of deficit irrigation, postharvest pruning and dormancy releasing on vegetative and reproductive growth of own-rooted peach tree cv. ‘Premier’ in Taipei.
指導教授:陳中陳中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:65
中文關鍵詞:修剪催芽劑水份逆境密植
外文關鍵詞:pruningdormancy releasingPrunus persicadeficit irrigationhigh density planting
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以定植於台北台灣大學校總區19株三年生細紡錘型整枝自根台農甜蜜桃( Prunus persica cv. Premier ) 為材料,探討限根密植、控水、採後修剪及催芽劑對植株生長結實之影響。連續四年觀察,台農甜蜜桃在台北有兩次抽梢期,春梢高峰出現在2-5月,秋梢7-9月,10月進入封頂休眠。冬季除葉後,約45天進入盛花,且會因其間寒流而分成數次高峰,花期較長。果實約在開花後30天進入生長停滯期,持續約40天,果實膨大期約25-30天,約5月15日果實成熟。果實生長與春梢生長高峰期呈錯開的形態。台農甜蜜桃台北與名間果實生長動態相似;在梅峰,果實生長停滯期只有10天,果實生長共約105天,較平地生長者長5-10天。第二輪花的果實生長速率慢,果實第三階段生長往往推遲到6月15日,幾乎不膨大,成熟果實甚小。
果實生長停滯期間行25%Eps限水,其餘時間充份給水,有利果實生長,單果重比對照組平均多出18g,著色最佳,平均糖度14oBrix。如於果實膨大期限水,雖糖度可達17 oBrix以上,但果實形小果輕,著色不佳。
採後限水顯著抑制秋梢生長,25%Eps可減少秋梢生長量達50%,花芽密度提高,但對明年的單株開花數、結實數與產量無影響。
果實採收後7月行全部回縮修剪,有利幹出更新梢形成,至休眠期單株枝條總長、枝長、枝數回復,但開花僅0.35±0.06朵/10cm,較正常的1.51±0.45朵/10cm遠低。採收後選擇性疏剪量以維持LAI 5單位為度,離地表100cm以上樹冠透光率達30%以上為宜。
台農甜蜜桃冬季除葉後立即以3%濃度Dormex噴施,植株約23日進入盛花,比無噴施者提早20天,且花期集中。僅做除葉,花期亦很集中。如除葉後植株立即噴施夏油50倍稀釋液,花期亦提早20天,但花期分散呈2-3個開花高峰期,前後持續達1個月。以Dormex處理,果實採收時間最早,且果實較重、糖度穩定;其它處理果實採收時間推遲,果實重量下降,成熟時糖度變動大。
台農甜蜜桃在台北生長四年間,幹截面積僅增加13.35cm2,槽植限根效果明顯。

19 trees slender spindle trained 3-year-old own-rooted peaches (Prunus persica cv. Premier) were grown in Taipei for use in this study. The phenological performance and effects of deficit irrigation, postharvest pruning and dormancy breaking chemicals on the growth of own-rooted ‘Premier’ peach trees were investigated.
There was two periods of shoot growth of ‘Premier’ peach trees in Taipei. The peak of spring shoots’ growth occurred from February to May while the peak of autumn shoots’ growth dropped in July to September. In October, the shoots stopped growing and were ready to go into dormancy. After 45 days of winter defoliation full bloom followed without chemical treatment, fruit went into a lag phase about 30 days after bloom and the lag phase sustained about 40 days. The period of fruit rapid growth followed the lag phase was about 25-30 days and was not happened at the same time with the peak of shoot growth. The growth pattern of ‘Premier’ peach fruit in Taipei was similar to that in Mingjian(名間). The lag phase of fruit growth in Meifeng(梅峰) sustained about 10 days only, the period of total fruit growth was about 105 days. In Taipei there were two full blooms: first bloom was happened from Feb.5 to Feb.15 and second bloom was from Mar.5 to May 17. The fruit growth of the second bloom was very slow and the fruit was small, and it grew slightly in the period of rapid growth.
Trees received 25% Eps water in the lag phase of fruit growth (Mar.31 to Apr.26) and received sufficient water in other time grew larger and heavier fruits. These fruits gained more 18g than the fruits of the comparing treatment and had better fruit colorness, and the soluble solids reached 14 obrix. Water restriction in the rapid growth phase (Apr.26 to fruit mature) of the fruits caused the fruits small and colorless although the soluble solids reached 17 obrix.
Water restriction after harvest greatly inhibited shoot growth. Total shoot length decreased about 50% after the trees received 25%Eps water. Water restriction obviously lowered the amounts of shoot and enhanced the density of flowers and not affected the amounts of flowers, numbers of fruit and yield the following year.
The amounts of shoot grew from the trunk can be promoted by severe heading-back in July. Total shoot length, average shoot length and amounts of shoot were not affected by the postharvest severe pruning, but the density flowers was lowered down to 0.35±0.06 flowers per 10 cm while in the ordinary trees it reached 1.51±0.45 flowers per 10cm. Trees received selective thinning-out after harvest had higher flower density, more fruits and better yield. Selective thinning-out after harvest (in June) reduced the leave area index about 5. The canopy received better light penetration (more than 30%) at 100cm above the ground.
After defoliation, full bloom of ‘premier’ peach trees began in 23 days after and had only one peak occurred if trees were sprayed with 3% dormex. It was 20 days earlier than that of check treatment. Even with no chemical treatment after defoliation, the period of bloom was very intensive also. However, summer oil spraying advanced the time of bloom about 20 days, but the period of bloom sustained almost one month, within which 2-3 peaks occurred. The fruits of trees treated with dormex matured early, and had heavier weight and more soluble solids. The fruits of the other treatments matured late, showed less fruit weight and bad flavor.
The trunk cross-sectional area increased 13.35 cm2 in four years. The effect of root restriction was obvious in container cultural system.

一、 中文摘要------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7
二、 英文摘要------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
三、前言------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12
四、前人研究------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
(一) 修剪與整枝體系------------------------------------------------------------ 14
(二) 採前控水--------------------------------------------------------------------- 16
(三) 採後控水--------------------------------------------------------------------- 18
(四) 限根--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19
(五) 催芽劑------------------------------------------------------------------------ 21
五、材料與方法--------------------------------------------------------------------- 23
(一) 試驗材料與試區建立------------------------------------------------------ 23
(二) 試驗方法--------------------------------------------------------------------- 23
1、自根台農甜蜜桃生長物候調查------------------------------------------ 23
2、不同果實生長期控水對台農甜蜜桃生長結實之影響--------------- 26
3、採後控水暨採後修剪方式對自根台農甜蜜桃在台北生長結實之
影響--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26
4. 不同打破休眠藥劑對自根台農甜蜜桃在台北開花結實之影響---- 27
六、結果與討論--------------------------------------------------------------------- 28
七、參考文獻------------------------------------------------------------------------ 58
八、附錄------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 65

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