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研究生:盛心
研究生(外文):Hsin Sheng
論文名稱:蔗糖與乙烯抑制劑對唐菖蒲及洋桔梗切花貯運後品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of sucrose and ethylene inhibitors on the quality of cut gladiolus and eustoma flowers after storage
指導教授:李哖李哖引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:146
中文關鍵詞:唐菖蒲洋桔梗切花蔗糖乙烯抑制劑
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唐菖蒲切花於10月至翌年4月供應日本冬季市場,近年由荷蘭引進不少新栽培種。以海運經過7天5℃冷藏後,小花易有無法開放之情形。故本研究利用乙烯、醣類及乙烯抑制劑處理,探討不同藥劑對於唐菖蒲切花貯運後品質之影響。唐菖蒲對乙烯屬極低敏感度花卉,但以外施13μl l-1乙烯測試唐菖蒲不同栽培種,確實會使開花花徑變小,總開花數減少等,但此反應會因品種及貯運時期長短不同而有差異,其中以‘Ven Nuto’對乙烯較不敏感,且較耐長期貯運。而利用0.5ppm 1-MCP或20%蔗糖預措20小時處理,則能夠有效改善貯運後唐菖蒲切花之品質,若二者合併使用,則有累加之效果,可增大花徑及增加開花數。但唐菖蒲切花對於蔗糖或1-MCP之反應,則會因栽培種及冷藏天數不同而有所差異,‘Sun Bright’及‘Peter Pears’切花未冷藏時,開花率均在50%∼60%左右,但經過冷藏後,對照組開花率急遽降低至40%,以蔗糖或1-MCP+蔗糖處理,開花率可提高至70%∼80%以上。‘Amsterdam’經過冷藏7天後,以1-MCP+蔗糖處理改善程度較不顯著,開花數只有4.2朵,開花率40%,明顯較其他栽培種低。以海藻糖+蔗糖處理雖亦可改善唐菖蒲‘Pink Princess’、‘Nova Lux’及‘Cartago’切花之貯運後花朵品質,但效果並不如蔗糖來的顯著,故並不建議在商業上利用。另外若在瓶插液中添加較低濃度之蔗糖,同樣可增加貯運後唐菖蒲切花之總開花數及花徑大小,但此反應亦會因栽培種不同而有差異,以‘Nova Lux’表現最為明顯,可增加5朵之開花數,開花率提高近1倍。以20%蔗糖預措處理,可在唐菖蒲小花於緊苞及花苞其維持較高之呼吸速率,使之後小花可順利展開,但切花經過冷藏後,呼吸速率會大幅降低,其中以STS+蔗糖及1-MCP+蔗糖最能夠有效維持緊苞期之呼吸速率,故仍可使小花在冷藏後繼續開放。在不同小花發育階段或冷藏與否,以高濃度蔗糖預措者,其小花之乙烯釋放量均最低。
另以蔗糖和/或乙烯作用抑制劑處理,探討不同藥劑對於洋桔梗切花後品質之影響。不論單瓣或重瓣栽培種之洋桔梗切花,以10%蔗糖、1.0mM STS及0.5ppm 1-MCP處理20小時均可改善花朵品質,增加總開花數。經過冷藏之洋桔梗切花,花朵品質會迅速降低,花朵萎凋數增加,且花色會變淡,以1-MCP+蔗糖處理除可維持較高之開花率與花朵品質外,花色亦較鮮豔。洋桔梗切花在經過冷藏7天後,花朵品質會快速劣變,故應盡量縮短運輸之時間,以維持較優良之切花品質。以10%蔗糖和/或0.5ppm 1-MCP預措處理,可使不論是否經過冷藏之洋桔梗花朵在花苞期有較低之呼吸速率,使之後花朵可順利旋開,另亦可減少乙烯之釋放量。
Effect of sucrose and/or ethylene inhibitors on the vase quality of cut Gladiolus and Eustoma flowers were studied. Application of 13μl l-1 ethylene significantly inhibited the numbers and degrees of floret opening of various Gladiolus cultivars and the effect was cultivar-dependent. Among the cultivars tested, ‘Ven Nuto’ was the most ethylene-insensitive cultivar and the vase quality after simulated transport was least affected by ethylene treatment. Sucrose pulsing and/or ethylene inhibitors pretreatment effectively enhance the floret opening and hence the overall quality of all cultivars tested. However, degrees of improvement in vase quality were also related to various cultivars and duration of simulated transport. Sucrose pulsing in combination with 1-MCP pretreatment significantly increased the floret opening of ‘Sun Bright’ and ‘Peter Pears’ but to a less degree for the same parameters of ‘Amsterdam’. The effect of trehalose pulsing was also investigated, however, the magnitude of improvement was insufficient to cover the high cost of this treatment. Respiration of the sucrose-pulsed florets were enhanced and ethylene production were suppressed in most cultivars during the tight-bud and bud stage. Combinations of sucrose and STS or 1-MCP pretreatment also enhanced the respiration rate and floret opening after simulated transport.
Pulsing with 10% sucrose and/or 1.0mM STS/0.5 ppm 1-MCP for 20 hours improve the overall vase quality of both single and double cultivars of cut Eustoma flowers without simulated transport. Namely, the numbers of total flowers opened were increased, the vase life were extended, and the petal color expression were enhanced. The overall quality of flowers were significantly negatively affected by simulated transport. However, sucrose pulsing in combination with 1-MCP pretreatment significantly improve the vase quality of all cultivars tested as showed with the numbers of flowers opened, vase life and the petal color expression were all enhanced by the treatment. Measurement of respiration showed a lower respiration rate in the flowers pretreated with 10% sucrose and 1-MCP. In summary, the application of sucrose pulsing with ethylene inhibitors was strongly recommended to improve the vase quality of cut Gladiolus and Eustoma flowers.
前 言(Introduction) 1
前人研究(Literature review) 3
一、醣類與切花採收後品質之關係 3
二、乙烯抑制劑與切花品質之關係: 10
三、唐菖蒲切花採收後處理對花朵開放及老化之影響 14
四、近年來洋桔梗切花採收後處理相關研究: 17
材料與方法(Materials and Methods) 21
一、試驗設計及植物材料 21
二、醣類配製及迫吸 22
三、STS配製及處理 22
四、乙烯之配製處理與測定 23
五、1-MCP配製及燻蒸 23
六、二氧化碳及乙烯釋放量之測定 23
七、花青素之測定 24
八、瓶插液之配製 24
九、瓶插表現之評估 25
十、模擬貯運試驗 25
十一、試驗調查環境 26
結 果(Results) 29
一、唐菖蒲: 29
(一)乙烯對唐菖蒲切花貯運後品質之影響 29
(二)1-MCP及乙烯對於唐菖蒲切花模擬貯運後品質之影響 30
(三)醣類和/或乙烯作用抑制劑對於唐菖蒲切花模擬貯運後品質之影響 30
(四)醣類和/或乙烯作用抑制劑對於唐菖蒲小花呼吸作用及乙烯釋放量之影響 35
(五)唐菖蒲小花老化與蔗糖濃度之關係 36
二、洋桔梗: 71
(一)蔗糖和/或乙烯作用抑制劑對於洋桔梗切花模擬貯運後品質之影響 71
(二)蔗糖和/或乙烯作用抑制劑對於洋桔梗小花呼吸作用及乙烯釋放量之影響 77
(三)洋桔梗小花老化與蔗糖濃度之關係 78
討 論(Discussion) 118
一、唐菖蒲: 118
(一)乙烯對唐菖蒲切花貯運後品質之影響 118
(二)1-MCP和乙烯對唐菖蒲切花模擬貯運後品質之影響 119
(三)醣類和/或乙烯作用抑制劑對於唐菖蒲切花品質之影響 120
(四)醣類和/或乙烯作用抑制劑對於唐菖蒲小花呼吸作用及乙烯釋放量之影響 123
二、洋桔梗: 125
(一)蔗糖和/或乙烯作用抑制劑對於洋桔梗切花模擬貯運後品質之影響 125
(二)蔗糖和/或乙烯作用抑制劑對於洋桔梗小花呼吸作用與乙烯釋放量之影響 127
(三)洋桔梗小花老化與蔗糖濃度之關係 129
摘 要 130
Summary 132
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