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研究生:曹希康
研究生(外文):Hsi-Kang Tsao
論文名稱:應用於記憶體及運算能力受限之嵌入式系統的快速MPEG-4FGS可調節式視訊解碼架構
論文名稱(外文):A Fast MPEG-4 FGS Decoding Architecture for Memory and Power Constrained Embedded Systems
指導教授:吳家麟
指導教授(外文):Ja-Ling Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:可調節式視訊串流伺服器MPEG-4FGS排程嵌入式系統行動裝置
外文關鍵詞:FGSScalabilityStreaming ServerMPEG-4ScheduleEmbedded SystemMobile Device
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論文摘要
在這篇論文中,我們建構了一個能有效率利用有限的記憶體及運算能力的系統,來完成在多種裝置平台上,接收網路串流MPEG-4 FGS可調節式視訊並且解碼。我們所測試的裝置平台包括了PC、PDA及TabletPC。這篇論文可以分為三個主題來討論。第一個主題是我們的跨平台MPEG-4 Simple Profile解碼器的設計與實作,在這裡我們研究了許多可以最佳化記憶體使用及運算需求的演算法,並提出了許多的改進及整合。在第二個主題,我們先討論現有MPEG-4 可細微調整壓縮方式(Fine-Granularity Scalability, FGS)解碼架構的缺點,並且提出了更有效率的FGS可調節式視訊解碼架構,我們把它稱做區塊同步(Macroblock-Sync)解碼架構。我們所提出的新解碼架構可以解決原本FGS解碼架構的二個主要缺點,也就是需要大量額外的記憶體空間來儲存建構完的FGS資料及多次的記憶體掃描跟存取來漸進還原DCT剩餘值。而且,Macroblock-Sync FGS解碼架構以特定的區塊解碼順序來最佳化CPU快取(Cache)的利用來增加解碼效能。根據我們的實驗結果,最多可以提升80%的解碼效能。
最後,雖然目前已經有許多關於FGS可調節式網路視訊串流的研究[22-25],然而在這些研究中,客戶端的運算能力較少被考量到。因此,為了使我們的系統更為完整及驗證FGS技術在網路串流的實際效能,我們實作了一個FGS可調節式視訊串流伺服器(Video Streaming Server),並且經由測量目前網路頻寬及客戶端運算能力,完成伺服器的流程控制。由於我們額外考量到客戶端的運算能力的影響,可以節省許多不必要的資料傳輸,也因此,網路及伺服器的資源可以被更有效的利用。

Abstract
In this thesis, we address a memory-efficient and power-constrained architecture for streaming and decoding MPEG-4 Fine Granularity Scalability (FGS) Videos on multi devices, including PC, PDA, and TabletPC. In summary, this thesis can be divided into three topics. First, the design and implementation of our cross-platform MPEG-4 Simple Profile decoder is investigated, in which algorithms for optimizing memory space and computation power are presented. Second, a novel MPEG-4 FGS decoding architecture, named Macroblock-Sync, is proposed. We solve the main problem of the original FGS decoding architecture, the requirements of extra large memory buffer to store reconstructed FGS data and frequent memory scans and accesses, by our proposed architecture. Moreover, the Macroblock-Sync FGS decoding architecture can optimize the CPU cache utilization to further increase the decoding performance.
Finally, although there are many researches on streaming FGS video over networks [22-25], the client’s computation power is rarely taken into account. To complete our system and to verify the performance of our decoder on receiving compressed video through various networks, we implement a flow-control of FGS streaming server by measuring both the current network bandwidth and the computational power of the client. The extra consideration of the computation power of clients can save unnecessary transmission, and therefore, the network and server resources can be exploited more efficiently.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1
LIST OF TABLES 3
LIST OF FIGURES 4
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 7
1.1 INTRODUCTION 7
1.2 INTRODUCTION TO SCALABLE VIDEO CODEC 7
1.3 MOTIVATION 9
1.4 CONTRIBUTIONS 10
1.5 SYSTEM OVERVIEW 11
1.6 THESIS ORGANIZATION 12
CHAPTER 2 A SURVEY OF FINE-GRAINED VIDEO SCALABILITY 15
2.1 MPEG-4 SIMPLE PROFILE 16
2.1.1 MPEG-4 Visual Structure 16
2.1.2 MPEG-4 Simple Profile Coding Tools 16
2.1.3 MPEG-4 Simple Profile Video Decoding Process 17
2.2 MPEG-4 FINE GRANULARITY SCALABILITY 19
2.2.1 Bit-plane Coding Technique 19
2.2.2 Basic FGS Structure 21
2.2.3 Advanced Features in FGS 23
CHAPTER 3 THE SOFTWARE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CROSS-PLATFORM MPEG-4 VIDEO DECODER 25
3.1 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN OF CROSS-PLATFORM DECODER SYSTEM 26
3.2 DESIGN ISSUES OF CROSS-PLATFORM DECODER 29
3.3 ARCHITECTURE COMPONENTS AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATIONS 30
3.3.1 Decoding Data Structure 30
3.3.2 Computation-Bound Component 32
3.3.2.1 YUV2RGB 32
3.3.2.2 Integer IDCT 33
3.3.3 Memory-Bound Component 33
3.3.3.1 InBitStream 33
3.3.3.2 Variable Length Code (VLC) 35
3.3.3.3 AC/DC prediction 38
3.3.3.4 Motion Reconstruction 40
3.4 PERFORMANCE TESTING 42
CHAPTER 4 AN EFFICIENT MACROBLOCK-SYNC DECODING ARCHITECTURE FOR MPEG-4 FGS VIDEO 45
4.1 THE PROBLEMS OF FGS 46
4.2 THE MACROBLOCK-SYNC FGS DECODING ARCHITECTURE 48
4.2.1 The Multi-Way Bitplane Decoding Scheme for Reducing FGS-Layer Memory-Access 48
4.2.2 The Macroblock-Sync Decoding Scheme for Optimizing the Cache Utilization 50
4.3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 52
CHAPTER 5 THE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FGS STREAMING ARCHITECTURE 55
5.1 FGS STREAMING ARCHITECTURE OVERVIEW 56
5.2 SESSION CONTROL SCHEMES 57
5.3 TRANSPORT CONTROL SCHEME 58
5.4 STREAMING FLOW CONTROL SCHEME 59
5.5 CLIENT NETWORK COMPONENT 60
5.5.1 Buffer Manager 60
5.5.2 InBitStream 61
5.5.3 Status Reporter 61
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 63
6.1 CONCLUSIONS 63
6.2 FUTURE WORK 64
ANNEX A THE CORE INTERFACE DECLARATIONS 65
BIBLIOGRAPHY 67

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[2] ISO/IEC 14496-2 IS second edition, “Information Technology — Coding of Audio-Visual Objects - Part 2: Visual”, Dec. 2001. (MPEG-4 Video)
[3] ISO/IEC 14496-2 IS second edition, amendment 2, “Information Technology — Coding of audio-visual objects — Part 2: Visual, Amendment 2: Streaming Video Profile”, Feb. 2002. (MPEG-4 Video FGS)
[4] Reza Hashemian. “Memory Efficient and High-Speed Search Huffman Coding,” IEEE Transcations on Communications, VOL. 43, NO. 10, October 1995
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[8] Soderquist, P. and Leeser, M. “Memory Traffic and Data Cache Behavior of an MPEG-2 Software Decoder,” Proc. of IEEE Intl. Conference on Computer Design, 1997.
[9] Yi-Shin Tung, Ja-Ling Wu, Hsi-Kang Tsao, and Chi-Hui Huang, “A Highly Rate Scalable System Based on MPEG-4 Spatial-Temporal-FGS Video Coding,” WSES IEEE MIV 2001.
[10] Weiping Li. “Overview of Fine Granularity Scalability in MPEG-4 Video Standard,“ IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, VOL. 11, NO. 3, March 2001
[11] M. van der Schaar and Y.-T. Lin. “Content-Based Selective Enhancement for Streaming Video,” Image Processing, 2001. Proceedings. 2001 International Conference on , Volume: 2 , 2001
[12] van der Schaar, M.; Radha, H. “Motion-compensation fine-granular-scalability (MC-FGS) for wireless multimedia,” Multimedia Signal Processing, 2001 IEEE Fourth Workshop on , 2001
[13] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 “FGS Experiments”, N3316, Mar. 2000.ISO/IEC 14496-2:1999/FPDAM 4, Amendment 4: Streaming Video Profile, N3518, July 2000.
[14] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 “Description of mini-experiment on Fine Granular Video Scalability”, M3881, Sep. 1998.
[15] ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 “Fine Granularity Scalability With Wavelets Coding”, B. Schuster, M4021, Oct. 1998.
[16] Feng Wu, Shipeng Li, and Ya-Qin Zhang. “A Framework for Efficient Progressive Fine Granularity Scalable Video Coding,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, VOL. 11, NO. 3, March 2001
[17] Xiaoyan Sun; Feng Wu; Shipeng Li; Wen Gao; Ya-Qin Zhang. “Macroblock-based progressive fine granularity scalable (PFGS) video coding with flexible temporal-SNR scalablilities,” Image Processing, 2001. Proceedings. 2001 International Conference on , Volume: 2 , 2001
[18] Qi Wang; Zixiang Xiong; Feng Wu; Shipeng Li. “Optimal rate allocation for progressive fine granularity scalable video coding,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters , Volume: 9 Issue: 2 , Feb. 2002 Page(s): 33 —39
[19] Feng Wu; Shipeng Li; Ya-Qin Zhang. “Progressive fine granular scalable (PFGS) video using advance-predicted bitplane coding (APBIC),” Circuits and Systems, 2001. ISCAS 2001. The 2001 IEEE International Symposium on , Volume: 5 , 2001 Page(s): 97 -100 vol. 5
[20] Yi-Shin Tung, Ja-Ling Wu, Po-Kang Hsiao, and Kan-Li Huang. “An Efficient Streaming and Decoding Architecture for Stored FGS Video,” Consumer Electronics, 2001. ICCE. International Conference on, 2001
[21] Hsi-Kang Tsao, Yi-Shin Tung, and Ja-Ling Wu. “An Efficient Macroblock-Sync Decoding Architecture for MPEG-4 FGS Video,” IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems Conference, August 2002
[22] Hayder M. Radha, Mihaela van der Schaar, and Yingwei Chen. “The MPEG-4 Fine-Grained Scalable Video Coding Method for Multimedia Streaming Over IP,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, VOL. 3, NO. 1, March 2001
[23] Robert Cohen and Hayder Radha. “Streaming Fine-Grained Scalable Video over Packet-Based Networks,” Global Telecommunications Conference, 2000. GLOBECOM '00. IEEE , Volume: 1 , 2000
[24] van der Schaar, M.; Radha, H. “Packet-loss resilient Internet video using MPEG-4 fine granular scalability,” Image Processing, 2000. Proceedings. 2000 International Conference on, 2000
[25] Van Der Schaar, M.; Radha, H.; Dufour, C. “Scalable MPEG-4 video coding with graceful packet-loss resilience over bandwidth-varying networks,” Multimedia and Expo, 2000. ICME 2000. 2000 IEEE International Conference on , Volume: 3 , 2000
[26] Project Mayo Open Divx Codec. http://www.projectmayo.com/
[27] ISO/IEC 14496-5 IS second edition, “Information technology -- Coding of audio-visual objects -- Part 5: Reference software“ (MPEG-4 Reference Software)
[28] Dale Rogerson — Inside COM, Microsoft Press, 1997

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