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研究生:王仁昌
研究生(外文):WANG, JEN-CHANG
論文名稱:利用TOA及DOA之手機定位技術
論文名稱(外文):Using TOA and DOA for Subscriber Geolocation
指導教授:李學智李學智引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsueh-Jyh Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電信工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:TOA: Time of ArrivalDOA: Direction of Arrival
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在本篇論文,我們發展了應用於未來W-CDMA行動通訊系統的手機定位技術,利用這些技術,只要單一基地台裝有陣列天線,我們便可以將手機定位付諸實行,一旦基地臺收到手機上傳的訊號並估測出直接波的傳播時間與傳播來向,我們便可依這些訊息決定出手機所在位置。
針對直接波傳播時間的估測,我們提出兩種演算法,一為向下搜尋法,一為向上搜尋法,針對直接波來向的估測,我們提出非等距天線陣列結構的波來向估測技術,在使用這種陣列結構之下,與相同孔徑大小的天線陣列相比,此方法不但有較高的準確度,而且有較少的天線單元數目。
我們利用COST 259通道模型來產生經過通道的寬頻訊號,並利用這種方式檢驗我們所提出的演算法效能,為了進一步增加準確度,在搭配前面所提的演算法之下,我們更發展出利用時間序列連續訊號特性的手機定位技術,我們也完成了一連串手機訊號量測的實驗,包括手機在建築物內的微細胞環境、手機訊號穿透建築物由遠處基地台接收的巨細胞環境、室外無視線波存在的巨細胞環境及多個基地台同時涵蓋手機通訊範圍的實驗,透過模擬與實驗,我們確實的驗證我們所提出的手機定位技術的效能與可行性。

In this thesis we develop subscriber geolocation techniques for future W-CDMA applications. These techniques can be realized by a single base station (BS) equipped with an antenna array. The BS receives uplink signals and from which to estimate the time of arrival (TOA) and direction of arrival (DOA) of the direct path connecting from the mobile station (MS) to the BS. The MS’s position is then determined by the estimated TOA and DOA. We have proposed two methods, the downward search method and the upward search method, to estimate the TOA of the direct path. We also have proposed a method which utilizes non-uniform spaced array to determine the DOA of the direct path. Benefit of this method is that we can use less antenna elements but still have better estimation performance than that of a uniform array with the same aperture size but more elements. We have used the COST 259 channel model to generate wideband channel signals and use them to test the estimation performance of our proposed method. To improve the accuracy of geolocation, we have proposed methods which utilize estimations from multiple snapshots to locate the MS. We found that the geolocation performance can be improved significantly. We have conducted experiments in several typical environments, including a picocell environment, an environment with signal penetrating through buildings, a macrocell outdoor environment and a cell covered by multiple base stations. Simulation and experimental results have verified the effectiveness of our proposed methods.

Contents
Abstract……………………………………………………………ⅰ
Contents……………………………………………………………ⅲ
List of Figures……………………………………………………ⅴ
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1Motivation………………………………………… 1
1.2Thesis Overview…………………………………… 3
1.3Thesis Contributions…………………………… 3
Chapter 2 Fundamentals for Subscriber Geolocation and Its Channel Characteristics
2.1 Geolocation Fundamentals…………………… 5
2.2 Channel Characteristics……………………… 9
2.3 Principles and Functions of Vector Channel
Sounder System………………………………… 12
Chapter 3 TOA Estimation in Multipath Environment
3.1 TOA Estimation Algorithm………………………15
3.2 Effect of Signal Bandwidth on the Accuracy of TOA
Estimation……………………………………… 16
3.3 TOA Estimation with Simulation…………… 29
3.4 TOA Estimation with Measurement…………… 31
Chapter 4 DOA Estimation in Multipath Environment
4.1 Array Signal Properties in Multipath Environment
4.1.1 Fading Pattern……………………………… 37
4.1.2 Phase Difference vs. DOA………………… 41
4.2 DOA Estimation Methods
4.2.1 ESPRIT………………………………………… 44
4.2.2 Widely Non-uniformly Spaced Arrays………46
4.3 Simulation on DOA Estimation
4.3.1 Multipath Environment without AWGN………48
4.3.2 Multipath Environment with AWGN……………51
4.4 Measurement on DOA Estimation…………………54
Chapter 5 Subscriber Geolocation By Combining TOA and DOA
5.1 Algorithms for Subscriber
Geolocation…………………………………… 62
5.2 Geolocation Experiment in a Pico-cell
Environment…………………………………… 65
5.3 Geolocation Experiment in Environment with Signal
Penetrating Through Building……………… 68
5.4 Geolocation Experiment Using Two Base
Stations………………………………………… 81
Chapter 6 Conclusion…………………………………………… 89

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