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研究生:楊家雄
研究生(外文):YANG, JIA-SHIUNG
論文名稱:高效能之動態網頁負載平衡演算法
論文名稱(外文):An Effective Load Balancing Algorithm for Dynamic Web Content
指導教授:雷欽隆雷欽隆引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Laung Lei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電機工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:59
中文關鍵詞:負載平衡全球資訊網動態網頁
外文關鍵詞:load balancingWWWdynamic web content
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:7
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在本論文中,我們針對以動態網頁為主的網頁伺服器叢集設計了一套負載平衡的演算法。此方法係藉由伺服器之間互相交換負載資訊來決定連線要求與網頁伺服器節點的對應關係,並經由網址改寫(URL Rewriting)的方式將連線要求加以轉送到最適當的網頁伺服器節點,以達成負載平衡的目標。
對於負載資訊交換的演算法部分,我們動態地紀錄不同的動態網頁其連線要求的處理時間,綜合累計的處理時間以及CPU負載以求出該伺服器之負載資訊。演算法的目標在於讓各伺服器交換最少的負載資訊也能達到良好的負載平衡。由實驗結果顯示,我們的動態網頁負載平衡演算法在效能上有相當良好的表現,無論在叢集規模擴大或負載量增加的情況下,均能有效達到伺服器叢集的負載平衡效果,且連線要求的平均處理時間亦能降低。應用在規模較大的伺服器叢集或動態網頁比例較高的網站如大型搜尋引擎等,效果將更為顯著。
In this thesis, we propose an effective load balancing algorithm for dynamic contents on Web server clusters. The objective of our algorithm is to achieve balanced load among Web servers and to reduce the communication overhead of the load balancing algorithm. By periodically communicating server-state information among servers, incoming client requests could be dispatched to the most appropriate Web servers by HTTP redirection, and load balance of Web servers is thus achieved.
The load status of each Web server is updated according to the total weight of incoming client requests of dynamic contents and CPU load information. Instead of communicating with all other servers, each Web server in our scheme only has to communicate its load directly with a fairly small subset of Web servers, which dramatically reduce the communication traffic and average response time of the system. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is both effective and scalable. By deploying our algorithm, server load is balanced very smoothly and the average response time is also reduced, especially on large-scale Web clusters or search engines.
目錄
摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iii
圖表目錄 iv
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究方法 4
1.4 論文章節 4
第二章 相關研究 5
2.1 網頁伺服器叢集架構的介紹與比較 5
2.1.1 Client-based 架構 6
2.1.2 DNS-based 架構 7
2.1.3 Dispatcher-based 架構 11
2.1.4 Server-based 架構 12
2.2 網頁內容的分類及動態網頁之特性 14
2.3 負載平衡演算法的分類與介紹 15
2.3.1 負載平衡演算法的分類 15
2.3.2 相關的負載平衡演算法介紹 17
第三章 系統設計 19
3.1 系統架構 19
3.2 負載平衡演算法 21
3.3 負載狀態更新模組(Load-updating Module) 22
3.4 負載平衡模組(Load-balancing Module) 26
3.5 連線轉送模組(Redirect Module) 29
第四章 實作與數據分析 31
4.1 網頁伺服器模組實作 31
4.2 測試平台 32
4.3 實測數據與分析 34
4.3.1 Random Request Distribution (N=4) 36
4.3.2 Zipf Request Distribution (N=4) 39
4.4 模擬數據與分析 42
4.4.1 Random Request Distribution (rate=0.5*N) 43
4.4.2 Random Request Distribution (rate=N) 46
4.4.3 Zipf Request Distribution (rate=N) 49
第五章 結論 51
參考文獻 53
[1] Apache HTTP server benchmarking tool, http://httpd.apache.org/docs/programs/ab.html (9 June 2002)
[2] Apache HTTPD Project - The Apache HTTP Server Project, http://httpd.apache.org/ (9 June 2002)
[3] M. F. Arlitt and C. L. Williamson, “Web Server Workload Characterization: The Search for Invariants”, Proceedings of the ACM SIGMETRICS ''96 Conference, Apr. 1996.
[4] R. Buyya, High Performance Cluster Computing: Architectures and Systems (1st ed.), Prentice Hall PTR, 1999
[5] P. Cao and S. Irani, "Cost-aware WWW proxy caching algorithms", Proc. USENIX Symp. on Internet Technologies and Systems, pp. 193-206, December 1997
[6] V. Cardellini, M. Colajanni, P. S. Yu, “Dynamic Load Balancing on Web-server Systems”, IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 3, no.3, May 1999, pp. 28-39
[7] Cisco’s LocalDirector, http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/cxsr/400/index.shtml (9 June 2002)
[8] Cisco’s DistributedDirector, http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/cxsr/dd/index.shtml (9 June 2002)
[9] M. Colajanni, P. S. Yu, V. Cardellini, “Dynamic load balancing in geographically distributed heterogeneous Web-servers”, Proc. Of 18th IEEE Int’l. Conf. On Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS’98), pp. 295-302, May 1998.
[10] A. Corradi, L. Leonardi, F. Zambonelli, “On the Effectiveness of Different Diffusive Load Balancing Policies in Dynamic Applications”, Conference on High-Performance Computing and Networking (HPCN-98), April 1998
[11] D. Mosberger, T. Jin, “httperf — A Tool for Measuring Web Server Performance”, ACM WISP, pp. 59-- 67, June 1998.
[12] MySQL, http://www.mysql.com (9 June 2002)
[13] PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor, http://www.php.net (9 June 2002)
[14] References on Zipf’s law, http://linkage.rockefeller.edu/wli/zipf/ (9 June 2002)
[15] R. J. Schemers, “lbmnamed: A load balancing name server in Perl”, Proc. Of the 9th Systems Administration Conference (LISA’95), Monterey, Sep. 1995.
[16] C. Silverstein, M. Henzinger, H. Marais, M. Moricz, “Analysis of a Very Large AltaVista Query Log”, Digital SRC Technical Note 1998-014, October 1998
[17] A. Singhai, S. B. Lim, S. R. Radia, “The SunSCALR framework for Internet servers”, Proc. Of IEEE Fault Tolerant Computing Systems (FTCS’98), Munich, Germany, June 1998.
[18] W. R. Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols, Addison-Wesley, 1994
[19] T. T. Y. Suen and J. S. K. Wong, “Efficient task migration algorithm for distributed systems”, IEEE Transaction on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol.3, No.4, July 1992, pp.488-499
[20] Y. C. Sun and C. L. Lei, “A scalable adaptive load balancing algorithm for distributed computer systems”, Bulletin of the College of Engineering, N.T.U., No.65, Oct.1995, pp.1-12
[21] C. Yoshikawa, B. Chun, P. Eastham, A.Vahdat, T. Anderson, D. Culler, “Using Smart Clients to build scalable services”, Proc. Of Usenix 1997, Jan. 1997
[22] M. Zari, H. Saiedian, M. Naeem, “Understanding and Reducing Web Delays”, IEEE Computer, December 2001, p.31
[23] Zipf Distribution of Website Popularity, http://www.useit.com/alertbox/zipf.html (9 June 2002)
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