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研究生:馬嘉隆
研究生(外文):Chia-Lung, Ma
論文名稱:多頻率GPS接收機之衛星故障偵測與隔離
論文名稱(外文):Satellite Failure Detection and Isolation in Multi-Frequency GPS Receivers
指導教授:張帆人王立昇
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電機工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:偵測隔離接收機全球定位系統
外文關鍵詞:GPSMulti-FrequencyFailure DetectionFailure Isolation
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為了提升GPS系統之性能,美國已通過了政策於未來數年內,除了現有的L1(1575.42 MHz)頻率,還要增添L2(1227.60 MHz)與L5(1176.45 MHz)頻率來廣播GPS導航訊息,免費提供全球民間用戶。因此,可預見未來能同時處理L1、L2與L5頻率的GPS接收機,無論是在定位精度或是完整性的保障上,都會超越現有的接收機。本論文以虛擬距離定位為出發點,比較多頻與單頻接收機在定位精度及系統完整性上的差異。在定位精度方面,先以熱雜訊、對流層與電離層延遲效應為主要誤差來源,個別分析其對於定位精度的影響;接著同時考量此三種誤差源,藉由多頻接收機的定位演算法,來消除與時間延遲具有高度相關性的電離層效應,以達到提升定位精度的目的。電離層效應消除後,則所剩餘之虛擬距離誤差更符合於高斯分佈的假設,此時將有利於接收機自主監控(Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring;RAIM)之分析。另外,本論文在系統完整性方面的研究,以衛星故障的偵測與故障衛星的排除為主題,採用結合L1、L2及L5的動態演算法─指數加權移動平均(Exponentially Weighted Moving Average;EWMA)濾波器作為偵測系統失效之工具。其中故障衛星的排除方法,乃是利用EWMA快速偵測的特性,針對每一個衛星子集(Subset)做偵測,以區隔出故障的衛星。最後,由模擬結果得知,當增加L2及L5的導航訊息時,一方面能提高定位精度;另一方面能縮短衛星故障的偵測時間,而故障衛星的隔離成功率亦相對的被提高。
To improve the performance of the current navigation system, a GPS modernization policy has been approved by the US government. In this plan, the navigation message will be broadcasted not only via L1 (1575.42 MHz), but also via L2 (1227.60 MHz) and L5 (1176.45 MHz). The main advantages of GPS receivers, which take care of L1, L2 and L5 signals, are the performance enhancement in positioning accuracy and integrity. On the basis of the pseudo-range positioning method, this thesis compares the positioning accuracy and integrity performance of single-frequency receiver with those of multiple-frequency receiver. First, the effect of each source, including thermal noise, tropospheric delay and ionospheric delay, on positioning accuracy is analyzed respectively. Then, by considering all the error sources, the highly correlated ionospheric effect can be eliminated through a multiple-frequency positioning algorithm. As a result, the positioning accuracy is improved. After the elimination of ionospheric effect, the remaining pseudo-range error approximately satisfies the assumption of Gaussian distribution. This will be helpful in the analysis of system integrity. Furthermore, the other topics of this thesis are detection and exclusion of satellite failure. A dynamic filter, Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA), is used to detection the malfunction of satellite in multiple-frequency situation. In addition, the EWMA is also used to isolate the failed satellite by examining each subset consisting of (n-1) satellites from n visible satellites. Simulation results show that the additional L2 and L5 information can increase the positioning accuracy, and reduce the detection time of satellite failure. Moreover, the isolation rate of failed satellite can be raised.
摘 要 i
Abstract iii
目 錄 v
圖 目 錄 vii
表 目 錄 ix
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 2
1.2 文獻回顧 3
1.3 論文架構 3
第2章 GPS誤差來源與線性化模型 5
2.1 誤差來源與影響 6
2.2 電離層常數k之估算 9
2.3 衛星幾何分佈 10
2.4 定位線性化模型 11
第3章 多頻接收機定位演算法 15
3.1 定位演算法 15
3.1.1 雙頻率模型 15
3.1.2 多頻率模型 18
3.2 定位模擬結果 21
3.2.1 模擬環境 22
3.2.2 各種延遲效應的比較 24
3.2.2.1 熱雜訊之影響 25
3.2.2.2 對流層效應之影響 28
3.2.2.3 電離層延遲之影響 31
3.2.2.4 三種誤差源之整合影響 34
第4章 完整監控 37
4.1 誤差平方和(SSE)演算法 38
4.2 虛擬距離誤差與SSE的關係 39
4.3 SSE自主監控偵測 44
4.4 指數加權移動平均(EWMA)演算法 45
4.4.1 基本的EWMA方程式 46
4.4.2 加權係數(Weighting Factor) 46
4.4.3 EWMA的變異數 47
4.4.4 EWMA的臨界值 48
4.5 機率積分轉換 49
4.6 EWMA演算法的執行步驟 52
4.7 模擬結果 55
4.8 分析與討論 61
第5章 衛星故障之偵測與隔離 63
5.1 衛星故障之偵測 63
5.1.1 虛擬距離標準差的估算 63
5.1.2 模擬結果 66
5.2 故障衛星之隔離 74
5.2.1 隔離的方法 74
5.2.2 模擬結果 79
5.3 分析與結論 91
第6章 結論與未來工作 93
參考文獻 95
參考文獻
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[2] Elliot D. Kaplan, “Understanding GPS: Principles and applications,” Artech House Inc., 1996.
[3] Mohinder S. Grewal and Angus P. Andrews, “Kalman Filtering Theory and Practice,” Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1993.
[4] Parkinson, B. W. and Axelrad, P., “Autonomous GPS Integrity Monitoring Using the Pseudorange Residual,” Navigation, Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Vol. 35, No.2, Summer 1988, pp.255-274.
[5] Robert Grover Brown and Patrick Y. C. Hwang, “Introduction to Random Signals and Applied Kalman Filtering,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2nd Edition, 1992.
[6] W. C. Yang, F. R. Chang, C. H. Fan and H. S. Wang, “RAIM Filter for Fast Failure Detection,” 2001 ION (Institute of Navigation) National Technical Meeting, Long Beach, California, USA, January 2001.
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[8] “Satellite Navigation TOOLBOX 2.0 for Matlab”, GPSoft LLC, 1999.
[9] Civil Aviation Benefits of the Third Civil GPS Frequency (L5), http://gps.faa.gov/Library/Documents/l5_appen.doc
[10] J.C. Johns, “Enhanced Capability of GPS and its Augmentation Systems : Meets Navigation Need of the 21st Century,” ICAO Journal, Vol. 52, No, 9, 7-10, 1997.
[11] C. McCullough, “US Satellite Navigation Program Status,” Journal of navigation, Vol. 52, No. 3, 303-312, 1999.
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[13] “Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Airborne Supplemental Navigation Equipment Using Global Positioning System (GPS),” Document RTCA/DO-208. Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics, Washington, DC, July 1991.
[14] Brown, R. G., ”A Baseline GPS RAIM Scheme and a Note on the Equivalence of Three RAIM Methods,” Navigation, Journal of the Institute of Navigation, Vol. 39, No.3, Fall 1992, pp. 301-316.
[15] Lee, Y. C., “Analysis of Range and Position Comparison Methods as a Means to Provide GPS Integrity in the User Receiver,” Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation Forty-second Annual Meeting, Seattle, Washington, 24-26 June 1986, pp. 1-4.
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[18] 陳東雲, ”區域擴增系統之探討”, 台大電機所碩士論文, 1999.
[19] 沈俊弘, ”利用平滑器與多參考站之軌跡判定”, 台大電機所碩士論文, 2000.
[20] 莊智清、黃國興, “e-navigation 電子導航”, 全華科技圖書股份有限公司, 2001.
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