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研究生:詹明華
研究生(外文):Ming-Hwa Chan
論文名稱:有效率且匿名之浮水印嵌入交易協定
論文名稱(外文):An Efficient Anonymous Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol
指導教授:雷欽隆雷欽隆引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Laung Lei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:電機工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:64
中文關鍵詞:數位浮水印著作權保護隱私匿名性
外文關鍵詞:digital watermarkcopy protectionprivacyanonymous
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近年來電腦與網路的普及已使得資料的複製與傳遞變得十分方便;然而,數位資料容易複製與散佈的特性卻也讓著作權之保護與判別成為重要的課題,數位浮水印技術的提出為此提供了一些解決方法;其中一種應用方式是在每一份售出的內容中,嵌入一個惟一之浮水印,之後若發現該檔案的非法拷貝,藉由取出該浮水印加以比對,便可查出違反著作權的買者。然而,由於當初浮水印是由賣方所嵌入的,所以賣方本身也持有加入浮水印之檔案版本;當發現非法的拷貝時,無法確定其來源是所查出的買者,還是賣方本身,因而無法作出誰違反了著作權法的判定。另一個愈來愈需要重視的則是使用者隱私保護的問題,隨著資料的搜尋與取得愈來愈容易以及資料探勘技術的成熟,除了使用者的部份資料能夠藉由網路輕易地獲得以外,使用者在網路上的活動所留下的記錄,如註冊資料、交易記錄…等等,還能夠加以分析歸納出關於使用者個人的習慣、喜好甚至消費模式等資訊。
本篇論文中提出一匿名之浮水印嵌入交易協定。在交易的過程中,採用非可視性強韌之數位浮水印技術配合適當的公開金鑰密碼系統,使得嵌入浮水印的運算得以在加密域中完成;因此除了擁有對應之私密金鑰的買者以外,其它人無法取得加入浮水印的檔案,除去了上述的非法拷貝可能來自於賣方本身的可能性。此外,除非買者非法散佈購得之版本,賣方才能藉由取出其中所藏之浮水印進而提供證據以說服法官,協助找出該買者之真實身分並且作出公正的裁決;否則的話,買者將能夠一直保持匿名狀態,以保護其隱私。
In order to deter unauthorized duplication and distribution of multimedia content, the seller can insert a unique watermark with respect to each buyer into a copy of the content. Then the seller can find out the original buyer of unauthorized copies by using the corresponding watermark detection or extraction algorithm. However, the accused buyer can claim that the found unauthorized copies are created and distributed by the seller herself because the watermark is embedded solely by the seller. In addition, as more and more information is put on line and data mining techniques are maturing, there have been many threats to the privacy of customers today.
In this thesis, a watermarking protocol is proposed to make the seller embed the watermark into a copy to be sold in encryption domain so that she cannot glean the watermarked copy exactly. This prevents the buyer from claiming that an unauthorized copy may have originated from the seller. In comparison with previous solutions, the proposed scheme is more convenient for buyers as they only have to interact with one party, the seller, each time they want to buy something. Besides, the proposed scheme enables buyers to buy multimedia content anonymously. However, upon finding an unauthorized copy at a later point in time, the seller can find the related record by detecting the embedded watermark in that copy and then provide this evidence to the judge to identify the cheating buyer in the trial.
List of Figures ix
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Related Work 6
2.1 Background 6
2.2.1 Watermarking 6
2.2.2 Fingerprinting 9
2.2.3 Anonymity Related Research 10
2.2 Customer’s Right Problem 12
Chapter 3 The Proposed Scheme 18
3.1 Notations and Assumptions 18
3.2 Anonymous Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol 21
3.2.1 Registration Protocol 22
3.2.2 Watermarking Protocol 24
3.2.3 Identification and Arbitration Protocol 29
Chapter 4 Discussion 33
4.1 Security Analysis 33
4.1.1 Requirements 34
4.1.2 Examination of Subprotocols 35
4.2 Comparison with Previous Solutions 41
4.3 Trusted Third Parties 42
Chapter 5 Variation 45
5.1 Key Lost Problem 45
5.2 To Keep the Watermark Secret 52
5.3 To Keep Buyers Anonymous on Internet 54
Chapter 6 Conclusions 58
Bibliography 60
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