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研究生:黃麗虹
研究生(外文):Li-Hung Huang
論文名稱:網際網路應用對大學圖書館組織文化之影響:以五所大學圖書館為例
論文名稱(外文):The Impact of Internet on Academic Library''s Oranizational Culture ---5 Cases Study
指導教授:陳雪華陳雪華引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:圖書資訊學研究所
學門:傳播學門
學類:圖書資訊檔案學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:259
中文關鍵詞:組織文化大學圖書館網際網路
外文關鍵詞:Organizational CultureThe Academic LibraryThe Internet
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:9
  • 點閱點閱:1090
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  • 下載下載:200
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:10
摘 要
在二十世紀末以電腦為主的資訊技術,對組織運作產生很大的影響,組織文化成為瞭解資訊技術在組織應用的一種典範,因而不論學界或實務界紛紛探究組織文化與資訊技術的關係,研究顯示,組織文化與資訊技術兩者乃相互影響。組織在建置或應用資訊技術時,若能即早瞭解引進資訊技術可能引起的組織文化(包含主文化、次文化、反文化)衝突,或瞭解組織文化對接受資訊技術之難易程度,將可提昇資訊技術建置或應用的效益。
從1990年初開始,網際網路蓬勃發展,對大學圖書館的經營影響很大,尤其是全球資訊網的興起,網路從早期單一的文字介面,發展為結合文字、圖形、聲音、動畫等多媒體介面的全球資訊網,圖書館紛紛建立自己的網站,將圖書館的歷史沿革、組織概況、服務項目、資源查詢、消息公告…等,以不同於傳統的傳播方式,更積極、主動將圖書館各項服務與資訊呈現給讀者,甚至成為與讀者互動的重要工具。國內大學圖書館雖已普遍應用網際網路,且圖書資訊學界對網際網路與圖書館關係之研究甚多,然甚少從整體組織文化的觀點,系統化分析網際網路應用是否影響大學圖書館組織成員克服外在環境及整合內部問題時所持的價值觀或基本假定﹐這些價值觀或基本假定可用以解釋和預測大學圖書館成員應用網際網路的行為模式,深入瞭解此行為模式將更有助於大學圖書館達成支援教學與研究之目標。
本研究主要探討網際網路應用對國內大學圖書館組織文化的影響,以美國組織心理學著名學者Edgar H. Schein的「組織文化與領導」理論為本研究的理論依據。由於圖書館組織文化的探討仍屬萌芽期,故本研究定位為探索性的研究,以國內五所公私立大學圖書館為研究對象,深度訪談研究對象之主管,包含館長及各組組長(主任)等共四十二位,並採用文獻分析、非參與式觀察、相關文件分析、同儕修正等多重方式,進行研究結果交叉檢視分析。
本研究結果顯示,網際網路應用對大學圖書館組織文化各向度影響情形不同,分別為:
一、 網際網路應用對國內五所大學圖書館組織文化「人際面」之價值觀及基本假定並無明顯影響
國內五所大學圖書館在組織文化人際面上具有多樣化的價值觀,分別為:泛家族取向、關係取向、以及和諧取向;在人際面基本假定是呈現「社會取向」。網際網路應用後這些標榜的價值觀及深層的基本假定並未明顯受到影響。
二、 網際網路應用對國內五所大學圖書館組織文化「人性面」之價值觀及基本假定並無明顯影響
五所大學圖書館原有組織文化人性面價值觀呈現出:「信任」、「尊重」等人性積極正面的看法,但亦認為人有懶惰、被動的一面,必須藉由控制、督導與懲罰的制度,使館員努力工作,所以在人性面所持的基本假定是「人性本善但認為人有惰性」。網際網路應用後五所大學圖書館在人性面所持的價值觀為「館員自律」、「信任館員」、「主管勸說」等,這些價值觀是一種人性本善的基本假定,因此大學圖書館人性面之價值觀及基本假定並未明顯受到網際網路應用的影響。
三、 網際網路應用對大學圖書館組織文化行動面之價值觀及基本假定並無明顯影響
國內五所大學圖書館在行動面呈現出:「先考慮困難」、「注重形象」、「自然解決」、到「自我突破」等價值觀,並持[相對存在取向],認為「身處行政單位扮演支援教學、研究的角色,不需積極投入教學與研究工作」的基本假定。網際網路應用之後,五所大學圖書館在組織文化行動面呈現「謹慎行事」、「善盡本分」、「主動而為」、「注重學習」等價值觀,這也是在順應自然前提下,努力克服現有困難的「相對存在取向」,因此五所大學圖書館的行動面在價值觀及基本假定層次上並未明顯受到網際網路應用的影響。
四、 網際網路應用影響大學圖書館組織文化「發展面」之價值觀與基本假定
國內五所大學圖書館過去在「發展面」所持的價值觀是保守的「被動服務」與「靜態服務」,故在時間發展之基本假定是持「現在取向」的,也就是圖書館「以解決目前的問題為主」。網際網路應用後,五所大學圖書館以[規劃與改變、注重發展]的價值觀逐步改變圖書館靜態的、被動的服務,在時間本質的發展是採取現在取向,但逐漸重視未來發展的。除了價值觀改變外,五所大學圖書館對組織發展逐漸偏向「未來取向」,其背後隱含之基本假定是「身處學術教育單位必須不斷的學習」。
五、 網際網路應用對大學圖書館組織文化「事實面」之價值觀及基本假定並無明顯影響
國內五所大學圖書館在決策上是採「科學結果」、「領導者決策」、「團體共識」並用的價值觀,但是「團體共識」是五所大學圖書館認為最重要、也最被視為理所當然的決策方式。而隱含在這些價值觀背後之基本假定是,對外決策方面,「學校是教育機構,各系、所、學院教授在學校之權威性高於圖書館館員,圖書館決策要充分滿足各院教授代表(圖書委員會)的意見」;對內決策方面,「要互相尊重與和諧相處,以會議討論及民主表決方式取得共識,事情就好推動。」網際網路應用後五所大學圖書館之事實認定準則與決策過程並未明顯受到影響,仍採「試用評估」、「館長政策」、「任務小組」等價值觀,尤其「任務小組」之集體決策與開會討論結果較無爭議性,仍是研究對象在網路時代最主要的決策模式。
最後,本研究從理論與實務方面提出多項建議,理論方面包括:提出四項初步理論命題:(一) 人際面是國內大學圖書館組織文化的核心面向;(二) 國內大學圖書館組織文化各價值觀或基本假定間不一定是彼此相容或一致的; (三) 組成定位不一致影響國內大學圖書館的行動面與發展面價值觀;(四)績效評估制度影響大學圖書館的升遷機會與成就動機;實務方面包括:訂定大學圖書館組織文化管理的可行途徑:(一)固有優良組織文化的延續,(二)新的組織文化創造,(三)組織文化的傳遞與學習等。
目 次
摘 要……………………………………………………………………………….iv
目 次………………………………………………………………………………vii
表 目 次.…………………………………………………………………………..ix
圖 目 次..…………………………………………………………………………. x
第 一 章 緒論……………………………………………………………………1
第一節 問題陳述…………………………………………………………1
第二節 研究問題與研究目的……………………………………………5
第三節 研究範圍與限制…………………………………………………7
第四節 名詞解釋…………………………………………………………9
第 二 章 文獻分析……………………………………………………………..13
第一節 組織文化相關理論探討…………………………………………13
第二節 資訊技術與組織文化……………………………………………21
第三節 大學圖書館面臨之問題與趨勢…………………………………28
第四節 圖書資訊學在組織文化上的研究………………………………35
第 三 章 研究設計與實施……………………………………………………..43
第一節 研究取向…………………………………………………………43
第二節 研究對象…………………………………………………………46
第三節 研究步驟與流程…………………………………………………52
第四節 資料蒐集…………………………………………………………56
第五節 資料分析…………………………………………………………60
第 四 章 研究結果分析………………………………………………………..64
第一節 資料分析架構與多重檢驗來源…………………………………64
第二節 網際網路應用對大學圖書館組織文化人際觀的影響…………66
第三節 網際網路應用對大學圖書館組織文化人性觀的影響…………………79
第四節 網際網路應用對大學圖書館組織文化行動觀的影響…………97
第五節 網際網路應用對大學圖書館組織文化發展觀的影響………..116
第六節 網際網路應用對大學圖書館組織文化事實觀的影響………..139
第 五 章 結論與建議………………………………………………………....157
第一節 網際網路應用對大學圖書館組織文化之影響……………….158
第二節 本研究結果與其他相關研究結果之比較…………………….164
第三節 研究建議……………………………………………………….167
參考書目…………………………………………………………………………227
附錄
附錄一 指導教授與研究者共同署名之研究計畫推薦信函…………………253
附錄二 訪談前言陳述…………………………………………………………254
附錄三 訪談大綱及訪談資料蒐集目的………………………………………255
附錄四 同儕修正意見…………………………………………………………257
表 目 次
表2-1 Ott整理出組織文化的定義………………………………………………23
表2-2 Sharma組織文化特性與決策關係……………………………………….35
表2-3 組織文化影響資訊技術建置之實證研究……………………………….37
表2-4 Powell觀察美國中西部七所學術圖書館目前面臨的趨勢與問題………45
表2-5 Robbin & Lincona調查學術圖書館館員應具備之能力…………………53
表2-6 Barker提出圖書館組織文化之思考問題…………………………………58
表2-7 本研究與其他圖書資訊學博士論文之研究結果比較…………………..64
表3-1本研究對象之組織及網站建置時間………………………………………77
表3-2 受訪者背景資料分析……………………………………………………..79
表4-1 本研究與Schein相對應之組織文化向度……………………………….98
表4-2 五所大學圖書館之人性價值觀…………………………………………108
表4-3 五所大學圖書館之人性觀受網際網路應用的影響情形………………119
表4-4 大學圖書館張貼公告與回覆信件程序分析比較表……………………133
表4-5 兩個研究對象電子報通知標題範例……………………………………156
表4-6 五所大學圖書館事實觀層次與外顯價值觀對應表……………………174
表4-7 五所大學圖書館各向度外顯價值觀明顯受到網際網路應用影響部分…………175
表5-2 本研究與其他圖書資訊學博士論文研究結果比較……………………209
圖 目 次
圖2-1 Schein 文化的層次………………………………………………………27
圖3-1 研究實施與步驟流程圖…………………………………………………84
圖3-2 資料分析架構……………………………………………………………94
參考書目
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黃國隆(民81)。辦公室自動化對組織行為之影響。(國科會專題研究計畫成果報告, NSC79-0301-H-004-13)。台北市:國立政治大學心理學系。
黃國隆(民81)。資訊科技與組織價值觀(國科會專題研究計畫成果報告, NSC 80-0301-H004-26)。台北市:國立政治大學心理學系。
黃國隆、陳惠芳(民87)。資訊技術、組織價值觀與組織承諾之關係。管理學報,15(3),頁343-366。
*賈樂吉(民83)。從組織文化理論探討我國警察職業人格之研究:以宜蘭縣警察局為例。未出版之碩士論文,中央警察大學警政研究所,桃園縣。
*廖秀滿(民80)。美國大學圖書館自動化人力資源重組之研究。未出版之碩士論文,國立台灣大學圖書資訊學研究所,台北市。
歐用生(民84)。質的研究。台北市:師大書苑。
盧秀菊(民83)。現代圖書館組織結構理論與實務。台北市:文華。
*譚潔芝(民79)。組織文化對組織運作之影響。未出版之碩士論文,國立台灣大學政治學研究所,台北市。
(二) 期刊論文部份
卜小蝶。「Internet資源搜索系統與圖書館資訊服務:以Gopher為例」。中國圖書館學會會報53期 (民83年12月), 頁83-108。
卜小蝶。「Internet資源的了解與掌握」。圖書與資訊學刊14期 (民84年8月),頁20-31。
卜小蝶。「淺談Internet在圖書館的應用」。全國圖書館資訊網路通訊4卷1期 (民83年12月),頁1-7。
王宏德。「網路上的多媒體世界---WWW」。國立中央圖書館館訊17卷2期 (民84年5月),頁5-8。
王宏德。「WWW在圖書館的應用」。國立中央圖書館館訊17卷3期(民84年8月),頁1-6。
王美鴻(民86)。從組織文化論大學圖書館的組織變革。大學圖書館,1(3),53-68。
王梅玲(民86)。大學圖書館技術服務的組織重整。大學圖書館,1(2),29-52。
中國圖書館學會(民88)。臺灣地區的圖書館事業。中國圖書館學會會報,63,頁135-155。
朱兆蘭。 「圖書館服務邁入網路新紀元---以史丹佛大學線上目錄SOCRATES系統為例」。政大圖資通訊5期 (民82年5月),頁1-9。
宋雪芳、邱炯友(民88)。由使用者角度看電子檔案格式探析與實作。中國圖書館學會會報,62,頁87-105。
吳明德(民86)。大學圖書館員角色的省思。大學圖書館,1(1),頁3-18。
邱天助(民78)。研究方法:質與量的辨證。社會教育學刊,18,頁133-157。
施碧霞。 「資訊時代參考服務所面臨的挑戰」。書苑29期 (民85年7月),頁16-21。
連鍾蕙譯(民78)。從管理學的觀點談圖書館的組織文化。書香季刊,3,頁41-44.
郭玉玲(民 78)。企業組織文化與領導關係相關文獻之探討。頁150-175。
莊道明(民83)。資訊網路時代圖書資訊服務的新方向。書苑,19,頁1-10。
陳昭珍(民86)。電子資訊的組織模式。圖書館學刊(台大),12,頁161-182。
陳雪華(民86)。網路資源與Metadata之發展。圖書館學刊(台大),12,頁19-37。
詹麗萍(民85)。從傳統圖書館到電子圖書館。資訊傳播與圖書館學,3(1),頁39-54。
黃麗虹(民88)。人力資源管理:從組織文化探究談起。國立成功大學圖書館館刊,4,頁1-12.
鄭伯壎(民79)。組織文化價值觀的數量衡鑑。中華心裡學刊,32,頁31-50.
鄭伯壎(民88年12月29日)。工商心理學在台大(下)。台大校訊,3版。
鄭鳳生(1995)。「全球資訊網」。在胡述兆總編輯,圖書館學與資訊科學大辭典(頁673)。臺北市:漢美。
繆敏志(民82)。組織文化之探討。國立政治大學學報,67,頁133-162。
顧敏(民88)。數位時代複合圖書館的服務及發展策略。中國圖書館學會會報,36,頁91-94。
二﹑西文
(一) 圖書及學位論文(*表學位論文)
Alvesson, Mats. Cultural Perspectives on Organizations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Armstrong, M.(1992). Human Resource Management. London: Logan Page Limited.
Ardis, Susan B., ed. Library Without Walls : Plug in and go. Washington, DC:Special Libraries Association., 1994.
Bate, Paul. Strategies for Cultural Change. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1994.
*Blakeslee, Betsey. The Effects of New Technologies on Organizational Culture: A Study of a Representative Group Within the Telecommunications Industry
Davis, Stanley M. Managing Corporate Culture. Cambridge, Mass.:Ballinger Publishing Co., 1984.
Denison, Daniel R. Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990.
Dyer, Hilary and Anne Morris. Human Aspects of Library Automation. Aldershot: Gower, 1990.
Enz, Cathy A. Power and Shared Values in the Corporate Culture. Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1986.
Haynes, R. T.(1980). Organization Theory and Local Government. London:Goerge Allen & Unwin.
Huang, Samuel T., ed. Modern Library Technology and Reference Services. New York:The Haworth Press, Inc., 1993.
Jones, Ken. Conflict and Change in Library Organizations: People, Power and Service. London: Clive Bingley, 1984.
Jorgesen, Danny L. Participant Observation: a Methodology for Human Studies. Newbury Park: SAGE Publications, 1989.
Kinder, Robin, ed. Librarians on the Internet: Impact on Reference Services. Binghamton, NY:Haworth Press, 1994.
Kotter, John and James L. Heskett. Corporate Culture and Performance. New York: The Free Press, 1992.
Mondy, R. W. and Noe III, R. M. (1993). Human Resource Management, 5th ed,. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Morton, Michael S. (ED.) (1991). The Corporation of the 1990s: Information Technology and Organizational Transformation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ostrow, Rona L. (1998). Library Culture in the Electronic Age: A Case Study of Organizational Change. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Rutgers University, New Jersey.
Ott, J. Steven. The Organizational Culture Perspective. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., 1989.
Pheysey, Diana C. Organizational Cultures: Types and Transformations. London: Routledge, 1993.
Schein, Edgar H. Organizational Culture and Leadership. Second edition . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1992.
Trice, Harrison M. and Janice M. Beyer. The Cultures of Work Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1993.
Vaner, Carroll H. (1996). An Examination of an Academic Library Culture Using a Competing Values Framework. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Illinois State University, Illinois.Wilkins & Ouchi, 1983:468-470)
(二)期刊論文
Adams, Guy B. “Organizational Metapatterns: Tacit Relationships in Organizational Culture.” Administration & Society 25:2(August 1993): 139-160
------ & Ingersoll, Virginia Hill(1990). Culture, Technical Rationality, and Organizational Culture. American Review of Public Administration ,20(4),
285-302.
Akvessib, Mats. “On the Popularity of Organizational Culture.” Acta Sociologica 33:1(1990): 31-49
Allcorn, Seth. “Understanding Organizational Culture as the Quality of Workplace Subjectivity.” Human Relations 48:1(January 1995): 73-96
Alpander, Guvenc. G. and Carroll R. Lee. “Culture, Strategy, and Teamwork: the Keys to Organizational Change.” Journal of Management Development 14:8(1995):4-18
Bane, Adele F. and William D. Milheim. “Internet Insights: How Academics Are Using the Internet.“ Computers in Libraries 15:2 (February 1995): 32-36
Barclay, Lizabeth and Kenneth M. York. “The Scavenger Hunt Exercise: Symbols of Organizational Culture.” Journal of Management Education 20:1(February 1996): 125-128
Barker, Joseph W. (1995). Triggering Constructive Change by Managing Organizational Culture in an Academic Library. Library Acquisitions: Practice & Theory, 19(1), 9-19.
Basu, Geetali. “Using Internet for Reference: Myths vs Realities.” Computers in Libraries 15:2 (February 1995): 38-39
Beaubian, D. M. “The Changing Roles of Online Coordinators.” Online 15:5 (Sep 1991):48-53
Blackler, Frank(1988). Information Technologies and Organizations: Lessons from the 1980s and Issues for the 1990s. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 61, 113-127.
Bloor, Geoffrey and Patrick Dawson. “Understanding Professional Culture in Organizational Context.” Organization Studies 15:2(1994): 275-295
Bonham, Miriam. “Library Services Through Electronic Mail.” College & Research Libraries 48:9(October 1987):537-538.
Brown, Andrew D. and Ken Starkey. “The Effect of Organizational Culture on Communication and Information.” Journal of Management Studies 31:6(November 1994): 807-828
Brown, C. C. “Creating Automated Bibliographies Using Internet-Accessible Online Library Catalogs.” Database 17:1 (Feb 1994):67-71.
Bruce, Tessa, Ann Lennon and Dianne Nelson. “Using the Internet for Reference Purposes in an Academic Library.“ Managing Information 2:4 (1995): 39-43.
Busch, Nancy. “Dialogue: a Tool for Examining Organizational Culture: an Interview with Beth Macy.” Library Administration & Management 10:4(Fall 1996): 198-203.
Casorso, Tracy M. “The North Carolina State University Libraries and the National Agricultural Library Joint Project on Transmission of Digitized Text: Improving Access to Agricultural Information.” Reference Services Review 19:1 (1991):15-22.
Cassel, Rachel. “Selection Criteria for Internet Resources.” College & Research Libraries News 2 (February 1995): 92-93.
Chatman, Jennifer A. & Jehn Karen A. (1994). Assessing the Relationship Between Industry Characteristics and Organizational Culture: How Different Can You Be? Academy of Management Review, 37(3), 522-553.
Chatman, Jennifer A. & Barsade, Sigal G(1995).Personality, Organizational Culture, and Cooperation: Evidence from a Business Simulation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(3), 423-443.
Clarke, Judy. ”Understanding Transition: the People Side of Managing Change.” The Serials Librarian 25:3/4(1995): 193-202.
Clement, Ronald W. “Culture, Leadership, and Power: the Keys to Organizational Change.” Business Horizons 37:1(Jan.- Feb. 1994): 33-51
Connaway, Lynn Silipigni. “Focus Group Interviews: A Data Collection Methodology for Decision Making.” Library Administration & Management 10:4(Fall 1996): 231-239.
Cromer, Donna E. and Mary E. Johnson. “The Impact of the Internet on Communicaton.“ The Reference Librarian 41/42 (1994): 139-157.
Cromer, Donna E. and others. “Internet''s Impact on Reference Services.” The Reference Librarian 41/42 (1994): 139-224.
Denison, Daniel R. (1996). What Is the Difference between Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate? A Native’s Point of View on a Decade of Paradigm Wars. Academy Of Management Review, 21(3), 619-654.
------ and Aneil K. Mishra. “Toward a Theory of Organizational Culture and Effectiveness.” Organizational Science 6:2(March-April 1995): 204-223
Dowlin, Kenneth E. “Distribution in an Electronic Environment, or Will There Be Libraries as We Know Them in the Internet World?” Library Trends 43:3(Winter 1995): 409-417
Dysart, Jane I. And Rebecca J. Jones. “Tools for the Future: Recreating or “Renovating” Information Services Using New Technologies.” Computers in Libraries 15:1(January 1995): 16-19
D’Elmaine, Fay. “Application of the Internet to the Special Library and to its Parent Organizational.” LASIE 24:2ſ(September/October & November/December 1993): 38-47
Engle, Mary E. “Electronic Paths to Resource Sharing: Widening Opportunities Through the Internet.” Reference Services Review 19:4(Winter 1991):7-12.
Euster, Joanne R..and others. “Reorganizing for a Changing Information World.” Library Administration & Management 11:2 (Spring 1997): 103-114.
Foster-Fishman, Pennie G. and Christopher B. Keys. “The Person/ Environment Dynamics of Employee Empowerment: an Organizational Culture Analysis.” American Journal of Community Psychology 25:3(June 1997): 345-369
Furner-Hines, Jonathan and Peter Willett. “The Use of the World-Wide Web in UK Academic Libraries.“ Aslib Proceeding 47:1 (January 1995): 23-32.
Goetsch, Lori. “Reference Service is More than a Desk.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 21:1 (January 1995): 15-16.
Gordon, George G. and Nancy DiTomaso. “Predicting Corporate Performance from Organizational Culture.” Journal of Management Studies 29:6(November 1992): 783-798
Gordon, George G. “Industry Determination of Organizational Culture.” Academy of Management Review 16:2(1991): 396-415
Grosser, Kerry. (1991). Human Networks in Organizational Information Processing. In Martha E. Williams(Ed.), Annual Review of Information Science and Technology(pp.349-402). White Plains, N.Y.: Knowledge Industry Publication.
Grote, Gudela and Christof Baitsch. “Reciprocal Effects Between Organizational Culture and the Implementation of an Office Communication System: a Case Study.” Behaviour & Information Technology 10:3(1991): 207-218
Gunning, Kathleen, Judy E. Myers, and Charles W. Jr. Bailey. “ Networking Electronic Information Systems at the University of Houston Libraries: The IRIS Project and Beyond.“ Library Hi Tech 11:4 (1993): 49-56
Harris, Stanley G. “Organizational Culture and Individual Sensemaking: A Schema-Based Perspective.” Organization Science 5:3(August 1994): 309-321
Hattery, Maxine. “Internet Public Library at University of Michigan.” Information Retrieval & Library Automation 30:11 (April 1995): 7.
Hawkins, Peter. “Organizational Culture: Sailing Between Evangelism and Complexity.” Human Relations 50:4(April 1997): 417-440
Healey, Paul D. “Untangling the Web: The World Wide Web as a Reference Tool.” RQ 34:4 (1995): 441-444.
Hert, Carol A. “A Learning Organizational Perspective on Training: Critical Success Factors for Internet Implementation.” Internet Research 4:3(Fall 1994): 36-44
Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D. D., & Sanderts, G.(1990). Measuring Organizational Cultures : A Qualitative and Quantitative Study Across Twenty Cases. Administrative Science Quarterly,35, 286-316.
Horner, Jan and Nicole Michaud-Oystryk. “The Efficiency and Success Rates of Print Ready Reference vs Online Ready Reference Searches in Canadian University Libraries.“ Journal of Academic Librarianship 21:2 (March 1995): 97-102.
Howard, Ellen H.and Terry Ann Jankowski. “Reference Services via Electronic Mail.” Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 74:1(January 1986):41-44.
Jensen, Ann and Julie Sih. “Using E-mail and the Internet to Teach Users at Their Desktops.” Online 19:5 (September/October 1995): 82, 84-86.
Judge, Timothy A. and Daniel M. Cable. “Applicant Personality, Organizational Culture, and Organization Attraction.” Personnel Psychology 50:2(Summer 1997): 359-394
Jurow, Susan.”Using Consultants to Building a More Creative Organizational Culture.” In Using Consultants in Libraries and Information Centers: A Management Handbook. Ed. Edward D. Garten. 191-198. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Kalin, Sally and Carol Wright. “Internexus: A Partnership for Internet Instruction.” The Reference Librarian 41/42 (1994): 197-209.
Kanungo, Shivraj(1998). An Empirical Study of Organizational Culture and Network-Based Computer Use. Computers in Human Behavior, 14(1), 79-91.
Kemper, Marlyn.”Management Strategies for New Technologies.” in Library Education and Leadership: Essays in Honor of Jane Anne Hannigan ed. Sheila S. Intner and kay E. Vandergrief. 222-244. Metuchen, N.J.: The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1990.
Kibbee, Jo. “A Virtual Library for Librarians: JANET''s Bulletin Board for Libraries.” The Reference Librarian 41/42 (1994): 99-107.
Klein, Rouchelle Lee, Gregory A. Bigley and Karlene H. Roberts. “Organizational Culture in High Reliability Organizations: An Extension.” Human Relations 48:7(July 1995): 771-793
Kovacs, Diane K., B. F. Schloman, and J. A. McDaniel. “A Model for Planning and Providing Reference Services Using Internet Resources.” Library Trends 42:4 (Spr 1994):638-647.
Kummerow, Elizabeth H, and J. Michael Innes. “Social Representations and the Concept of Organizational Culture.” Social Science Information 33:2(1994): 255-271
Ladner, Sharyn J. and Hope N. Tillman. “Using the Internet for Reference.” Online 17:1 (January 1993): 45-51.
LaGuardia, Cheryl. “Desk Set Revisited: Reference Librarians, Reality, and Research Systems‘ Design.“ Journal of Academic Librarianship 21:1 (January 1995): 7-9.
Lahiry, Sugato. “Building Commitment Through Organizational Culture.” Training & Development 48:4(April 1994): 50-52
Lawson, Robert B. and Curtis L. Ventriss. “Organizational Change: the Role of Organizational Culture and Organizational Learning.” The Psychological Record 42:2(Spring 1992): 205-219
Lewis, David W. “Traditional Reference Is Dead, Now Let‘s Move on to Important Questions.“ Journal of Academic Librarianship 21:1 (January 1995): 10-12.
Lim, Bernard. “Examining the Organizational Culture and Organizational Performance Link.” Leadership & Organization Development Journal 16:5(1995):16-21
Linstead, Stephen and Robert Grafton-Small. “On Reading Organizational Culture.” Organization Studies 13:3(1992): 331-355
Lundberg, Craig C. “Designing Organizational Culture Courses: Fundamental Considerations.” Journal of Management Education 20:1 (February 1996): 11-22
Makulowich, John S. and Mary Ellen Bates. “10 Tips on Managing Your Internet Searching.“ Online 19:4 (July/August 1995): 32-37.
Malinconico, S. Michael. “Technology and the Academic Workplace.” Library Administration & Management 5:1(Winter 1991): 25-28
Malinconico, S. Michael.(1984). Managing Organizational Culture. Library Journal ,109(7), 791-793.
Mallak, Larry A. and Harold A. Kurstedt. “Understanding and Using Empowerment to Change Organizational Culture.” Industrial Management 38:6(November/December 1996): 8-10
Maloney, William F. and Mark O. Federle. “Organizational Culture and Management.” Journal of Management in Engineering 7:1(January 1991): 43-59
Maradikian, Jackie. “How to Use VERONICA to Find Information on the Internet.” The Reference Librarian 41/42 (1994): 37-45.
Marcum, Deanna B. “Librarians or Technicians? Which Shall We Be?” in Information for a New Age: Redefining the Librarian, comp. Fifteenth Anniversary Task Force, Library Instruction Round Table, American Library Association。Englewood, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1995.
Mardikian, Jackie and Martin Kesselman. “Beyond the Desk: Enhanced Reference Staffing for the Electronic Library.“ Reference Services Review 23:1 (Spring 1995): 21-28, 93.
Maxymuk, John. “Science Resources on the Internet.” The Reference Librarian 41/42 (1994): 81-98.
McCoy, Jacquelyn. “Re-engineering Academic and Research Libraries.” College & Research Libraries News 54:6(June 1993): 333-335
McGillis, Louise. “Gopher Searching Using VERONICA.” The Reference Librarian 41/42 (1994): 25-35.
McMahon, Kenneth. “BUBL Bits: Highlighting Some Directories.” Computers in Libraries 15:2 (Feb. 1995): 57-58.
McMahon, Kenneth. “Using the BUBL Information Service as an Internet Reference Resource.“ Managing Information 2:4 (1995): 33-35.
Mellendorf, Scott A. “Automating Access to Internet Resources at the Reference Desk.” Online 18:5 (September/October 1994): 69-70, 72-73.
Mentzer, Marc S. “Organization Theory as Ideological Battleground in the Year 2000.” International Journal of Public Administration 17:3/4(1994): 589-605
Mercier, Jean. “Looking at Organizational Culture, Hermeneutically.” Administration & Society 6:1(May 1994): 28-47
Mikita, E. G., and L. A. Drusedum, "Introducing Health Sciences Librarians to the Internet." Medical Reference Services Quarterly 12:3 (Fal 1993):1-12.
Miller Jerry. ”The Relationships Between Organizational Culture and Environmental Scanning: a Case Study.” Library Trends 43:2(Fall 1994): 170-205.
Miller, George and Bam Dev Sharda (1995) .Culture and Organizational Structure: a Multinational Comparison. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 32(2),201:220.
Miller, Jerry P. “The Relationships Between Organizational Culture and Environmental Scanning: a Case Study.” Library Trends 43:2(Fall 1994): 170-205
Morgan, Keith A. “Economic and Statistical Information on the Internet.” The Reference Librarian 41/42 (1994): 65-79.
Morley, Donald Dean and Ruggero Cesaria. “Organizational Communication and Culture: A Study of 10 Italian High Technology Companies.” The Journal of Business Communication 34:3(July 1997): 253-269
Morris, Dilys E. “Electronic Information and Technology: Impact and Potential for Academic Libraries.” College & Research Libraries 50:1(Jan. 1989): 56-64
Morton, Michael S. Scott(1991). Introduction. In Michael S. Scott Morton(ED.), The Corporation of the 19902: Information Technology and Organizational Transformaiton(pp.3-23). New York: Oxford University Press.
Morville, Peter S. and Susan J. Wickhorst.“ Building Subject-Specific Guides to Internet Resources.“ Collection Building 14:3 (1995): 26-31.
Mountifield, H. M. “Electronic Current Awareness Service: A Survival Tool for the Information Age.“ The Electronic Library 13:4 (August 1995): 317-323.
Murray-Lachapelle, Rosemary. “A Holistic approach to Library Organization.” Canadian Library Journal 40:6(Dec. 1983): 349.
Myers, Judith E. “Reference Services in the Virtual Library.” American Libraries 25 (July/August 1994): 634-638.
Neuman, Michael and Paul Mangiafico. “Providing and Accessing Information via the Internet: The Georgetown Catalogue of Projects in Electronic Text.” The Reference Librarian 41/42 (1994):319-332.
Nickerson, Gord. “The Virtual Reference Library.” Computers in Libraries 13 (May 1993): 37-8+
Norton, Bob.(1994). Organizational Cultures and Their Relevance to the Information Organization. Aslib Proceedings ,46(6), 173-176.
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OCLC. “OCLC''s Linking Strategy: Internet and NREN.” Library Hi Tech-News 97 (Nov. 1992):15-17.
Odom, Randall Y., W. Randy Boxx and Mark G. Dunn. “Organizational Cultures, Commitment, Satisfaction, and Cohesion.” Public Productivity & Management Review 14:2(Winter 1990): 157-169
Ogbonna, Emmanuel and Lloyd C. Harris. “ Organizational Culture: It’s Not What You Think…” Journal of General Management 23:3(Spring 1998): 35-48
Olson, Renee. “Stumped Reference Librarians Find Help on the Internet.” American Libraries 25:9(Oct. 1994):830-831.
Olson, Truda. “University Reference Librarians Using Internet: A Survey.” Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26:3 (Sep. 1995):188-?
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Palmquist, Ruth. (1992). The Impact of Information Technology on the Individual. In Martha E. Williams (Ed.), Annual Review of Information Science and Technology,27 (pp.3-42). White Plains, N.Y.: Knowledge Industry Publication.
Phelps, Jeanne A., Kirk L. Rogg, Ronald G. Downey and Patrick A. Knight. “Facing the Challenges of the Year 2000: Learning to Manage Multidimensional Workers.” International Journal of Public Administration 17:3/4(1994): 555-587
Pliskin, N., T. Romm, A. S. Lee and Y. Weber. “Presumed Versus Actual Organizational Culture: Managerial Implications for Implementation of Information Systems.” The Computer Journal 36:2(1993): 143-152
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Radcliff, Carolyn , Mary Du Mont and Jeffrey Gatten. “Internet and Reference Services: Implications for Academic Libraries.” Library Review 42:1 (1993): 15-19.
Reichers, A. & Schneider, B.(1990) Climate and Culture: An Evolution of Concepts In B. Schneider(ed.), Organizational climate and culture. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Rice-Lively, Mary Lynn & Racine, Drew(1997.) The Role of Academic Librarians in the Era of Information Technology. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 23(1), 31-37.
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Romm, Tsilia, Nava Pliskin, Yaakov Weber and Allen S. Lee.(1991) . Identifying Organizational Culture Clash in MIS Implementation :When Is It Worth the Effort?. Information & Management, 21(2), 99-109.
Rosenfeld, Louis B. “Guides, Clearinghouses, and Value-Added Repackaging: Some Thoughts on How Librarians Can Improve the Internet.” Reference Services Review 22:4 (Winter 1994):11-16.
Ross, Andrew M. and others. “Electronic Access to Document Delivery and Reference Services.“ Medical Reference Services Quarterly 13:4 ( Winter 1994):13-20.
Ryan, Steve and Dean Leith. "Training with the Web: Internet Training in an Academic Library Environment." The Australian Library Journal 44:1(February 1995): 22-26.
Sackmann, Sonja A. “Uncovering Culture in Organizations.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 27:3(September 1991): 295-317
Santa Vicca, Edmund F. “The Internet as a Reference and Research Tool: a Model for Educators.“ The Reference Librarian 41/42 (1994): 225-36.
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