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研究生:龍清勇
研究生(外文):Ching-Yung Lung
論文名稱:國內粉末冶金產業製程技術改善之研究
論文名稱(外文):Research of Processes Improvement for domestic powder metallurgy Industry
指導教授:范光照范光照引用關係
指導教授(外文):K. C. Fan
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:機械工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:160
中文關鍵詞:粉末冶金溫壓成形油含浸自動化光學檢測生產資訊系統
外文關鍵詞:powder metallurgywarm compactingoil impregnationautomatic optical inspectionproduction infornation system
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摘 要
本文主要目的在於透過間接資料收集、企業訪談與問卷調查等方式,分析國內傳統粉末冶金產業的發展現況。收集產業發展基本面、生產製程改善面與大陸投資現實面等訊息。經統計分析、交叉比對等方式予以量化處理。希望從中了解企業在提昇產品品質與附加價值的目標下,對產業現有製程技術改善的方向與需求性。提出產業經營策略與執行步驟。並依資料分析結果提出金屬粉末電熱式溫壓成形機研製技術、自潤軸承油含浸率影響因素分析、多孔性粉末冶金製件的自動化光學檢測技術及提昇企業電子化基礎工程的生產資訊監控與管理系統。供國內現有企業體在現存環境下,能以小的資本投資獲取企業發展的最大利益。
產品密緻化是產業未來及現在必然發展的方向。近年國際上所推動的溫壓成形技術即是一項優異的製程方法。但是因市售現有產品在應用技術、設備成本等方面較無法為國內企業廣泛採用。因此本研究針對市售產品的優缺點,提出一套應用電熱器為粉末預熱裝置之低成本、操作簡易且具彈性安裝的機構。在量產測試時,系統溫度可控制在±1℃,成形密度可達7.31g/㎝3,標準差為0.082,所以能滿足企業體的需求。
自潤軸承的油含浸製程,近代未有學者對此項製程影響因素予以分析與探討,目前為止,業界仍然以試誤法或經驗法則維持產品品質,造成產品品質水準的變異量不易維持。本研究嚐試對此項製程中的油含浸率、初始油溫、真空壓力、油含浸時間等因子進行分析,並藉灰關聯理論探討彼此間的關聯序。提供生產製程因素控制的強弱性依據。
光學影像檢測技術已應用在眾多領域。但是對多孔性粉末冶金件的自動化光學檢測一直未有泛用性的技術建立,造成國內以訂單生產且少量多樣的粉末冶金產業,至今仍以人工目視方式檢測。不僅易產生人為誤差,同時在產品品質管制的一致性與標準性上有顯著缺失。因此,本研究嚐試建立一組泛用性較高的自動化光學檢測技術,以期改善製程的品管水準。
在網際網路發達的資訊時代,企業體陸續導入各項電子化作業系統,以逐漸打造電子商務的版圖。但是綜觀國內企業體在建立電子化輪廓時,均忽略產業電子化基礎工程的「生產資訊擷取與監控管理系統」的建置。導致生產資訊流的中斷,而無法即時化、正確化傳遞生產資訊。因此文中最後以單晶片為基礎,針對生產機台變異性大的粉末冶金產業開發及建置一套低成本的生產資訊擷取與監控管理系統,期協助提昇企業電子化程度。
本研究整體架構乃藉產業製程改善技術的需求與了解,再逐一提出建議及可行的解決方案,供企業選擇。協助產業製程的改善,創造高附加價值與高品質的產業特色。
Abstract
The main purpose is to analyze the domestic traditional powder metallurgy development situation through the gathering of second hand information, business survey and questionnaires. It is to integrate the information about basic development of industry, improvement situation of processes and the realization situation of Mainland China’s investment…etc. By statistic analyzing, and cross comparing, we can execute the process in quantity and hope to understand the current production technology’s directions and demands of the business under the goals of quality improvement and value adding, so as to propose the strategy of industry management and execution procedures. Also, according to the analysis results, we propose the production technology of warm compacting machine for powder products, the oil impregnation rate of self-lubrication bearing, namely the influential factor analysis, an the technology of automatic optical inspection in porosity powder metallurgy parts, and production information monitor and management systems for improving E-business foundation engineering. It is to provide the existing business units, under current conditions, with the availability for them to obtain the maximum profit with the minimum investment.
The sophistication for production is definitely the development trend toward current and upcoming future. In recent years, the technology of warm compacting promoted internationally is typically one of the excellent processes. Yet, because under the existing markets, many aspects of application technology of products and the cost of equipment is more unavailable to be widely adopted by local business, this research is therefore planning to propose a set of applications about the low cost, easy operation and convenient installment in the pre-heating devices of powder metallurgy. When the system is under measuring, the system variable of temperature been controlled within±1℃, and the formation density can reach 7.31g/㎝3, with the standard deviation of 0.082, so it can meet the demand from business units.
Recently, there has been no scholars studying and analyzing the influential factors about the oil impregnation rate of self-lubrication bearings. So far, they still adopt the method of try-error and experience principles to control the quality, regularly to cause the difficulty to keep the quality level. This research is attempting to analyze the factors of the oil impregnation rate, initial oil temperature, vacuum pressure and oil impregnation duration, and through the Grey Relational Theory, discuss the correlative orders mutually, so as to provide the strength criteria for the control in production procedures.
Optical image inspection technology has been applied to numerous fields. But as for the automatic optical inspection for porosity powder metallurgy parts, this technology is rarely applied to establish the well-founded technology. It causes that local powder metallurgy industry, featured with small numbers of orders yet large numbers of product categories, still executes human visual inspection. It does not lead to artificial errors only, but also arise distinguished defects in the congruence and standardization when executing quality control meanwhile. So, the research attempt to establish a set of automatic optical inspection technology with high availability, so as to improve the quality control level within production.
In the era of thriving development of Internet, the business is continuously introducing various electronic systems to create the realms of E-business gradually. But when we retrospect our profile in local business’ electronic realms, we all overlook the establishment for “capturing and monitor management system for production information”, the foundation for business’ electronic realm. It causes the interruption of production’s information current unable to execute the transmission for production information of real-time and accuracy. Consequently, within this article, we are based on the single chip, focusing on the powder metallurgy industry featured with remarkable variation in production machinery, develop and establish a set of capturing and monitor management system for production information with the characteristics of low cost, hopefully improving the electronic level of our industry.
The overall frameworks of this research are, through the demand and perception of the improvement technology in production, proposes our various recommendations and the available solution for the industry to opt. It will favor the improvement of production and create the industry with highly added value and high quality products.
目 錄
誌 謝 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅰ
中文摘要 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅱ
英文摘要 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅳ
目 錄 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅵ
圖表目錄 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------XI
第一章 緒 論 ----------------------------------------------------------------------1
1-1、研究動機與目的 --------------------------------------------------------------1
1-2、相關文獻回顧 -----------------------------------------------------------------4
1-3、論文結構概述 ----------------------------------------------------------------12
第二章 國內粉末冶金發展現況及製程技術改善需求性分析 ------------14
2-1、國內產業發展背景 ----------------------------------------------------------14
2-2、研究設計 ----------------------------------------------------------------------15
2-2-1、研究架構 -----------------------------------------------------------------16
2-2-2、研究假設 -----------------------------------------------------------------16
2-3、研究方法與問卷設計 --------------------------------------------------------17
2-3-1、資料蒐集 -----------------------------------------------------------------17
2-3-2、抽樣設計 -----------------------------------------------------------------18
2-3-3、問卷設計 -----------------------------------------------------------------19
2-3-4、問卷評量尺度------------------------------------------------------------20
2-3-5、統計方法 -----------------------------------------------------------------21
2-4、資料分析 -----------------------------------------------------------------------21
2-4-1、問卷回收情形 -----------------------------------------------------------21
2-4-2、產業發展基本構面分析 -----------------------------------------------21
2-4-3、生產製程技術改善需求構面分析------------------------------------24
2-4-3-1、製程技術需求方面 ------------------------------------------------24
2-4-3-2、生產製程自動化方面與信度分析 -----------------------------25
2-4-3-3、產業赴大陸投資意願及影響因素分析 -----------------------29
2-5、製程技術改善策略訂定 ----------------------------------------------------35
2-6、本章小結 ----------------------------------------------------------------------37
第三章 電熱式溫壓成形機系統設計 ------------------------------------------38
3-1、前言 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------38
3-2、溫壓成形特性與粉末特性分析 --------------------------------------------41
3-2-1、粉末成型機制 -----------------------------------------------------------41
3-2-2、溫度對金屬粉末降伏強度的影響 -----------------------------------42
3-2-3、金屬粉末特性分析及粉末加熱技術 --------------------------------42
3-3、金屬粉末加熱系統本體設計 ----------------------------------------------46
3-3-1、油溫加熱控制程序分析 -----------------------------------------------47
3-3-2、氣壓控制閥與錐形漏粉器之設計 -----------------------------------51
3-3-3、輸粉管及餵粉盒設計 --------------------------------------------------52
3-3-4、模具及模具底板加熱系統設計 --------------------------------------53
3-3-5、溫度感測器的選擇與特性分析 --------------------------------------56
3-3-6、溫度控制系統設計 -----------------------------------------------------56
3-3-7、加熱器功率規格計算 --------------------------------------------------57
3-3-8、系統控制電路設計 -----------------------------------------------------58
3-4、加熱器加熱控制系統性能分析 --------------------------------------------59
3-5、系統各區段溫度設定及操作程序 -----------------------------------------61
3-6、實驗結果與分析 --------------------------------------------------------------63
3-7、本章小結 -----------------------------------------------------------------------66
第四章 粉末冶金件油含浸製程影響因素分析 ------------------------------68
4-1、前言 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------68
4-2、油含浸處理方法 -------------------------------------------------------------68
4-3、 孔性材料油含浸作用機構 ------------------------------------------------70
4-3-1、毛細管原理 --------------------------------------------------------------70
4-3-2、靜液壓及大氣壓的作用 -----------------------------------------------71
4-4、油含浸率的重要性及含浸率計算方法----------------------------------- 72
4-5、影響油含浸的主要因素 ----------------------------------------------------74
4-6、影響油含浸率的因素分析 -------------------------------------------------78
4-6-1、實驗方法設計 -----------------------------------------------------------78
4-6-2、實驗數據分析 -----------------------------------------------------------79
4-7 應用迴歸分析法於油含浸製程模型的建立-------------------------------86
4-8、灰關聯法於粉末製件油含浸率及其主要影響因子之關聯度分析 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------92
4-8-1 研究方法應用背景及目的 ---------------------------------------------92
4-8-2 灰關聯分析(Grey Relational Analysis) -------------------------------93
4-8-3、灰關聯度的數學基礎 --------------------------------------------------93
4-8-4、傳統灰關聯度的推導 --------------------------------------------------95
4-8-5、辨識係數 (ζ:Distinguishing Coefficient) -------------------------97
4-8-6、灰關聯度(Grey Relational Grade)計算 ------------------------------97
4-8-7、灰關聯序(Grey Relational Ordinal)分析 ----------------------------98
4-9、資料分析及結果 -------------------------------------------------------------99
4-10、本章小結 --------------------------------------------------------------------100
第五章 多孔性粉末冶金產品之自動化光學檢測技術 --------------------102
5-1、前言 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------102
5-2、研究方法與原理 -------------------------------------------------------------104
5-2-1、系統架構 ----------------------------------------------------------------104
5-2-2、照明系統的設計 -------------------------------------------------------105
5-2-3、影像校正 ---------------------------------------------------------------107
5-2-4、自動聚焦法則 ----------------------------------------------------------107
5-2-5、取像及影像前處理 ----------------------------------------------------109
5-2-6、區域導向的影像分割技術建立 -------------------------------------111
5-2-7、相關係數法於瑕疪檢測上的應用 ---------------------------------114
5-2-8、瑕疪特徵抽取演算法 -------------------------------------------------116
5-3、以群組技術之編碼方式建立的檢測資料庫 ---------------------------117
5-4、系統建置與實驗結果 ------------------------------------------------------119
5-5、本章小結 ---------------------------------------------------------------------122
第六章 電子化生產資訊管理系統 --------------------------------------------124
6-1、產業電子化發展背景與趨勢 ---------------------------------------------124
6-2、電子化資訊管理系統發展架構 ------------------------------------------126
6-3、企業體內部生產資訊管理系統 ------------------------------------------127
6-3-1、產量資料擷取裝置 ---------------------------------------------------129
6-3-2、生產線遠端資訊擷取、監控與分析系統 ------------------------132
6-3-3、機台基本資料及維修記錄查詢系統 ------------------------------133
6-3-4、產品資料及生產流程管理系統 ------------------------------------135
6-3-5、生產原料庫存管理系統 ---------------------------------------------135
6-3-6、物料需求管理系統 ---------------------------------------------------136
6-3-7、客戶訂單管理、查詢及客戶基本資料管理系統 ---------------137
6-4、企業體互動式資訊服務系統 ---------------------------------------------137
6-5、預期效益 ---------------------------------------------------------------------140
6-6、本章小結 ---------------------------------------------------------------------141
第七章 結論與討論 --------------------------------------------------------------143
7-1 結論 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------143
7-2 討論 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------145
參考文獻 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------147
附錄一、粉末冶金產業調查問卷 ---------------------------------------------155
附錄二、線性迴歸分析演算法 ------------------------------------------------158
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