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研究生:王順文
論文名稱:世界貿易組織金融服務典則的建立與變遷之研究
指導教授:蔡政文蔡政文引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:政治學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:193
中文關鍵詞:世界貿易組織金融服務協議國際典則服務業貿易總協定權力
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本文主要研究金融服務典則的建立與變遷。本研究可以從時間與場域兩個面向來說明。首先就時間的範圍來說,本文所包含的時間範圍是從一九八六年至一九九七年,主要原因是金融服務的議題是隨著服務業貿易被納入烏拉圭回合談判而開始的,而烏拉圭回合的談判,便是在一九八六年的九月十五日,在烏拉圭的Punta del Este城所展開的。而一九九七年十二月所簽訂的「金融服務協定」,則可視為談判的一個主要段落。
在場域的範圍方面,本文所指涉的範圍主要是放在世界貿易組織中金融服務市場開放上面,所涉及的範圍,依照服務業貿易總協定中金融服務附件之規定,金融服務係指由會員國的金融服務供應者所提供之任何具金融性質之服務(any service of a financial nature offered by a financial service supplier of a Member),包括所有保險及其相關業務,及所有銀行及其他之金融服務。
本文的研究重點在於權力,特別是各國在典則建立與變遷期間的權力折衝情形。文章大致可以分為三個部份。第一個部份主要針對金融服務典則的建立進行研究,第一章主要探討金融服務典則建立的歷史背景,分析美國從支持到反對的態度轉變過程,以及初建的金融服務典則之原則、規範、規則與決策程序。第二章則探討影響金融服務典則建立的因素,分別從外在環境與內在環境因素進行探討。
同樣的,第二部份我們則處理金融服務典則變遷的過程與評估,第三章主要探討暫時協議與金融服務協議建立的過程,以及此兩個協議中對於一九九三年金融服務附件修正的部份為何?第四章則探討影響這些變遷的因素為何,同樣從外環境與內環境兩個方面探討。
第三個部份則結合國際典則理論,對金融服務典則建立與變遷的過程作一個整體的分析與探討,在這個過程當中,我們發現金融服務這個議題領域,大致上還是符合Keohane對於國際典則建立與變遷所主張的內容。最後,根據本文的分析,國際典則理論作為一個補充現實主義的分析架構,並沒有不能適用的問題。因此,我們也可以大膽的預測未來有關國際典則的研究,在問題範疇的數量與深度上還會持續的增長。
導論
壹、 研究動機與目的
貳、 研究方法
一、相關文獻回顧
二、國際典則理論
參、 研究範圍與架構
肆、 資料來源與研究限制
第一章、 金融服務典則之建立
第一節、 建立金融服務典則的直接需要 — 消除貿易障礙
一、銀行業
二、證券業
三、保險業
第二節、 金融服務典則建立的協商過程(1986-1993)
一、美國對於GATS的推動與金融服務談判的開始
二、烏拉圭回合的開始與金融服務自由化的談判
三、服務業貿易總協定的建立
第三節、金融服務典則的初建:服務業貿易總協定、金融服務附件
與承諾瞭解書
一、概述
二、初建金融服務典則之原則、規範、規則與決策程序
第二章、 影響金融服務典則建立之因素
第一節、 金融服務典則建立之外在環境
一、國際政經結構
1. 蘇聯與東歐集團的變局
2. 波斯灣戰爭與美國獨強結構成形
3. 歐洲的整合
4. 日本的經濟擴張與泡沫化
5. 區域經濟整合的快速發展
二、國際金融環境
第二節、 金融服務典則建立之內在環境:主要會員國之金融政策與談判
立場
一、美國
二、歐洲共同體
三、日本
四、開發中國家
第三節、 初建金融服務典則之評估
一、霸權與金融服務典則建立之關係
二、交易成本與國家利益考量與金融服務典則的建立
三、知識社群與金融服務典則的建立
四、既存國際經貿典則對金融服務典則建立的影響
第三章、 金融服務典則之變遷
第一節、 暫時協議(INTERIM AGREEMENT)的達成(1994-1995)
第二節、 金融服務協議(FINANCIAL SERVICES AGREEMENT)的達成(1995-1997)
第三節、 變遷後的金融服務典則
一、變遷後金融服務典則之原則
二、變遷後金融服務典則之規範
三、變遷後金融服務典則之規則
四、變遷後金融服務典則之決策程序
第四章、 影響金融服務典則變遷之因素
第一節、 金融服務典則變遷之外在環境
一、國際政經結構
1. 區域性組織蓬勃發展
2. 歐洲角色的增強
3. 東亞的合縱連橫
二、國際金融環境
第二節、 金融服務典則變遷之內在環境:主要會員國的金融政策與談判
立場
一、美國
二、歐盟
三、日本
四、開發中國家
第三節、 變遷後金融服務典則之評估
一、霸權與金融服務典則變遷之關係
二、交易成本與國家利益考量與金融服務典則之變遷
三、知識社群與金融服務典則之變遷
四、金融服務典則變遷的形式
第五章、 綜合評估與展望
第一節、 金融服務典則變遷過程中的權力折衝
第二節、 金融服務典則對於國家行為與國內政策的影響
第三節、 金融服務典則對國際政經環境的影響
一、管制與自由化的兩難:國際金融危機仍可能存在
二、金融服務典則對於國家權力和國際結構的影響
第四節、 理論面的檢討
一、國際典則建立理論的檢討
二、國際典則維持與變遷理論檢討
三、國際典則理論的適用性
第五節、 未來的展望
結論
附錄一 金融服務附件中所規範的金融服務範圍
附錄二 暫時協議(第二議定書:SECOND PROTOCOL TO THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES)
附錄三 金融服務協議(第五議定書:FIFTH PROTOCOL TO THE GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES)
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號,頁65-81
蔡政文
1997 當前國際關係理論發展及其評估,台北:三民
蔡增家
1995 國際建制之研究 --- 以禁止核子擴散條約為例證,台北:淡江國
際事務與戰略研究所碩士論文
鄭克盛
1994 金融服務業之國際規範 --- 以證券業為中心,台北:政大國貿所
碩士論文
鄭海東
1998 〈論國民待遇原則與國家利益的維護〉,世界經濟研究,1998
年第五期,頁26-30
鄭毓嫻
1996 經濟互賴與國際環境的關係 --- 兼論國際建制的功能,台北:東
吳政研所碩士論文
鄧中堅
1997 〈兩岸互動體制之研究:以加入世界貿易組織為例〉,理論與政
策,民國八十六年秋季號,頁125-136
薛榮久
1998 〈經濟全球化的影響與挑戰〉,世界經濟,1998年第四期,頁6-13
薛謀洪
1992 〈海灣戰爭對世界格局的影響〉,載於杜攻(編),轉換中的世界格
局,頁210-239
戴超平
1997 國際服務貿易概論,北京:中國金融
羅昌發
1999 國際貿易法:世貿組織下法律新秩序,台北:元照
譚瑾瑜
1998 〈WTO達成全球金融服務業自由化協議之影響評估〉,經濟情勢
暨評論,第四卷第一期,頁51-59
二、 西文書目
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1999 “ The Politics, Power, and Pathologies of International Organizations”, in
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1987 “ The Return of the Reciprocitarians --- US Trade Policy Today”, in The
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1995 “ WTO Disputes and Developing Countries”, in Journal of World Trade,
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1994 “ GATS: The Uruguay Round Accord on International Trade and Investment in
Services”, in The World Economy, Vol.17, no.3, pp. 281-292
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1969 The Soviet Bloc: Unity and Conflict, Harvard University Press
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1995 “Vision and Politics in the Transformation of the Global Politics Economy:
Lessons from the Second and third Worlds”, in Slater ed. Global
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pp. 161-257
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1993 “ International Relations Theory and multilateralism: The Search for
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1998 “ WTO agreement on financial services”, in Financial Regulation
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1993 Finance and World Politics: Markets, Regimes and States in the Post-
hegemonic Era, Brookfield:Edward Elgar
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1990 “ Trade Liberalization and Financial Services”, in World Economy,
Vol.13, no.3, pp.349-352
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2000 International Finance and International Relations Theory, prepared for the
Handbook of International Relations, edited by Walter Carlsnaes, Thomas Risse,
and Beth A. Simmons,
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1996 Financial Services, Globalization and Domestic Policy Change, ST.
Martin’s Press
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1985 “ French Attitude to a New GATT Round”, in The World Economy, Vol.8,
no.3, pp.317-318
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2000 “ New World, New Deal: A Democratic Approach to Globalization”, in
Foreign Affairs March/April 2000
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1998 “ Trade in Financial Services and the Role of the GATS: Against the
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1998 Financial Services Liberalization in the WTO, Washington, DC:
Institute for International Economics
Feketekuty, Geza.
1988 International Trade in Services: an Overview and Blueprint for
Negotiations, Cambridge, Mass:Ballinger
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1991 “ The GATT as an International Discipline over Trade Restrictions: A Public
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1983 “ The GATT and the regulation of trade barriers: regime dynamics and
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Economy, Vol.20 no.5, pp.615-631
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1991 “ The Gulf War and the New World Order”, in Survival, Vol.33, no.3,
pp. 195-209
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Vol.74 Iss.6, p.50
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1988 “ Services: Cooperation for Development”, in Journal of World Trade,
Vol.22, no.2, pp.81-90
Gilpin, Robert.
1981 War and Change in World Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press
1987 The Political Economy of International Relations, Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Goddard, C. Roe, Smith, J.T.P., Conklin, J. G.(ed.).
1996 International Political Economy: State-Market Relations in the
Changing Global Order, Lynne Rienner.
Grieco, Joseph M.
1990 Cooperation among Nations:Europe, America, and Non- tariff Barriers
to Trade, Ithaca and London: Cornell
1993 “The Relative-Gains Problems for International Cooperation”, in American
Political Science Review, Vol.87, pp.729-735
Haas, Ernst B.
1980 “ Why Collaborate? Issue-Linkage and International Regimes”, in
World Politics, XXXII(3), pp.357-405
1997 Nationalism, Liberalism & Progress, Ithaca: Cornell University Press
Haas, Peter M.
1989 “Do Regimes Matter? Epistemic Communities & Mediterranean Pollution
Control”, in International Organization, Vol.43, Iss.3, pp.377-403
Haass, Richard N. & Robert E. Litan.
1998 “ Globalization and Its Discontents: Navigating the Dangers of a Tangled
World”, in Foreign Affairs, Vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 2-6
Haggard, Stephan & Beth A. Simmons.
1987 “ Theories of international regimes”, International Organization vol.41,
no.3, pp.491-517
Haggard, Stephan & Silvia Maxfield.
1996 “ The Political Economy of Financial Internationalization in the Developing
World”, in International Organzation, Vol.50, no.1, pp.35-68
Hasenclever, Andreas, Peter Mayer & Volker Rittberger (ed).
1997 Theories of international regimes, Cambridge
Hurrel, Andrew.
1993 “International Society and the study of Regimes: A Reflective Approach”,
in Rittberger, Volker(eds). 1993, Regime Theory and International
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1992 The United States and Multilateral Institutions — patterns of changing
instrumentality and influence, NY: Routledge
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1983 “ The Demand for International Regimes”, in Krasner, Stephen D(eds).
1983, International Regimes, London: Cornell University Press
1984 After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy,
Princeton: Princeton University Press
1986a Neorealism and Its Critics, New York: Columbia University Press
1986b “ Reciprocity in International Relations”, in International Organization,
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1989a, International Institutions and State Power, Boulder: Westview Press
1993 “ The Analysis of International Regimes: Towards a European-
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1972 Transnational Relations and World Politics, Massachusetts: Harvard University
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1989b Power and Interdependence, Second Edition Boston:Scott, Foresman and
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1997 Financial Services in the Uruguay Round and the WTO, Washington, DC:
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1999 “ WTO, After 5 Years, Still Getting Its Balance”, CQ Weekly,
Nov. 27, pp. 2834-2842
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1988 “ Trade in Services, the Developing Countries and the Uruguay
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1983 International Regimes, London: Cornell University Press
1991 “ Global Communications and National Power: Life on the Pareto Frontier”,
in World Politics, Vol.43, no.3, pp.336-366
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1989 “ Services and the GATT: US Motives and a Blueprint for Negotiations”,
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1985 “ Negotiating International Rules for Trade in Services”, in The World
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1996 The Uruguay Round and the Developing Countries, GB:Cambridge
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1997 “ National Treatment in the GATS: Corner-Stone or Pandora’s Box”, in
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2000 “ Financial Services and the WTO: Liberlisation Commitments of the
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1999 “ Regional Integration and Trade Liberalisation in Africa”, in Journal
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1999 “U.S., Trading Partners At Crossroads in Seattle”, CQ Weekly, Nov.
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1973 A Theory of Justice, Oxford University Press
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1993 Regime Theory and International Relations, Oxford: Clarendon Press
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1992 “ Regime Theory: Findings from the Study of “East-West Regimes”, in
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1989 Commerce and Coalitions: How Trade Affects Domestic Political Alignments,
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in International Organization Vol.29 no.3, pp.557-584
1992 “Multilateralism: the anatomy of an institution”, International
Organization Vol.46, no.3, pp.561-598
1993 Multilateralism Matters: The Theory and Praxis of An Institutional
Form, Columbia University Press.
1998 Constructing the World Polity:Essays on International
Institutionalization, London: Routledge
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1990 “Trade Liberalisation and Financial Services”, in The World Economy,
Vol.13, no.3, pp.349-366
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1985 “ North-South Issues in Trade in Services”, in The World Economy,
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1995 Global Transformation and the Third World, Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers
Sorsa Piritta.
1997 “ The GATS Agreement on Financial Services --- A Modest Start to
Multilateral Liberalization”, in
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/wp9755.pdf
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1998 “Great power management of the world trading system: A transatlantic
strategy for liberal multilateralism” , Law and Policy in International
Business, Vol.29, pp.205-256
Stern, Robert M.
1998 “The WTO Trade Policy Review of the United States, 1996”, in
The World Economy, Vol.21, no.4, pp.483-505
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1998 “ The Role of Norms and Regimes in World Affairs: A Grotian
Perspective”, in International Relations, vol.XIV, no.3, pp.71-84
Underhill, Geoffrey R. D.
1993 “Negotiating Financial Openness: The Uruguay Round and Trade in
Financial Services”, in Cerny, Philip G.(eds.) 1993, Finance and
World Politics: Markets, Regimes and States in the Post-hegemonic Era,
Brookfield: Edward Elgar
United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs,
1995 Financial services negotiations under the General Agreement on Trade
in Services (GATS), Washington : U.S. G.P.O.
Uruguay Round.
1993 Final Act Embodying The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral
Trade Negotiations, Geneva: GATT Secretariat
1999, The legal texts : the results of the Uruguay Round of multilateral
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1996 “ Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment under the General Agreement
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Weidenfeld, Werner.
1996 America and Europe: Is the Break inevitable?, Gutersloh: Bertelsmann
foundation Publisher
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1995 Making Rules in the Uruguay Round of the GATT, Brookfield: Dartmouth
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2000 “ America’s ability to achieve its commercial objectives and the
operation of the WTO”, in Law and Policy in International Business,
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Politics, Vol.32, Iss.3, pp.331-356
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2. Documents
Kono, Masamichi, Patrick Low, Mukela Luanga, Aaditya Mattoo, Maika Oshikawa,
and Ludger Schuknecht.
1997 Opening Markets in Financial Services and the Role of the GATS, WTO,
http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres97_e/finance.pdf
GATT.
1989 India Presents Its Views on Intellectual Property And Investment
Measures while Hong Kong And US Put Rules of Origin on The
Negotiationg Table, NUR 031, http://docsonline.wto.org(以下文件皆由
本網站取得)
1989 Uruguay Round — Group of Negotiations on Services — Trade in
Financial Services, MTN.GNS/W/68
1989 Note on The Meeting of 20-24 November 1989, MTN.GNS/27
1990 Uruguay Round — Group of Negotiations on Services — Working Group on
Financial Services Including Insurance, MTN.GNS/FIN/1
1990 Uruguay Round — Group of Negotiations on Services — Working Group on
Financial Services Including Insurance, MTN.GNS/FIN/2
1990 Uruguay Round — Group of Negotiations on Services — Working Group on
Financial Services Including Insurance — Review of The Procedures of
The GATT Balance, MTN.GNS/FIN/W/4
1990 Uruguay Round — Group of Negotiations on Services — Working Group on
Financial Services Including Insurance, MTN.GNS/FIN/3
1990 Uruguay Round — Group of Negotiations on Services — Working Group on
Financial Services Including Insurance, MTN.GNS/FIN/4
WTO.
1994 Interim Group on Financial Services — Communication from Japan and
The United States, S/IGFS/W/1
1994 Interim Group on Financial Services — Note on the Meeting of 12 October,
S/IGFS/1
1994 Interim Group on Financial Services — Note on the Meeting of 12 October,
S/IGFS/2
1995 Interim Group on Financial Services - Note on The Meeting of 3 February
1995, S/IGFS/3
WTO
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Communication from Japan
and the United States, S/FIN/W/1
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Report of the Meeting Held
on 28 March 1995, S/FIN/M/1
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Status of Negotiations on
Financial Services, S/FIN/1
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Report of the Meeting Held
on 28 April 1995, S/FIN/M/2
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Report of the Meeting Held
on 28 May 1995, S/FIN/M/3
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Report of the Meeting Held
on 7 June 1995, S/FIN/M/4
1995 Decision on the Application of the Second Annex on Financial Services,
S/L/6
1995 Council for Trade in Services — Draft — Decision on the Application of the
Second Annex on Financial Services, S/C/W/3
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Report of the Meeting Held
on 29 June 1995, S/FIN/M/5
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Report of the Meeting Held
on 30 June 1995, S/FIN/M/6
1995 Council for Trade in Services — Draft — Decision on Commitments in
Financial Services, S/C/W/6
1995 Council for Trade in Services — Draft — Second Decision on Commitments
in Financial Services, S/C/W/7
1995 Decision on commitments in Financial Services, S/L/8
1995 Second Decision on commitments in Financial Services, S/L/9
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Report of the Meeting Held
on 21 July 1995 Morning, S/FIN/M/7
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Report of the Meeting Held
on 21 July 1995 Afternoon, S/FIN/M/8
1995 The WTO Agreement on Financial Services, PRESS/18
1995 Second protocol to the General Agreement on Trade in Services, S/L/11
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Report of the Meeting Held
on 26 July 1995, S/FIN/M/9
WTO
1995 Financial Services Agreement Confirmed Statement, Press/19, 28 July
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Schedules of Specific Commitments
and Lists of Article II (MFN) Exemptions, S/FIN/W/3
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Report of the Meeting Held on
28 July 1995, S/FIN/M/10
1995 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Communication from Japan,
S/FIN/W/4
1996 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Committee on Trade in Financial
Services — Annotated Provisional Agenda for the Eleventh Meeting, S/FIN/W/5
1996 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Report of the Meeting held on
1 March 1996, S/FIN/M/11
1996 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Communication from the
European Communities and their Member States, S/FIN/W/8
1996 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Technical Issues Concerning
Financial Services Schedules, S/FIN/W/9
1996 Report of The Committee on Trade in Financial Services to the
Council for Trade in Services, S/FIN/2
1996 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Report of the Meeting held on
22 October 1996, S/FIN/M/12
1997 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Report of the Meeting held on
10 April 1997, S/FIN/M/13
1997 Issues Concerning the Adoption of a Protocol to Conclude the
Financial Services Negotiations, S/FIN/W/11
1997 Draft — Decision on Financial Services Negotiations, S/C/W/22
1997 Notification Pursuant to Article III.3 of the General Agreement on Trade in
Services — Banking and other financial Services, S/C/N/61
1997 Decision on Financial Services Negotiations, S/L/39
1997 Report of the Meeting Held on 5 June 1997, S/FIN/M/14
1997 Communication from the European Communities and their Member
States — Initial Offer on Financial Services, S/FIN/W/12/Add.1
1997 Communication from Japan — Initial Ofer on Financial Services,
S/FIN/W/12/Add.3
WTO
1997 Communication from the United States of America,
S/FIN/W/12/Add.5
1997 Report of the Meeting Held on 17 July 1997, S/FIN/M/15
1997 Report of the Meeting Held on 18 September 1997, S/FIN/M/16
1997 Report of the Meeting Held on 17 October 1997, S/FIN/M/17
1997 Report of the Committee on Trade in Financial Services to the Council
for Trade in Services, S/FIN/3
1997 Report of the Meeting Held on 12 and 14 November 1997, S/FIN/M/18
1997 Fifth Protocol to the General Agreement on Trade in Services, S/L/45
1997 Communication from Malaysia — Initial Offer on Financial Services,
S/FIN/W/12/Add.43
1997 Communication from Brazil, S/FIN/W/12/Add.46
1997 Communication from The United States of America,
S/FIN/W/12/Add.5/Rev.2, 12 December
1997 Communication from India, S/FIN/W/12/Add.47
1997 Communication from Thailand, S/FIN/W/12/Add.48
1997 Communication from Indonesia, S/FIN/W/12/Add.49
1997 Decision of December 1997 on Commitments in Financial Services,
S/L/50
1997 Successful Conclusion of the WTO''S Financial Services Negotiations,
PRESS/86
1997 Report of the Meeting Held on 8 December 1997, S/FIN/M/19
1997 Report of the Meeting Held on 12 December 1997, S/FIN/M/20
1998 Committee on Trade in Financial Services — Status of Acceptance of the
Fifth Protocol to the General Agreement on Trade in Services(GATS),
S/FIN/W/13
1998 Trade Policy Review Japan, WT/TPR/M/32
1998 The Results of the Financial Services Negotiations under the General
Agreement on Trade in Services(GATS),
http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/servfi_e/fiback_e.htm
1998 Report of the Meeting Held on 17 December, 19999,S/FIN/M/21
1999 Report of the Meeting Held on 19 January,1999, S/FIN/M/22
1999 Report of the Meeting Held on 7 May, 1999, S/FIN/M/23
WTO
1999 Report of the Meeting Held on 11 June, 1999, S/FIN/M/24
1999 Report of the Council of Trade on Financial Services to the Council for Trade in
Services, S/FIN/4
2000 Report of the Meeting Held on 13 April, 2000, S/FIN/M/25
2000 Report of the Meeting Held on 25 May, 2000, S/FIN/M/26
2000 Report of the Meeting Held on 13 July 2000, S/FIN/M/27
2000 Report of the Meeting Held on 9 October 2000, S/FIN/M/28
2000 Report of the Council of Trade on Financial Services to the Council for Trade in
Services, S/FIN/5
2001 Risks and Benefits for Developing Country Banking Systems from the
Internationalization of Financial Services Examined in New Book by the WTO
and the World Bank, PRESS/208
2001 Report of the Council of Trade on Financial Services to the Council for Trade in
Services, S/FIN/6
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