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研究生:李建明
研究生(外文):Li Chien-ming
論文名稱:以木屑製備活性碳與其應用之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Preparation and Application of Activated Carbon from Wood
指導教授:蕭敬業
指導教授(外文):Ching-Yeh Shiau
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:化學工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:活性碳空氣預燒表面改質含氧性官能基氫氧化鈉
外文關鍵詞:activated carbonpre-carbonizationsurface modificationoxygen-containing function groupKOH
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摘要
本文以木屑為原料,經由兩種不同的活化方式製備活性碳,探討空氣預燒及氧化劑表面改質等製備條件對活性碳的比表面積、孔洞體積與表面含氧性官能基含量的影響,並以所製備之活性碳吸附不同pH值及不同初濃度下之Zn2+離子水溶液。
本研究之活化方式可分為KOH活化法及CO2活化法,前者為化學活化法,而後者為物理活化法。比較KOH活化法及CO2活化法所製備之活性碳,利用KOH活化法可得到較佳的比表面積。另外,隨空氣預燒溫度的增加,活性碳的比表面積卻有減少的現象,顯示在高溫下,氧化作用會破壞孔洞,使得孔洞合併或崩壞,導致比面積下降。而利用CO2活化法時當CO2流量增加,比表面亦隨之增加。
在氧化劑改質方面,HNO3皆能提高兩種活化方式所製備之活性碳的比表面積但卻會使得表面含氧性官能基的含量減少,而H2O2卻會降低活性碳的比表面積及含氧性官能基的含量。
在重金屬離子吸附方面,利用KOH活化法所製備之活性碳有較佳的吸附量。整體而言,當活性碳之含氧性官能基的含量越多,其吸附Zn2+離子的效果越佳。在等溫吸附模式分析方面,由結果可知,未經空氣預燒所製備之活性碳吸附Zn2+離子,以Langmuir模擬為佳。而經過空氣預燒之活性碳其吸附模式較符合Freundlich isotherm。
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to manufacture activated carbon from wood through two different activation methods. One is chemical activation by KOH and the other is physical activation by CO2. The effects of pre-carbonization and surface modification on the carbon properties and its use in the adsorption of Zn2+ from aqueous solution were investigated.
The results show that the carbons activated by KOH possess larger surface area than those by CO2. The surface area of both produced activated carbons decreases with increasing the pre-carbonization temperature. For CO2 activation method, it is found that the carbon surface area increases with CO2 flow rate. In the surface modification study, HNO3 could increase the surface area while decrease the oxygen-containing functional group. With H2O2 modification, both surface area and the oxygen-containing functional group were lowered.
For the adsorption study, the data indicate that the carbons activated by KOH have higher adsorption capacity than those by CO2. The higher adsorption capacity was also obtained with increasing oxygen-containing functional groups. From the equilibrium adsorption tests, it is found that Langmuir equation is more suitable to describe the equilibrium data for the carbons without pre-carbonization, while Freundlich equation is more suitable for the carbons with pre-carbonization.
目錄
摘要…………………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………..Ⅱ
目錄……………………………………………………………..……………Ⅲ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………..Ⅴ……………………………..………Ⅴ
表目錄………………………………………………………………………..Ⅷ
符號說明…………………………………………………………………….Ⅸ
第一章 前言…………………………………………………………………..1
第二章 文獻回顧……………………………………………………….…...4
2-1 活性碳簡介………………………………………………………….4
2-2 活性碳的種類………………...………………………………………9
2-3 活性碳的製造……………………………………………………….11
2-4 活性碳的應用……………………………………………………….21
2-5 吸附現象…………………………………………………………….21
2-6 吸附類型…………………………………………………………….23
2-7 等溫吸附線………………………………………………………….24
2-8 吸附模式…………………………………………………………….28
2-9 吸附質的特性……………………………………………………….32
第三章 實驗器材和方法……………………………………………………34
3-1 實驗藥品、氣體與儀器設備……………………………………….34
3-1-1 藥品……………………………………………………………..34
3-1-2 氣體…………………………………………………...………...35
3-1-3 儀器設備………………………………………………………..35
3-2 實驗步驟與分析方法……………………………………….…….36
3-2-1 活性碳的製備…………………………………………….…..36
3-2-2 重金屬吸附……………………………………………………39
3-2-3 活性碳物性鑑定……….……………………………………..41
第四章 結果與討論…………………………………………………………47
4-1 活性碳的製備……………………………………………………..47
4-1-1 KOH活化的探討…………………………………………...47
4-1-2 CO2活化的探討………………….………………………….57
4-1-3 KOH活化法與CO2活化法的比較………………………...67
4-1-4 改質的影響……………………………………………………..69
4-2重金屬離子的吸附…………………………………………………77
4-2-1 pH值對吸附的影響………………………………………….79
4-2-2 改質方法對吸附的影響………………………………...……83
4-2-3初濃度對吸附的影響…………………………………………86
第五章 結論…………………………………………………………………...90
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………..92
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