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研究生:丁一平
研究生(外文):Justin Ting
論文名稱:造船工業對承攬商安全衛生管理之研究-以中國造船公司為例
論文名稱(外文):Shipyard’s Occupational Health and Safety Management Toward Contractors: A case study of China Shipbuilding Corporation
指導教授:郭昭吟郭昭吟引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chao-Yin Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:勞工研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:綜合社會及行為科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:造船工業承攬商勞工安全衛生管理職業災害統計工業安全外包國營事業工種
外文關鍵詞:shipbuilding industrycontractorsoccupational health and safety managementstatistics of occupational accidentsindustrial safetysubcontractingstate-run enterprisetrade
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本研究以中國造船公司基隆總廠為例,進行中船公司從業員與承攬商勞工兩群體間職業災害類型之比較、分析。初步調查的結果顯示,有約佔89%的承攬商勞工具基隆市機器修造業職業工會會員之身份,經綜合該職業工會與中船公司所記錄之承攬商勞工職災資料後,將資料予以篩選,總計發生於民國八十五年至八十九年間,共有中船公司從業員102件,承攬商勞工職災156件職災事件列入統計。本研究以SPSS統計軟體進行兩群體間職災特性之比較、分析。研究結果之數據顯示,承攬商勞工之職災發生率在大多數的變項上皆高較於中船公司從業員,且承攬商勞工之傷害頻率及傷害嚴重率亦高出中船公司從業員數倍之多,此顯示了承攬商勞工較中船公司從業員更易招致職業災害。在職災特性的統計方面,單因子變異數分析的統計結果顯示,承攬商勞工工作年資愈久,其平均損失日數愈大(p =0.046),Scheffe事後比較法的檢定結果顯示,以第4組「20年以上」高於第3組「5-20年」677.66日之差異最大,且達到了統計學上的顯著水準(p =0.049)。兩群體在「傷害類型」中的「跌倒」及「當時所從事的工作」中的「行走」等變項上,皆佔了較大的比例,此指示著在造船廠的整個工作環境及路線的流暢性上,仍留有許多待改善的空間。此外,兩群體在夏季及早上10-11時,呈現了一致的高發生率情形,是應多加防範的季節與時段。
造船工業有其較難以自動化設備大幅取代人力之特性,在以工程的方式改善危害受到限制的情況下,為使能有效防止職業災害之發生,建議造船工業之對承攬商安全衛生管理問題應朝加強工業安全衛生管理及承攬商管理等方面著手。本研究在末了提出了一套理想的對承攬商安全衛生管理模式供參考。
This is a comparative study of occupational accident cases between shipyard’s employees and contractors within a state-run enterprise - CSBC. The result of random sampling investigation shows that most of yard’s contractors (89%) are also members of a local trade union. Total 102 cases of CSBC employees and 156 cases of contractors were screened and identified after reviewing accident records from the trade union and CSBC. The comprehensive FR and SR figures and results of characteristic analysis using SPSS indicate that shipyard’s contractors are more frequently injured than CSBC employees. Contractors who have worked over 20 years experienced more losing days than those less experienced (p= 0.049). The accident type of “fallings” and “walking” (activities embarked on) are frequently occurred on both groups which indicates shipyard’s working environments are poorly managed. The study also found both groups are injured more frequently in the season of summer and at the morning time of 10:00 — 11:00.
Most innovations of automation and mechanization cannot be introduced to shipyard due to its labor-intensive working practices. It is recommended that shipyard should exercise effective industrial OHS management and contractor’s management to prevent contractors’ accident. An ideal model for Occupational Health and Safety Management of Contractors was provided in the end of this study.
目 錄
摘 要 Ⅰ
Abstract Ⅱ
謝 誌 Ⅲ
目 錄 Ⅳ
表目錄 Ⅷ
圖目錄 Ⅹ
第壹章緒論
第一節研究動機 1
第二節研究目 2
第三節研究範圍與限制 4
第四節名詞界說 5
第五節研究流程 6
第貳章文獻探討
第一節 造船工業 8
一、台灣地區造船工業發展之源起 8
二、造船工業、船廠 10
三、中船公司簡介 12
四、台灣造船工業之重要性 15
第二節 造船工業可能對勞工造成的危害 19
一、造船工業之職災統計 19
二、造船工業之危害特性 23
第三節 承攬關係與安全衛生之探討 26
一、承攬關係 26
二、承攬關係所產生之安全衛生後果 27
第四節 中小企業及臨時性勞工之安全衛生問題探討 29
一、中小企業之定義 29
二、企業之規模大小與安全衛生之關聯 30
三、臨時性勞工之安全衛生問題 32
第五節 工業安全理論回顧 33
一、災害 33
二、災害發生的原因 33
三、防止災害發生的方法 35
第六節 SPSS統計應用於工業安全文獻之回顧 36
第參章研究方法
第一節 職業災害統計資料來源 39
一、承攬商職業災害統計資料來源 39
二、中船公司從業員職業災害統計資料來源 39
第二節初步調查 40
第三節電話訪談 41
第四節資料分析方法 42
第五節研究假設與預期之結果 45
第肆章研究結果
第一節 電話訪談結果 47
第二節 SPSS統計結果-職災發生率 48
一、個別勞工重複發生職災之情形 48
二、職災發生件數統計 49
三、傷害頻率及傷害嚴重率統計 51
四、損失日數 52
第三節 SPSS統計結果-傷害發生時間 55
一、傷害發生季節 55
二、傷害發生之時辰 56
第四節 SPSS統計結果-傷害發生時勞工之特性 57
一、年齡的分布 57
二、工作年資 59
三、工種 62
四、罹災勞工之階級 65
第五節 SPSS統計結果-傷害發生之特性 66
一、傷害發生地點 66
二、傷害部位 68
三、傷害情形 69
四、傷害類型 71
五、傷害媒介物 73
六、傷害當時所從事的工作 76
第伍章原事業單位對承攬商之理想安全衛生管理模式
第一節 中船公司對承攬商管理制度之現況探討 79
第二節 承攬商之選擇 82
一、探討中船公司選擇承攬商之可行性 82
二、承攬商之篩選 84
三、選擇承攬商之評鑑指標 85
四、選擇承攬商之具體做法 85
五、雙方正式簽訂承攬合約 86
第三節 有效的共同作業協議組織運作 88
一、法定的共同作業協議組織 88
二、設置共同作業協議組織之具體做法 89
三、相關危害事項之告知 90
四、施工中的安全管制 93
第四節 承攬商安全衛生評鑑制度之建立 95
一、承攬商評鑑之目的 95
二、承攬商評鑑的方式 96
三、承攬商的輔導管理 97
第五節 企業安全文化及安全政策之建立 100
一、確立企業的安全衛生管理理念 100
二、安全衛生政策 101
三、企業的安全文化 107
第陸章結論與建議
第一節 結論 111
第二節 建議 114
參考文獻 117
附錄 A 131
附錄 B 132
附錄 C 133
附錄 D 134
附錄 E 135
附錄 F 136
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