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研究生:陳立瑩
研究生(外文):Chen, Li-Ying
論文名稱:研發及其外溢效果對生產力貢獻之探討--以併購之電子產業為例
論文名稱(外文):The Study of R&D Spillovers and Productivity: Evidence from Mergered Electronic Firms
指導教授:馬嘉應馬嘉應引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ma, Chia-Ying
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:會計學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:會計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:研究發展外溢效果生產力併購
外文關鍵詞:R&DSpilloverProductivityMerger
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內生成長理論認為研究發展會為產品及製程帶來創新,以提高技術效率,而研究發展尚具有外部性,稱為外溢效果。許多實證研究指出,許多企業大部分的報酬是來自於研發的外溢效果。而電子產業因產品生命週期短及研發支出龐大的特性,近年來以購併來快速整合企業資源及分享知識的行動已蔚為風潮;然而,併購雖然可以較經濟方式整合生產、分配系統、快速取得較大的營運量,但由於研發知識具有公共財的特性,所以至今仍無法確切證明併購在研究發展方面能獲得較高優勢,而今處於重視創新及產品品質的時代,研究發展活動則更顯重要。故本研究乃將探討我國電子產業能否藉由併購以強化其研發之優勢。
而本研究中關於研發外溢之定義為二家廠商因併購行為而整合企業研發資源,由原本兩個獨自進行研發的公司因合併而無意間造成技術之擴散。被併公司平時研發之成果因與主併公司的互有供需關係及併購活動而外溢出去,其研發外溢效果在合併前藉由中間財貨之購買或其他無形之管道傳遞知識造成被併公司的生產結構產生變化,合併後亦藉由接收無形之知識外溢資本而使生產結構產生變化。
本研究以Cobb-Douglas生產函數來分析研發及其外溢效果對生產力變動的影響程度。針對電子產業中於民國89至90年第二季間曾進行「吸收合併」的廠商為研究對象,以併購事件發生之前八季(即前二年)至併購事件發生後一直到民國九十年第三季為止之各季為研究期間,除了分為併前及併後之外,再將各自細分為與被併廠商有重大供需關係及無重大供需關係,以探討廠商在併購前後之研發及其外溢資本之變化與生產力之變動趨勢。
實證結果顯示:
1.企業自行研發方面,併購後研發資本對生產力有顯著正相關;
2.有形外溢資本方面,對於生產力有顯著之正面挹注效果,顯示主併公司與被併公司在併購前以中間財移轉及投資財交易往來者,所造成之研發外溢效果確實能幫助生產力之提昇,且其所造成之影響相當大;
3.無形外溢資本方面,在有供需關係者的併購前、後均產生顯著的相關性,惟合併前為負相關,合併後則轉為正相關;
4.獲利能力與生產力方面,兩者均有較合併前退步的趨勢;
5.與被併公司無重大供需關係者方面,研發資本及無形外溢資本對生產力之貢獻則無顯著變數。
Abstract
In accordance with endogenous growth theory, the innovation created by R&D activities could increase technological efficiency. One of R&D’s characteristics is the R&D externality, which is named as “spillover”. Many empirical studies found that the spillover effect could bloom up the business profit. The business combination becomes the main one of business operation style. Enterprises can easily share business resources and knowledge in one another by consolidation. One of R&D characteristic is that technological knowledge is a public good; business cannot take advantage of merger and acquisition (M&A) to advance R&D results so far. This study tried to examine whether the electronic firms can reinforce their R&D competition by combination.
This paper regarded the spillover effects of R&D as to combination of two firms, which used to invest in R&D activities independently, causes the diffusion of technology. The technology developed by an acquiree can affect the productivity growth of the acquirer by the way of the transaction of intermediate or investment goods and the diffusion of technological knowledge.
Cobb-Douglas production function examined the relationship between R&D spillover and productivity change. Data samples were electronic firms undertaking “merger” from 2000 to the first half year of 2001.
The empirical results as follows:
1.There is significant between R&D of business itself and productivity.
2.There is significant between tangible spillover capitalism and productivity, which means the transaction of R&D embodied in intermediate or investment goods could increase the productivity.
3.When the two companies have an important relationship, the coefficients of intangible channel of R&D spillover from before and after are both significant. But, the former is negative, while the latter turned to positive.
4.Both of profitability and productivity decreased after combination.
5.There is not significant among R&D, intangible spillover and productivity when two companies with no important relationship.
目 錄
圖目錄……………………………………………………………… Ⅱ
表目錄……………………………………………………………… Ⅳ
第一章 緒 論…………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究背景與動機…………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的…………………………………………………3
第三節 研究架構……………………… ……………………… 6
第二章 外溢效果文獻探討……………………………………… 8
第一節 研究發展外溢效果定義…………………………………8
第二節 研究發展外溢效果特性…………………………………11
第三節 研究發展外溢效果對生產力之影響……………………13
第三章 研發對生產力貢獻之研究方法………………………… 19
第一節 研究假說…………………………………………………19
第二節 外溢效果及研發資本之研究假設………………………21
第三節 研究設計…………………………………………………24
第四節 研究範圍…………………………………………………29
第五節 研究分析方法……………………………………………41
本章註釋……………………………………………………………43
第四章 研發及其外溢效果之實證結果分析…………………… 46
第一節 併購廠商之營業收入與研發支出………………………46
第二節 樣本資料分析……………………………………………59
第三節 研究發展及其外溢效果對生產力之影響………………62
第五章 結論與建議……………………………………………… 66
第一節 結論………………………………………………………66
第二節 研究限制…………………………………………………67
第三節 建議與未來研究方向……………………………………68
參考文獻…………………………………………………………… 69
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